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Module Reading List

Politics of Contemporary China, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Kingsley Edney
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Relevant Journals for This Module

Journal of Contemporary China

The China Quarterly.

Modern China.

The China Journal.

Chinese journal of international politics

China: An International Journal

China Information.

China Report

The Washington Quarterly.

China economic review.

Journal of Chinese philosophy.

Journal of modern Chinese history.

Chinese sociology and anthropology.

Foreign affairs.

Pacific Affairs.

Asian Survey.

The Pacific Review.

The Journal of Asian Studies.

Critical Asian Studies.

Modern Asian Studies.

Asia Europe Journal.

Asia-Pacific Review.

Journal of Contemporary Asia.

Journal of Asian and African Studies.


Top of page

Topic 1 Making Modern China

Essential Reading

Saich, Tony (2015) ‘Diversity within unity’ in Governance and Politics of China [4th Edition]. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1-28.

Ye, Min (2021) ‘China in 2020: A Year of Converging Crises’ Asian survey. 61(1): 21-33. 

Further Resources

Brown, Jeremy and Paul G. Pickowicz (2007) Dilemmas of Victory : The Early Years of the People's Republic of China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burns, John P. (1994) ‘Strengthening central CCP control of leadership selection: the 1990 Nomenklatura’ The China Quarterly. 138(June): 458–491.

Cohen, Paul A. (2003) China Unbound : Evolving Perspectives on the Chinese Past. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Dietrich, Craig (1994) People s China: A Brief History. Second edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dittmer, Lowell (1980) ‘The legacy of Mao Zedong’ Asian Survey. 20(5): 552–573.

Dittmer, Lowell (1986) ‘Mao Zedong: ten years later’ The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs. 16(July): 113–118.

Domes, Jurgen (1973) The Internal Politics of China, 1949-1972. London: Hurst.

Eastman, Lloyd E. (1974) The Abortive Revolution : China Under Nationalist Rule, 1927-1937. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gilley, Bruce (2010) ‘Deng Xiaoping and his successors (1976 to the present)’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gittings, John (1993) ‘Review essay: understanding revolutionary China’ The China Quarterly. 133(March): 152–161.

Glanville, Luke (2010) ‘Retaining the mandate of heaven: sovereign accountability in ancient China’ Millennium. 39(2): 323–343.

Grieder, Jerome B. (1981) Intellectuals and the State in Modern China :A Narrative History. New York: Free Press.

Lawrance, Alan (2004) China Since 1919 : Revolution and Reform ;A Sourcebook, New York: Routledge.

Lee, Hong Yung (1979) ‘Mao’s strategy for revolutionary change: a case study of the Cultural Revolution’ The China Quarterly. 77(March): 50–73.

Lim, Louisa (2014) The People's Republic of amnesia : Tiananmen revisited (New York: Oxford University Press).

Link, Perry, Richard P. Madsen and Paul G. Pickowicz (eds.) (2013) Restless China (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield).

Mark, Chi-Kwan (2012) China and the World Since 1945 : An International History. London: Routledge.

Nee, Victor and David Mozingo, eds. (1983) State and society in contemporary China ISBN: 080149253X (pbk) : Unpriced; 0801415705 (cased) : Unpriced. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Ng-Quinn, Michael (1982) ‘Deng Xiaoping’s political reform and political order’ Asian Survey. 22(12): 1187–1205.

Phillips, Richard T. (1996) China Since 1911. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Rodzinski, Witold (1979) A History of China. Oxford: Pergamon.

Schoppa, R. Keith (2010) ‘From Empire to People’s Republic’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schwarcz, Vera (1986) The Chinese Enlightenment : Intellectuals and the Legacy of the May Fourth Movement of 1919. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Shambaugh, David (1993) ‘Deng Xiaoping: the politician’ The China Quarterly. 135(Sept): 457–490.

Spence, Jonathan (1998) The Chan 's Great Continent: China in Western Minds, New York: W. W. Norton.

Spence, Jonathan D. (2013) The Search for Modern China. Third Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Teiwes, Frederick C. (2010) ‘Mao Zedong in power (1949-1976)’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zhao, Suisheng (1993) ‘Deng Xiaoping’s Southern tour: elite politics in post-Tiananmen China’ Asian Survey. 33(8): 739–756.


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Topic 2 Institutions and Authority

Essential Reading

Brown, Kerry (2015) 'The Communist Party and politics' in Contemporary China. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 59-92.   Available as Online Course Reading in Minerva

Saich, Tony (2015) ‘The central governing apparatus’ in Governance and Politics of China [4th Edition]. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Further Resources

Almen, Oscar (2013) 'Only the Party manages cadres: limits of local People's Congress supervision and reform in China' Journal of Contemporary China. 22(80): 237 – 254.

Benton, Gregor (1977) 'The factional struggle in the Chinese Communist Party' Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory 8(1): 100–123.

Breslin, Shaun (2008) ‘Do leaders matter? Chinese politics, leadership transition and the 17th Party Congress’ Contemporary Politics 14(2): 215–231. 

Brodsgaard, Kjeld E. (2002) 'Institutional reform and the bianzhi system in China' The China Quarterly. 170(June): 361–386.

Brodsgaard, Kjeld E. and Zheng Yongnian, eds. (2006) The Chinese Communist Party in Reform. London: Routledge.

Chai, Hongxia and Xiongwei Song (2013) 'The adaptive state: understanding political reform in China' Policy studies. 34(1): 73 – 88.

Chan, Hon S. (2004) 'Cadre personnel management in China: the nomenklatura system, 1990-1998' The China Quarterly. 179(Sept): 703–734.

Cho, Jae K. (1973) 'The training of cadres in communist China' Journal of East and West Studies 1(1): 3–35. 

Cho, Young Nam (2008) 'Elite politics and the 17th Party Congress in China: changing norms and continuing questions' Korean Journal of Defense Analysis 20(2): 155–168. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Chung, Jae Ho (2016) 'China's Local Governance in Perspective: Instruments of Central Government Control' The China journal. 75: 38-60.

Dittmer, Lowell (2003) 'Leadership change and Chinese political development' The China Quarterly. 176(Dec): 903–925.

Dynon, Nicholas (2008) ‘Four civilizations and the evolution of post-Mao Chinese socialist ideology’ The China Journal. 60(July): 83–109.

Ewing, Richard D. (2003) ‘Hu Jintao: the making of a Chinese General Secretary’ The China Quarterly. 173(March): 17–34.

Fenby, Jonathan (2013) 'China's unfinished revolution: the challenge for the new leaders' Asian affairs. 44(1): 1–11.

Fewsmith, Joseph (2021) 'Balances, Norms and Institutions: Why Elite Politics in the CCP Have Not Institutionalized' The China Quarterly DOI:10.1017/S0305741021000783

Goodman, David S.G. (2009) ‘Sixty years of the People’s Republic: local perspectives on the evolution of the state in China’ The Pacific Review. 22(4): 429–450.

Heilmann, Sebastian, and Elizabeth J. Perry (eds.) (2011) Mao's invisible hand : the political foundations of adaptive governance in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hildebrandt, Timothy (2013) Social organizations and the authoritarian state in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hurst, William (2006) ‘The city as the focus: the analysis of contemporary Chinese urban politics’ China Information. 20(3): 457–479.

Jiang, Shigong (2010) ‘Written and unwritten constitutions: a new approach to the study of constitutional government in China’ Modern China. 36(1): 12-46.

Lampton, David M. (2014) Following the leader : ruling China, from Deng Xiaoping to Xi Jinping (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Lee, Hochul (2010) ‘Political institutionalization as political development in China’ Journal of Contemporary China. 19(65): 559–571.

Li, Cheng (2010) ‘China’s Communist Party-State: the structure and dynamics of power’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Li, Cheng (2012) 'The end of the CCP's resilient authoritarianism? A tripartite assessment of shifting power in China' The China Quarterly. 211(Sept): 595 – 623.

Lu, Xiaobo (2001) Cadres and Corruption: The Organizational Involution of the Chinese Communist Party. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Nathan, Andrew J. (2003) ‘Authoritarian Resilience’ Journal of democracy. ISSN: 1045-5736 14(1): 6-17.

Pei, Minxin (2012) 'China and East Asian democracy: is CCP rule fragile or resilient? Journal of Democracy. 23(1): 27 – 41.

Pieke, Frank N. (2009) The Good Communist : Elite Training and State Building in Today's China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shambaugh, David (2008) China's Communist Party : atrophy & adaptation ISBN: 9780520254923 (cloth : alk. paper) (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press).

Shambaugh, David (2008) ‘Training China’s political elite: the party school system’ The China Quarterly. 196(Dec): 827–844.

Smith, Graeme (2010) 'The hollow state: rural governance in China' The China Quarterly. 203(Sept): 601–618.

Trevaskes, Susan (2011) ‘Political ideology, the party, and politicking: justice system reform in China’ Modern China. 37(3): 315–344.

Walker, Kenneth C. (2012) ‘The brittle strength of the Chinese Communist Party’ Asian Affairs. 43(2): 280–287. 

Zheng, Yongnian (2010) The Chinese Communist Party as organizational emperor : culture, reproduction and transformation. London: Routledge.

Zhou, Xueguang (2010) ‘The institutional logic of collusion among local governments in China’ Modern China. 36(1): 47-78.


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Topic 3 Legitimacy, Participation and Governance

Essential Reading

Holbig, Heike (2013) ‘Ideology After the End of Ideology: China and the Quest for Autocratic Legitimation’ Democratization. ISSN: 1351-0347 20(1): 61-81. 

Li, He (2020) 'The Chinese Discourse on Good Governance: Content and Implications' Journal of Contemporary China. 29(126): 824-837.

Further Resources

Burgio, Claire (2007) ‘Democracy in China: a distant dream’ Asia Europe Journal. 5(2): 181–186.

Chen, Jie (2014) A middle class without democracy : economic growth and the prospects for democratization in China (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Chen, Jie and Bruce J. Dickson (2008) ‘Allies of the state: democratic support and regime support among China’s private entrepreneurs’ The China Quarterly. 196(Dec): 780–804.

Chen, Jie and Chunlong Lu (2011) ‘Democratization and the middle class in China: the middle class’s attitudes towards democracy’ Political Research Quarterly. 64(3): 705–719.

Dickson, Bruce J., Mingming Shen and Jie Yan (2017) ‘Generating Regime Support in Contemporary China: Legitimation and the Local Legitimacy Deficit’ Modern China. ISSN: 0097-7004 43(2): 123-155.

Dimitrov, Martin K. (2015) 'Internal Government Assessments of the Quality of Governance in China' Studies in comparative international development. 50(1): 50-72.

Ding, Yijiang (2002) Chinese Democracy After Tiananmen. New York: Columbia University Press.

Dukalskis, Alexander and Johannes Gerschewski (2017) ‘What autocracies say (and what citizens hear): proposing four mechanisms of autocratic legitimation’ Contemporary Politics ISSN: 1356-9775 23(3): 251-268.

Fishkin et al. (2010) ‘Deliberative democracy in an unlikely place: deliberative polling in China’ British journal of political science.  40(2): 435–448.

Gerschewski, Johannes (2013) 'The three pillars of stability: legitimation, repression, and co-optation in autocratic regimes' Democratization. ISSN: 1351-0347 20(1): 13-38.

Gilley, Bruce (2008) ‘Legitimacy and institutional change: the case of China’ Comparative Political Studies. 41(3): 259–284.

Gilley, Bruce (2009) The right to rule : how states win and lose legitimacy ISBN: 9780231138727 (hbk.) : No price; 0231138725 (hbk.) : No price; 9780231511254 (ebook) : No price; 0231511256 (ebook) : No price (New York: Colombia University Press).

Gilley, Bruce and Heike Holbig (2009) ‘The debate on party legitimacy in China: a mixed quantitative/qualitative analysis’ Journal of Contemporary China. 18(59): 339-358.

Goldman, Merle (1994) Sowing the Seeds of Democracy in China : Political Reform in the Deng Xiaoping Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Guo, Xiajuan, Yongnian Zheng and Lijun Yang (2009) ‘Women’s participation in village autonomy in China: evidence from Zhejiang Province’ The China Quarterly. 197(March): 145–164.

He, Baogang, and Stig Thøgersen (2010) 'Giving the people a voice? Experiments with consultative authoritarian institutions in China' Journal of contemporary China. 19(66): 675–692.

Holbig, Heike and Bruce Gilley (2010) ‘Reclaiming legitimacy in China’ Politics & Policy 38(3): 395–422.

Huang, Yasheng (2013) 'Democratize or die: why China's communists face reform or revolution' Foreign affairs. 92(1): 47–54.

Kennedy, John James (2009) ‘Legitimacy with Chinese characteristics: "two increases, one reduction"’ Journal of Contemporary China. 18(60): 391-395.

Kwong, Julia (2008) ‘Democracy in China: voting for Beijing People’s Congress delegates’ Asian Affairs, An American Review 35(1): 3–14. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Lai, Hongyi (2010) ‘Uneven opening of China’s society, economy, and politics: pro-growth authoritarian governance and protests in China’ Journal of Contemporary China. 19(67): 819–835.

Landry, Pierre F., Deborah Davis and Shiru Wang (2010) ‘Elections in rural China: competition without parties’ Comparative political studies. 43(6): 763–790.

Leib, Ethan J. and Baogang He (eds) (2006) The search for deliberative democracy in China, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lin, Canchu and Yueh-Ting Lee (2013) 'The constitutive rhetoric of democratic centralism: a thematic analysis of Mao's discourse on democracy' Journal of contemporary China. 22(79): 148–165.

Liu, Yu and Dingding Chen (2012) ‘Why China will democratize’ The Washington Quarterly. 35(1): 41–63.

Manion, Melanie (2009) ‘How to assess village elections in China’ Journal of Contemporary China. 18(60): 379-383.

Mattingly, Daniel C. (2019) The Art of Political Control in China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). 

O'Brien, Kevin J. and Rongbin Han (2009) 'Path to democracy? Assessing village elections in rural China' Journal of contemporary China. 18(60): 359–378.

Peng, Yali (1998) 'Democracy and Chinese political discourses' Modern China. 24(4): 408 – 444.

Perry, Elizabeth J. (2007) ‘Studying Chinese politics: farewell to revolution? ’ The China Journal. 57(Jan): 1–22.

Perry, Elizabeth (2017) 'Cultural Governance in Contemporary China: "Re-Orienting" Party Propaganda' in Vivienne Shue and Patricia M. Thornton, eds. To Govern China: Evolving Practices of Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 29-55.

Philion, Stephen E. (2009) Workers' democracy in China's transition from state socialism. New York: Routledge.

Sarotte, M. E. (2012) ‘China’s fear of contagion: Tiananmen Square and the power of the European example’ International security. 37(2): 156-82.

Schubert, Gunter (2008) ‘One-party rule and the question of legitimacy in contemporary China: preliminary thoughts on setting up a new research agenda’ Journal of Contemporary China. 17(54): 191-204.

Shi, Tianjian (2000) 'Cultural values and democracy in the People's Republic of China' The China quarterly. 162(June): 540–559.

Sun, Xin (2014) ‘Autocrats’ dilemma: the dual impacts of village elections on public opinion in China’ The China journal. 71: 109-131.

Sturgeon, Janet C. (2009) ‘Quality control: resource access and local village elections in rural China’ Modern Asian Studies. 43(2): 481–509.

Tang, Beibei (2015) 'Deliberating governance in Chinese urban communities' The China journal. 73: 84-107.

Tang, Min (2011) ‘The political behaviour of the Chinese middle class’ Journal of Chinese Political Science 16(4): 373–387 . Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Taylor, Jon R. and Carolina E. Calvillo (2010) ‘Crossing the river by feeling the stones: grassroots democracy with Chinese characteristics’ Journal of Chinese Political Science 15(2): 135–151. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Thornton, Patricia M. (2013) 'The advance of the Party: transformation or takeover of urban grassroots society? ' The China quarterly. 213 (March): 1–18.

von Soest, Christian and Julia Grauvogel (2017) 'Identity, procedures and performance: how authoritarian regimes legitimize their rule' Contemporary Politics ISSN: 1356-9775 23(3): 287-305.

Wang, Qinghua and Gang Guo (2015) 'Yu Keping and Chinese intellectual discourse on good governance' The China quarterly. 224: 985-1005.

Yan, Xiaojun and Ge Xin (2017) ‘Reforming governance under authoritarianism: motivations and pathways of local participatory reform in the People’s Republic of China’ Democratization. 24(3): 405-424.

Yu, Keping (2010) Democracy and the Rule of Law in China. Leiden: Brill.

Zeng, Jinghan (2014) ‘The debate on regime legitimacy in China: bridging the wide gulf between Western and Chinese scholarship’ Journal of Contemporary China. 23(88): 612-635.

Zhang, Jianjun (2008) Marketization and Democracy in China. London: Routledge.

Zheng, Yongnian and Tok Sow Keat (2007) ‘Beijing responds to Hong Kong’s democratization movement: from bureaucratic control to political leadership’ Asian Affairs, An American Review 33(4): 235–256. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.


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Topic 4 Politics and Development

Essential Reading

Thornton, Patricia M. (2017) 'A New Urban Underclass? Making and Managing "Vulnerable Groups" in Contemporary China' in Vivienne Shue and Patricia M. Thornton, eds. To Govern China: Evolving Practices of Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 257-281. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 04/11/2019)  Available as Online Course Reading in Minerva

Liu, Chuxuan and Eli Friedman (2021) ‘Resistance under the Radar: Organization of Work and Collective Action in China’s Food Delivery Industry’ The China Journal 86: 68–89.

Further Resources

Breslin, Shaun (2007) China and the Global Political Economy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Breslin, Shaun (2008) ‘Why growth equals power – and why it shouldn’t: constructing visions of China’ Journal of Asian Public Policy 1(1): 3–17. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Breslin, Shaun (2011) ‘China and the crisis: global power, domestic caution and local initiative’ Contemporary Politics 17(2): 185–200.

Cao, Tian Y., ed. (2005) The Chinese Model of Modern Development. London: Routledge.

Che, Ling and Barry Naughton (2017) 'A dynamic China model: the co-evolution of economics and politics in China' Journal of contemporary China. 26(103): 18-34.

Chow, Gregory C. (2007) China's Economic Transformation, second edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Deng, Kent G. (2012) China's Political Economy in Modern Times : Changes and Economic Consequences, 1800-2000. London: Routledge.

Dickson, Bruce J. (2011) 'Updating the China model' The Washington quarterly. 34(4): 39–58.

Ding, Sai and John Knight (2011) 'Why has China grown so fast? The role of physical and human capital formation' Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 73(2): 141 – 174.

Economy, Elizabeth and Michael Levi (2014) By all means necessary : how China's resource quest is changing the world (New York: Oxford University Press).

Fan, Rui, Ying Fang and Sung Y. Park (2012) 'Resource abundance and economic growth in China' China Economic Review. 23(3): 704–719.

Freeman, Charles W. and Wen J. Yuan (2012) 'The influence and illusion of China's New Left' The Washington Quarterly. 35(1): 65–82.

Hart-Landsberg, Martin (2011) ‘The Chinese reform experience: a critical assessment’ Review of Radical Political Economics . 43(1): 56–76.

Hess, Steve (2016) 'The flight of the affluent in contemporary China: exit, voice, loyalty, and the problem of wealth drain' Asian survey. 56(4): 629–650. 

Holslag, Jonathan (2011) ‘China’s vulnerability trap’ Survival. 53(2): 77–88.

Hou, Jack W. (2011) 'Economic reform of China: cause and effects' The Social Science Journal 48(3): 419–434.

Hsueh, Roselyn (2011) China's Regulatory State :A New Strategy for Globalization. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Huang, Yiping and Xun Wang (2011) 'Does financial repression inhibit or facilitate economic growth? A case study of Chinese reform experience' Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 73(6): 833–855.

Jarreau, Joachim and Sandra Poncet (2012) 'Export sophistication and economic growth: evidence from China' Journal of Development Economics. 97(2): 281–292.

Jiang, Yang (2010) 'China's pursuit of free trade agreements: is China exceptional? Review of International Political Economy. 17(2): 238–261.

Jiang, Yang (2011) ‘Rethinking the Beijing consensus: how China responds to crises’ The Pacific Review. 24(3): 337–356.

Kwong, Julia (1997) The political economy of corruption in China. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Li, Hongbin et al (2012) 'Entrepreneurship, private economy and growth: evidence from China' China Economic Review. 23(4): 948–961.

McNally, Christopher A., ed. (2008) China's Emergent Political Economy : Capitalism in the Dragon's Lair. Abingdon: Routledge.

McNally, Christopher A. (2012) 'Sino-capitalism: China's reemergence and the international political economy' World politics. 64(4): 741–776.

Ngai, Pun and Jenny Chan (2012) 'Global capital, the state, and Chineseworkers: the Foxconn experience ' Modern China. 38(4): 383–410.

Pan, Chengxin (2009) ‘What is Chinese about Chinese businesses? Locating the “rise of China” in global production networks’ Journal of Contemporary China. 18(58): 7–25.

Wallis, Cara (2015) ‘Micro-Entrepreneurship, New Media Technologies, and the Reproduction and Reconfiguration of Gender in Rural China’ Chinese journal of communication 8(1): 42-58.

Wang, Shaoguang and Hu Angang (1999) The political economy of uneven development : the case of China. New York: M. E. Sharpe.

Whyte, Martin King (2009) ‘Paradoxes of China’s economic boom’ Annual Review of Sociology. 35: 371–392.

Whyte, Martin King (2016) 'China's Dormant and Active Social Volcanoes' The China journal. 75: 9-37.

Wright, Tim (2012) The political economy of the Chinese coal industry : black gold and blood-stained coal. London: Routledge.

Wu, Fulong and Chris Webster (eds) (2010) Marginalization in Urban China : Comparative Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Zhao, Suisheng (2010) 'The China model: can it replace the Western model of modernization? ' Journal of contemporary China. 19(65): 419–436.

Zhao, Suisheng (2017) 'Whither the China Model: revisiting the debate' Journal of contemporary China. 26(103): 1-17.

Zhang, Wei, ed. (2011) Economic Reform in Modern China : Critical Concepts in Economics. London: Routledge.

Zhu, Andong and David M. Kotz (2011) 'The dependence of China's economic growth on exports and investment' Review of radical political economics. 43(1): 9–32.

Zweig, David (2010) ‘China’s political economy’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zweig, David and Chen Zhimin, eds. (2007) China's reforms and international political economy London: Routledge.


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Topic 5 Human Rights and the Law


Essential Reading

Zhang, Qianfan (2020) ‘The Communist Party Leadership and Rule of Law: A Tale of Two Reforms’ Journal of contemporary China. 30(130): 578-595.

Wang, Di and Sida Liu (2020) ‘Performing Artivism: Feminists, Lawyers, and Online Legal Mobilization in China’ Law & Social Inquiry 45(3): 678-705.

Further Resources

Bell, Daniel A. (2000) East meets West : human rights and democracy in East Asia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Chan, Steve (2002) 'Human rights in China and the United States: competing visions and discrepant performances' Human rights quarterly. 24(4): 1035 – 1053.

Chong, Kim-chong, Sor-hoon Tan and C.L. Ten, eds. (2003) The moral circle and the self : Chinese and Western approaches. Chicago, IL: Open Court.

Chou, Chih Chieh (2008) 'Bridging the global and the local: China's effort at linking human rights discourse and neo-Confucianism' China Report 44(2): 139 – 152.

De Bary, William Theodore (1998) Asian values and human rights : a Confucian communitarian perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Donnelly, Jack (2013) International Human Rights. Fourth Edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Evans, Tony (2005) The politics of human rights [electronic resource] : a global perspective. Second Edition. London: Pluto Press.

Fincher, Leta Hong (2018) Betraying Big Brother : the feminist awakening in China ISBN: 9781786633644 (London: Verso).

Fincher, Leta Hong (2016) 'China's Feminist Five' Dissent. ISSN: 0012-3846 63(4): 84-90.

Fleay, Caroline (2008) 'Engaging in human rights diplomacy: the Australia-China bilateral dialogue approach' International journal of human rights. 12(2): 233 – 252.

Fleay, Caroline (2012) 'Transnational activism, Amnesty International and human rights in China: the implications of consistent civil and political rights framing' International journal of human rights. 16(7): 915 – 930.

Foot, Rosemary (2000) Rights Beyond Borders: The Global Community and the Struggle Over Human Rights in China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Froissart, Chloe (2014) ‘Using the Law as a "Harmonious Weapon": The Ambiguities of Legal Activism in Favour of Migrant Workers in China’ Journal of civil society ISSN: 1744-8689 10(3): 255-272.

Fu, Hualing (2018) 'The July 9th (709) Crackdown on Human Rights Lawyers: Legal Advocacy in an Authoritarian State’ Journal of contemporary China. ISSN: 1067-0564 27(112): 554–568.

Goldman, Merle (2007) From Comrade to Citizen: The Struggle for Political Rights in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Goodhart, Michael (2009) Human rights : politics and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Inboden, Rana Siu and Titus C. Chen (2012) 'China's response to international normative pressure: the case of human rights' International spectator : a quarterly journal of the Istituto Affari Internazionali. 47(2): 45 – 57.

Jacobsen, Michael and Ole Bruun, eds. (2000) Human rights and Asian values : contesting national identities and cultural representations in Asia. Richmond: Curzon.

Keith, Ronald C. and Zhiqiu Lin (2006) New crime in China : public order and human rights. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Kent, Ann E. (1999) China, the United Nations, and human rights : the limits of compliance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Kinzelbach, Katrin and Hatla Thelle (2011) 'Taking human rights to China: an assessment of the EU's approach' The China quarterly. 205(March): 60 – 79.

Lei, Ya-Wen (2017) The contentious public sphere : law, media, and authoritarian rule in China ISBN: 9781400887941. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Liao, Sara (2020) ‘Feminism without Guarantees: Reflections on Teaching and Researching Feminist Activism in China’ Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 26(2): 259-267.

Lin, Zhongxuan and Liu Yang (2019) ‘Individual and Collective Empowerment: Women’s Voices in the #MeToo Movement in China’ Asian Journal of Women’s Studies 25(1): 117-131.

Ling, Qi and Sara Liao (2020) ‘Intellectuals Debate #MeToo in China: Legitimizing Feminist Activism, Challenging Gendered Myths, and Reclaiming Feminism’ Journal of Communication

Mahoney, John (2007) The challenge of human rights : origin, development, and significance. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Massingdale, Lee R., ed. (2009) Human rights in China. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Men, Jing (2011) 'Between human rights and sovereignty: an examination of EU-China political relations' European law journal. 17(4): 534 – 550.

Nesossi, Elisa (2015) ‘Political opportunities in non-democracies: the case of Chinese weiquan lawyers’ International journal of human rights. 19(7): 961-978. 

Pan, Zhongqi, ed. (2012) Conceptual gaps in China-EU relations : global governance, human rights and strategic partnerships. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Peerenboom, Randall P. (2005) Human rights in Asia : a comparative legal study of twelve Asian jurisdictions, France, and the USA. London: Routledge.

Perry, Elizabeth J. (2008) ‘Chinese conceptions of “rights”: From Mencius to Mao—and now’ Perspectives on politics. 6(1): 37-50. 

Qi, Jianmin (2011) 'The debate over universal values in China' Journal of contemporary China. 20(72): 881 – 890.

Santoro, Michael A. (2000) Profits and principles : global capitalism and human rights in China. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Svensson, Marina (2002) Debating human rights in China : a conceptual and political history. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Thelle, Hatla (2003) Better to rely on ourselves : changing social rights in urban China since 1979. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.

Wachman, Alan M. (2001) 'Does the diplomacy of shame promote human rights in China? ' Third world quarterly. 22(2): 257 – 281.

Walldorf, Charles W. (2008) Just politics : human rights and the foreign policy of great powers. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Wan, Ming (2007) 'Human rights lawmaking in China: domestic politics, international law, and international politics' Human rights quarterly. 29(3): 727 – 753.

Weatherly, Robert (2008) 'Defending the nation: the role of nationalism in Chinese thinking on human rights' Democratization. 15(2): 342 – 362.

Wu, Angela Xiao and Yige Dong (2019) ‘What is Made-in-China Feminism(s)? Gender Discontent and Class Friction in Post-Socialist China’ Critical Asian Studies 51(4): 471-492. 

Yu, Anthony C. (2005) 'China and the problem of human rights: ancient verities and modern realities' Culture and religion. 6(1): 201 – 234.

Zheng, Wang (2015) 'Detention of the Feminist Five in China' Feminist Studies. ISSN: 0046-3663 41(2): 476-482.

Zhou, Qi (2005) 'Conflicts over human rights between China and the US' Human rights quarterly. 27(1): 105 – 124.


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Topic 6 Media

Essential Reading

Repnikova, Maria (2017) ‘Restrictions on critical journalism: how they are applied and negotiated’, Chapter Four in Media politics in China [electronic resource] : improvising power under authoritarianism ISBN: 9781108173285 (e-book); 9781107195981 (hbk.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 76-107. 

King, Gary, Jennifer Pan and Margaret E. Roberts (2017) ‘How the Chinese Government Fabricates Social Media Posts for Strategic Distraction, Not Engaged Argument’ The American political science review. 111(3): 484-501. 

Further Resources

Brady, Anne-Marie and Wang Juntao (2009) 'China's strengthened new order and the role of propaganda' Journal of Contemporary China. 18(62): 767 – 788.

Brady, Anne-Marie (2015) 'China's Foreign Propaganda Machine' Journal of democracy. 26(4): 51-59.

Chen, Dan (2020) Convenient Criticism: Local Media and Governance in Urban China. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Chin, Yik Chan (2011) ‘Policy process, policy learning, and the role of the provincial media in China’ Media, Culture & Society. 33(2): 193–210.

Cockain, Alex (2012) Young Chinese in Urban China. Abingdon: Routledge.

Creemers, Rogier (2017) 'Cyber China: upgrading propaganda, public opinion work and social management for the twenty-first century' Journal of contemporary China. 26(103): 85-100.

Dukalskis, Alexander (2017) The authoritarian public sphere : legitimation and autocratic power in North Korea, Burma, and China ISBN: 9781138210356 (hardback); 1138210358 (hardback); 9781315455532 (ebook). New York: Routledge.

Edney, Kingsley (2012) 'Soft power and the Chinese propaganda system' Journal of Contemporary China. 21(78): 899–914.

Edney, Kingsley (2014) The globalization of Chinese propaganda : international power and domestic political cohesion. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Esarey, Ashley, Daniella Stockmann and Jie Zhang (2017) 'Support for propaganda: Chinese perceptions of public service advertising' Journal of contemporary China. 26(103): 101-117.

Han, Rongbin (2015) 'Defending the authoritarian regime online: China's "voluntary fifty-cent army"' The China quarterly. 224: 1006-1025.

Hassid, Jonathan (2012) 'Safety valve or pressure cooker? Blogs in Chinese political life' Journal of Communication. 62(2): 212 – 230.

He, Qinglian (2008) The Fog of Censorship: Media Control in China. New York: Human Rights in China. Available online here

Hong, Junhao (2011) ‘From the world’s largest propaganda machine to a multipurposed global news agency: factors in and implications of Xinhua’s transformation since 1978’ Political Communication. 28(3): 377–393.

Jiang, Min (2010) ‘Authoritarian Informationalism: China’s Approach to Internet Sovereignty’ SAIS Review of International Affairs 30(2): 71-89. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (KR 20/09/2018) Available as Online Course Reading in Minerva

Kalathil, Shanthi (2003) ‘China’s new media sector: keeping the state in’ The Pacific Review. 16(4): 489–501.

Kennedy, John James (2009) ‘Maintaining popular support for the Chinese Communist Party: the influence of education and the state-controlled media’ Political studies. 57(3): 517-536.

King, Gary, Jennifer Pan and Margaret E. Roberts (2013) 'How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression' The American political science review. ISSN: 0003-0554 107(2): 326-343.

Kraus, Richard Curt (2010) ‘Policy case study: the arts’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lagerkvist, Johan (2011) 'New media entrepreneurs in China: allies of the party-state or civil society? ' Journal of International Affairs. 65(1): 169–182.

Latham, Kevin (2009) ‘Media, the Olympics and the search for the real China’ The China Quarterly. 197(March): 25–43.

Lei, Ya-Wen (2011) ‘The political consequences of the rise of the Internet: political beliefs and practices of Chinese netizens’ Political Communication. 28(3): 291–322.

Lei, Ya-Wen (2017) The contentious public sphere : law, media, and authoritarian rule in China ISBN: 9781400887941. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Li, Jun and Xiaoqin Li (2017) 'Media as a Core Political Resource: The Young Feminist Movements in China' Chinese Journal of Communication 10(1): 54-71.

Liang, Bin and Hong Lu (2010) 'Internet development, censorship, and cyber crimes in China' Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice. 26(1): 103–120.

Liu, Fengshu (2011) Urban Youth in China : Modernity, the Internet and the Self. New York: Routledge.

Liu, Serena (2011) ‘Structuration of information control in China’ Cultural Sociology. 5(3): 323–339.

MacKinnon, Rebecca (2009) 'China's censorship 2.0: How companies censor bloggers' First Monday [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1396-0466 14(2).

Mou, Yi, David Atkin and Hanlong Fu (2011) ‘Predicting political discussion in a censored virtual environment’ Political Communication. 28(3): 341–356.

Nip, Joyce Y. M. and King-wa Fu (2016) ‘Challenging official propaganda? Public opinion leaders on Sina Weibo’ The China quarterly. 225: 122-144.

Pu, Zhiqiang (2008) ‘Party rules’ Index on censorship. 37(2): 35–39.

Repnikova, Maria and Kecheng Fang (2018) 'Authoritarian participatory persuasion 2.0: netizens as thought work collaborators in China' Journal of Contemporary China. 27(113): 763-779.

Roberts, Margaret E. (2018) Censored [electronic resource] : distraction and diversion inside China's great firewall ISBN: 9781400890057. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Shambaugh, David (2007) ‘China’s propaganda system: institutions, processes and efficacy’ The China Journal. 57(Jan): 25–58.

Shi, Tianjian, Jie Lu and John Aldrich (2011) 'Bifurcated images of the US in urban China and the impact of media environment' Political communication. 28(3): 357 – 376.

Shie, Tamara R. (2004) 'The tangled web: does the Internet offer promise or peril for the Chinese Communist Party? ' Journal of Contemporary China. 13(40): 523 – 540.

Shirk, Susan L. (ed) (2011) Changing Media, Changing China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stern, Rachel E. and Jonathan Hassid (2012) 'Amplifying silence: uncertainty and control parables in contemporary China' Comparative Political Studies. 45(10): 1230–1254.

Stockmann, Daniela (2011) 'Race to the bottom: media marketization and increasing negativity toward the United States in China' Political Communication. 28(3): 268–290.

Stockmann, Daniela and Mary E. Gallagher (2011) ‘Remote control: how the media sustain authoritarian rule in China’ Comparative Political Studies. 44(4): 436–467.

Sullivan, Jonathan (2012) 'A tale of two microblogs in China' Media, Culture & Society. 34(6): 773–783.

Svensson, Marina (2014) ‘Voice, power and connectivity in China’s microblogosphere: digital divides on SinaWeibo’ China information. 28(2): 168-188.

Tan, Justin and Anna E. Tan (2012) 'Business under threat, technology under attack, ethics under fire: the experience of Google in China' Journal of Business Ethics. 110(4): 469–479.

Tang, Lijun and Helen Sampson (2012) 'The interaction between mass media and the internet in non-democratic states: the case of China' Media, Culture & Society. 34(4): 457–471.

Tang, Wenfang and Shanto Iyengar (2011) 'The emerging media system in China: implications for regime change' Political Communication. 28(3): 263–267.

Wu, Xu (2005) 'Red net over China: China's new online media order and its implications' Asian Journal of Communication. 15(2): 215–227.

Wu, Xu (2007) Chinese cyber nationalism : evolution, characteristics, and implications Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Xiao, Qiang (2011) ‘The rise of online public opinion and its political impact’, Chapter 9 in Susan L. Shirk (ed.) Changing media, changing China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yang, Guobin and Craig Calhoun (2007) ‘Media, civil society, and the rise of a green public sphere in China’ China Information. 21(2): 211–236.

Zhao, Yuezhi (2008) Communication in China : Political Economy, Power, and Conflict. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Zheng, Yongnian (2007) Technological Empowerment : The Internet, State, and Society in China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.



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Topic 7 Environment and Public Health

Essential Reading

Steinhardt, H. Christoph and Fengshi Wu (2016) ‘In the name of the public: environmental protest and the changing landscape of popular contention in China’ The China journal. 75: 61-82. 

Hook, Glenn D., Libby Lester, Meng Ji, Kingsley Edney, Chris G. Pope and Luli van der Does-Ishikawa (2017) ‘Responsibility and the Risks of Air Pollution in China: Media Activism and the Case of Under the Dome’, Chapter Four in Environmental pollution and the media : political discourses of risk and responsibility in Australia, China and Japan ISBN: 9780415710312 (hbk); 0415710316 (hbk); 9781315198446 (ebk). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 74-97.    

Further Resources

Aden, Nathaniel T. and Jonathan E. Sinton (2006) ‘Environmental implications of energy policy in China’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 248-270.

Bondes, Maria and Thomas Johnson (2017) 'Beyond Localized Environmental Contention: Horizontal and Vertical Diffusion in a Chinese Anti-Incinerator Campaign' Journal of contemporary China. 26(106): 504-520.

Deng, Yanhua and Guobin Yang (2013) ‘Pollution and protest in China: environmental mobilization in context’ The China quarterly. 214: 321-336.

Carter, Neil T. and Arthur P.J. Mol (2006) ‘China and the environment: Domestic and transnational dynamics of a future hegemon’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 330-344.

Christoff, Peter (2010) ‘Cold climate in Copenhagen: China and the United States at COP15’ Environmental politics. 19(4): 637–656.

Economy, Elizabeth (2006) ‘Environmental governance: the emerging economic dimension’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 171-189.

Economy, Elizabeth C. (2004) The river runs black : the environmental challenge to China's future. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Elvin, Mark (2004) The retreat of the elephants : an environmental history of China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Gilley, Bruce (2012) ‘Authoritarian environmentalism and China's response to climate change’ Environmental politics. 21(2): 287-307.

Ho, Peter (2001) ‘Greening Without Conflict? Environmentalism, NGOs and Civil Society in China’ Development and change.ISSN: 0012-155x; 1467-7660 32(5): 893-921.

Ho, Peter and Richard Louis Edmonds (2007) ‘Perspectives of Time and Change: Rethinking Embedded Environmental Activism in China’ China information.ISSN: 0920-203X 21(2): 331-344.

Jahiel, Abigail R. (2006) ‘China, the WTO, and implications for the environment’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 310-329.

Johnson, Thomas (2010) ‘Environmentalism and NIMBYism in China: promoting a rules-based approach to public participation’ Environmental politics. 19(3): 430-448.

Keeley, James (2006) ‘Balancing technological innovation and environmental regulation: an analysis of Chinese agricultural biotechnology governance’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 293-309.

Lewis, Joanna I. (2009) ‘Climate change and security: examining China’s challenges in a warming world’ International affairs. 85(6): 1195-1213.

Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung and Shui-Yan Tan (2006) ‘Institutional reform, economic changes, and local environmental management in China: the case of Guangdong province’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 190-210.

Martens. Susan (2006) ‘Public participation with Chinese characteristics: Citizen consumers in China’s environmental management’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 211-230.

Mol, Arthur P.J. and Neil T. Carter (2006) ‘China’s environmental governance in transition’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 149-170.

Moore, Scott (2014) ‘Hydropolitics and Inter-Jurisdictional Relationships in China: The Pursuit of Localized Preferences in a Centralized System’ The China quarterly. 219: 760-780.

Moore, Scott M. (2014) ‘Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: the politics of China’s South-North Water Transfer Project’ Environmental politics. 23(6): 947-964.

Nickum, James E. and Yok-Shiu F. Lee (2006) ‘Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in urban water in China, north and south’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 231-247.

Ong, Lynette H. (2012) ‘The apparent “paradox” in China’s climate policies: weak international commitment on emissions reduction and aggressive renewable energy policy’ Asian survey. 52(6): 1138-1160.

Reese, Stephen D. (2015) ‘Globalization of Mediated Spaces: The Case of Transnational Environmentalism in China’ International Journal of CommunicationISSN: 1932-8036 9: 2263-2281.

Schwartz, Jonathan (2004) ‘Environmental NGOs in China’ Pacific affairs. 77(1): 28-49.

Shapiro, Judith (2001) Mao's war against nature : politics and the environment in Revolutionary China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shapiro, Judith (2012) China's environmental challenges. Cambridge: Polity.

Shi, Han and Lei Zhang (2006) ‘China’s environmental governance of rapid industrialisation’ Environmental politics. 15(2): 271-292.

Shin, Sangbum (2010) 'The domestic side of the clean development mechanism: the case of China' Environmental Politics. 19(2): 237–254.

Steinhardt, H. Christoph and Fengshi Wu (2016) 'In the Name of the Public: Environmental Protest and the Changing Landscape of Popular Contention in China' The China journal. 75: 61-82.

Sun, Xiaoyi, Ronggui Huang and Ngai-Ming Yip (2017) 'Dynamic Political Opportunities and Environmental Forces Linking Up: A Case Study of Anti-PX Contention in Kunming' Journal of contemporary China. 26(106): 536-548.

Tang, Shuiyan and Zhan Xueyong (2008) ‘Civic environmental NGOs, civil society and democratization in China’ The journal of development studies. 44(3): 425-448.

Thomas, Sebastian, Paul Dargusch and Andrew Griffiths (2011) ‘The drivers and outcomes of the clean development mechanism in China’ Environmental policy and governance. 21(4): 223-239.

Tilt, Bryan (2010) The struggle for sustainability in rural China : environmental values and civil society. New York: Columbia University Press.

Tilt, Bryan (2013) ‘Industrial pollution and environmental health in rural China: risk, uncertainty and individualization’ The China quarterly. 214: 283-301.

Tsang, Stephen and Ans Kolk (2010) ‘The evolution of Chinese policies and governance structures on environment, energy and climate’ Environmental policy and governance. 20(3): 180-96.

Watts, Jonathan (2010) When a billion Chinese jump : voices from the frontline of climate change London: Faber and Faber.

Wu, Fuzuo (2013) ‘China’s pragmatic tactics in international climate change negotiations: reserving principles with compromise’ Asian survey. 53(4): 778-800.

Wu, Xiaolong, Dali L. Yang and Lijun Chen (2017) 'The Politics of Quality-of-Life Issues: Food Safety and Political Trust in China' Journal of contemporary China. 26(106): 601-615.

Yang, Guobin (2005) ‘Environmental NGOs and institutional dynamics in China’ The China quarterly. 181: 46-66.

Yang, Guobin (2010) ‘Brokering environment and health in China: issue entrepreneurs of the public sphere’ Journal of contemporary China. 19(63): 101-118.

Yang, Guobin and Craig Calhoun (2007) ‘Media, Civil Society, and the Rise of a Green Public Sphere in China’ China information.ISSN: 0920-203X 21(2): 211-236.

Zhang, Joy Y. and Michael Barr (2013) ‘Recasting subjectivity through the lens: new forms of environmental mobilisation in China’ Environmental politics. 22(5): 849-865.

Zhang, Joy Y. and Michael Barr (2013) Green politics in China : environmental governance and state-society relations. London: Pluto Press.



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Topic 8 Ethnic Identity and Separatism on China's Periphery

Essential Reading

Bulag, Uradyn E. (2021) ‘Minority Nationalities as Frankenstein’s Monsters? Reshaping “the Chinese Nation” and China’s Quest to Become a “Normal Country”’ The China Journal 86: 46-67.

Tobin, David (2020) ‘A “Struggle of Life or Death”: Han and Uyghur Insecurities on China’s North-West Frontier’ The China Quarterly. 242: 301-323.

Further Resources

Anthony, Ross (2011) 'Exceptionally equal: emergency states and the production of enemies in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region' Inner Asia. 13(1): 51–72.

Barabantseva, Elena V. (2009) ‘Development as localization: ethnic minorities in China’s official discourse on the Western Development Project’ Critical Asian Studies. 41(2): 225–254.

Baranovitch, Nimrod (2005) ‘From the margins to the centre: the Uyghur challenge in Beijing’ The China Quarterly. 175(Sept): 726–750.

Barnett, Robert (2016) 'Imagining the borderlands: managing (to prolong) conflict in Tibet' Nations and nationalism. 22(4): 706-724.

Becquelin, Nicolas (2000) 'Xinjiang in the nineties' The China Journal. 44(July): 65–90.

Becquelin, Nicolas (2004) 'Staged development in Xinjiang' The China Quarterly. 178(June): 358–378.

Bovingdon, Gardner (2002) ‘The not-so-silent majority: Uyghur resistance to Han rule in Xinjiang’ Modern China. 28(1): 39–78.

Bovingdon, Gardner (2010) ‘Politics on China’s periphery: Xinjiang’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Caprioni, Elena (2011) ‘Daily encounters between Hans and Uyghurs in Xinjiang: Sinicization, integration or segregation’? Pacific Affairs. 84(2): 267–287. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva.

Chen, Ni (2012) 'Beijing's political crisis communication: an analysis of Chinese government communication in the 2009 Xinjiang riot' Journal of Contemporary China. 21(75): 461–479.

Christoffersen, Gaye (1993) 'Xinjiang and the great Islamic circle: the impact of transnational forces on Chinese regional economic planning' The China Quarterly. 133(March): 130–151.

Clarke, Michael (2008) ‘China’s “war on terror” in Xinjiang: human security and the causes of violent Uighur separatism’ Terrorism and Political Violence. 20(2): 271–301.

Clarke, Michael (2010) ‘China, Xinjiang and the internationalisation of the Uyghur issue’ Global Change, Peace and Security. 22(2): 213–229.

Clarke, Michael (2011) Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia :A History. London: Routledge.

Clarke, Michael (2013) ‘Ethnic separatism in the People’s Republic of China: history, causes and contemporary challenges’ European journal of East Asian studies. 12(1): 109-133.

Davis, Michael C. (2008) 'Establishing a workable autonomy in Tibet' Human rights quarterly. 30(2): 227–258.

Dillon, Michael (2003) Xinjiang : China's Muslim Far Northwest. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Dillon, Michael (2006) ‘Uyghur separatism and nationalism in Xinjiang’ in Benjamin Cole, ed. Conflict, Terrorism and the Media in Asia. Abingdon: Routledge. Available online.

Dillon, Michael (2010) Xinjiang and the expansion of Chinese Communist power : Kashhgar in the twentieth century. London: Routledge.

Dwyer, Arienne M. (2005) The Xinjiang Conflict : Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse. Washington, DC: East-West Center Washington.

Finley, Joanne S. (2011) 'No rights without duties: minzu pingdeng [national equality] in Xinjiang since the 1997 Ghulja disturbances' Inner Asia. 13(1): 73–96.

Gladney, Dru C. (2003) ‘Islam in China: accommodation or separatism? ’ The China Quarterly. 174(June): 451–467.

Hao, Yufan and Weihua Liu (2012) 'Xinjiang: increasing pain in the heart of China's borderland' Journal of Contemporary China. 21(74): 205–225.

Hastings, Justin (2011) 'Charting the course of Uyghur unrest' The China Quarterly. 208(Dec): 893–912.

Kerr, David and Laura C. Swinton (2008) ‘China, Xinjiang, and the transnational security of Central Asia’ Critical Asian Studies. 40(1): 113–142.

Leibold, James (2020) ‘Surveillance in China’s Xinjiang Region: Ethnic Sorting, Coercion, and Inducement’ Journal of Contemporary China 29(121): 46-60.

Mackerras, Colin (2010) ‘Tibetans, Uyghurs, and multinational “China”: Han-minority relations and state legitimation’ in Peter Gries and Stanley Rosen (eds.) Chinese politics : state, society and the market. London: Routledge.

Mackerras, Colin and Michael Clarke, eds. (2009) China, Xinjiang and Central Asia : History, Transition and Crossborder Interaction Into the 21st Century. London: Routledge.

Millward, James A., ed. (2009) The Uyghurs in China : questioning the past and understanding the present. Abingdon: Routledge.

Odgaard, Liselotte and Thomas Galasz Nielsen (2014) ‘China’s counterinsurgency strategy in Tibet and Xinjiang’ Journal of contemporary China. 23(87): 535-555.

Raballand, Gael and Agnes Andresy (2007) 'Why should trade between Central Asia and China continue to expand? ' Asia Europe journal [electronic resource]. 5(2): 235–252.

Roemer, Stephanie (2008) The Tibetan government-in-exile : politics at large. London: Routledge.

Sautman, Barry (2012) ‘Paved with good intentions: proposals to curb minority rights and their consequences for China’ Modern China. 38(1): 10–39.

Szadziewski, Henryk (2011) 'Commanding the economy: the recurring patterns of Chinese central government development planning among Uyghurs in Xinjiang' Inner Asia. 13(1): 97 – 116.

Tang, Wenfang and Gaochao He (2010) Separate but Loyal : Ethnicity and Nationalism in China. Honolulu: East-West Center.

Tong, James, ed. (2010) The Xinjiang Problem. I : stabilization and rectification policies, 1996-98,. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Tong, James, ed. (2010) The Xinjiang Problem. II : violent disturbances and religious policy, 1995-98 Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Tuttle, Gray (2005) Tibetan Buddhists in the making of modern China. New York: Columbia University Press.

Zang, Xiaowei (2010) ‘Affirmative action, economic reforms, and Han-Uyghur variation in job attainment in the state sector in Urumchi’ The China Quarterly. 202(June): 344–361.

Zenz, Adrian (2018) ‘“Thoroughly Reforming Them towards a Healthy Heart Attitude”: China’s Political Re-education Campaign in Xinjiang’ Central Asian survey. ISSN: 0263-4937 DOI: 10.1080/02634937.2018.1507997

Zenz, Adrian and James Leibold (2020) ‘Securitizing Xinjiang: Police Recruitment, Informal Policing and Ethnic Minority Co-optation’ The China Quarterly 242: 324-348.



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Topic 9 Nationalism, Protests and the Party-State

Essential Reading

Chen, Chunhua (2016) ‘Nationalism and its political implications in contemporary China’ in Jeff Kingston (ed.) Asian nationalisms reconsidered. London: Routledge, pp.147-159.  

Gries, Peter and Yi Wang (2020) ‘Proscribing the “Spiritually Japanese”: Nationalist Indignation, Authoritarian Responsiveness and Regime Legitimation in China Today’ The China quarterly 245: 122-141.

Further Resources

Barabantseva, Elena (2010) Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities and Nationalism : De-Centering China. London: Routledge.

Callahan, William A. (2004) ‘National insecurities: Humiliation, salvation, and Chinese nationalism’ Alternatives : global, local, political. 29(2): 199-218.

Callahan, William A. (2010) ‘When is China? (1): patriotic education and the century of national humiliation’, Chapter 2 in China: The Pessoptimist Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carlson, Allen (2009) 'A flawed perspective: the limitations inherent within the study of Chinese nationalism' Nations and Nationalism. 15(1): 20–35.

Cheung, Kelvin Chi-Kin (2012) 'Away from socialism, towards Chinese characteristics: Confucianism and the futures of Chinese nationalism' China information. 26(2): 205–218.

Cohen, Paul A. (2002) ‘Remembering and forgetting: National humiliation in twentieth-century China’ Twentieth-century China 27(2): 1-39.

Friedman, Edward (2008) 'Where is Chinese nationalism? The political geography of a moving project' Nations and nationalism. 14(4): 721–738.

Gries, Peter (2005) ‘Nationalism, indignation and China's Japan policy’ SAIS Review 25(2): 105-114.

Gries, Peter H. (2001) 'Tears of rage: Chinese nationalist reactions to the Belgrade embassy bombing' The China Journal. 46(July): 25–43.

Gries, Peter H. (2005) China's New Nationalism : Pride, Politics, and Diplomacy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Gries, Peter H. and Kaiping Peng (2002) ‘Culture clash? Apologies East and West’ Journal of contemporary China. 11(30): 173-178.

Guang, Lei (2005) ‘Realpolitik nationalism: international sources of Chinese nationalism’ Modern China. 31(4): 487–514.

Guo, Yingjie (2004) Cultural Nationalism in Contemporary China : The Search for National Identity Under Reform. London: Routledge.

He, Baogang and Yingjie Guo (2000) Nationalism, National Identity and Democratization in China. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Hughes, Christopher (2006) Chinese Nationalism in the Global Era. London: Routledge.

Hughes, Christopher (2011) ‘Reclassifying Chinese nationalism: the geopolitik turn’ Journal of Contemporary China. 20(71): 601–620.

Jia, Qingguo (2005) 'Disrespect and distrust: the external origins of contemporary Chinese nationalism' Journal of Contemporary China. 14(42): 11–21.

Joseph, William A. (2010) ‘Ideology and Chinese politics’ in W.A. Joseph, ed. Politics in China : An Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Leibold, James (2006) ‘Competing narratives of racial unity in Republican China: from the Yellow Emperor to Peking Man’ Modern China. 32(2): 181–220.

Leibold, James (2010) ‘More than a category: Han supremacism on the Chinese Internet’ The China quarterly. 203: 539-559.

Liew, Leong H. and Shaoguang Wang, eds. (2004) Nationalism, Democracy and National Integration in China. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Mitter, Rana (2000) The Manchurian Myth : Nationalism, Resistance, and Collaboration in Modern China. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Perry, Elizabeth (2017) 'Cultural Governance in Contemporary China: "Re-Orienting" Party Propaganda' in Vivienne Shue and Patricia M. Thornton, eds. To Govern China: Evolving Practices of Power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 29-55.

Reilly, James (2006) ‘China's history activism and Sino-Japanese relations’ China: An International Journal 4(2): 189-216.

Schneider, Florian (2018) China's Digital Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shen, Simon (2007) Redefining Nationalism in Modern China : Sino-American Relations and the Emergence of Chinese Public Opinion in the 21st Century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Shen, Simon and Shaun Breslin, eds. (2010) Online Chinese Nationalism and China's Bilateral Relations. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Tang, Wenfang and Benjamin Darr (2012) 'Chinese nationalism and its political and social origins' Journal of Contemporary China. 21(77): 811 – 826.

Townsend, James (1992) ‘Chinese nationalism’ The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs. 27(Jan): 97–130.

Weatherley, Robert (2008) ‘Defending the nation: the role of nationalism in Chinese thinking on human rights’ Democratization. 15(2): 342–362.

Weatherley, Robert and Qiang Zhang (2017) History and nationalist legitimacy in contemporary China [electronic resource] : a double-edged sword ISBN: 9781137479471 (e-book); 9781137479464 (hbk.). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Weiss, Jessica Chen (2014) Powerful Patriots: Nationalist Protest in China’s Foreign Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Woronov, T.W. (2007) ‘Performing the nation: China’s children as Little Red Pioneers’ Anthropological Quarterly 80(3): 647–672.

Yuan, Jing-Dong (2008) 'Chinese nationalism and Sino-Japanese relations' Pacific Focus 23(2): 212–231.

Zhao, Gang (2006) ‘Reinventing China: imperial Qing ideology and the rise of modern Chinese national identity in the early Twentieth Century’ Modern China. 32(1): 3–30.

Zhao, Suisheng (1998) ‘A state-led nationalism: the patriotic education campaign in post-Tiananmen China’ Communist and post-Communist studies. 31(3): 287-302.

Zhao, Suisheng (2004) A nation-state by construction : dynamics of modern Chinese nationalism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Zhao, Suisheng (2005) ‘China’s pragmatic nationalism: is it manageable? ’ The Washington Quarterly. 29(1): 131–144.

Zhao, Suisheng (2013) ‘Foreign policy implications of Chinese nationalism revisited: the strident turn’ Journal of contemporary China. 22(82): 535-553.

Zheng, Yongnian (1999) Discovering Chinese nationalism in China : modernization, identity, and international relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.



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Topic 10 Overview: Key Questions and Concepts

Essential Reading

Fewsmith, Joseph and Andrew J. Nathan (2019) ‘Authoritarian Resilience Revisited’ Journal of Contemporary China. 28(116): 167-179.

Buckley, Chris (2020) ‘“Clean Up This Mess”: The Chinese Thinkers Behind Xi’s Hard Line’ The New York Times, 2 August, available at:

Cai Xia (2021) ‘The Party that Failed: An Insider Breaks with Beijing’ Foreign Affairs 100(1): 78-97.

Further Resources

Beeson, Mark and Fujian Li (2012) ‘Charmed or alarmed: reading China’s regional relations’ Journal of Contemporary China. 21(73): 35–51.

Blankert, Jan W. (2009) China Rising : Will the West Be Able To Cope? : The Real Long-Term Challenge of the Rise of China. Singapore: World Scientific.

Breslin, Shaun (2013) 'China and the global order: signalling threat or friendship? ' International affairs. 89(3): 615 – 634.

Buzan, Barry and Michael Cox (2013) 'China and the US: comparable cases of peaceful rise? ' Chinese journal of international politics 6(2): 109–132.

Cabestan, Jean-Pierre, Jean-Francois Di Meglio and Xavier Richet, eds. (2012) China and the global financial crisis : a comparison with Europe. London: Routledge.

Callahan, William A. (2012) ‘Sino-speak: exceptionalism and the politics of history’ The Journal of Asian Studies. 71(1): 1–23.

Callahan, William A. (2013) China dreams : 20 visions of the future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cao, Qing (2007) ‘Confucian vision of a new world order? Culturalist discourse, foreign policy and the press in contemporary China’ The International Communication Gazette. 69(5): 431–450.

Chan, Gerald, Pak K. Lee and Lai-Ha Chan (2011) China engages global governance : a new world order in the making ? London: Routledge.

Cheung, Gordon C.K. (2009) ‘Governing greater China: dynamic perspectives and transforming interactions’ Journal of Contemporary China. 18(58): 93–111.

Chin, Gregory and Ramesh Thakur (2010) ‘Will China change the rules of global order? ’ The Washington Quarterly. 33(4): 119–138.

Choo, Jaewoo (2009) ‘Ideas matter: China’s peaceful rise’ Asia Europe Journal. 7(3): 389–404.

Clegg, Jenny (2011) ‘China at the global summit table: rule-taker, deal-wrecker or bridge-builder? ’ Contemporary Politics 17(4): 447–465.

Crossick, Stanley and Etienne Reuter (2007) China-EU : a common future. Singapore: World Scientific.

Ding, Sheng (2010) ‘Analyzing rising power from the perspective of soft power: a new look at China’s rise to the status quo power’ Journal of Contemporary China. 19(64): 255–272.

Etzioni, Amitai (2011) ‘Is China a responsible stakeholder? ’ International Affairs. 87(3): 539–553.

Gao, Yuning (2012) China as the workshop of the world. London: Routledge.

Hsiung, James C., ed. (2007) China and Japan at odds : deciphering the perpetual conflict. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kavalski, Emilian, ed. (2009) China and the global politics of regionalization Farnham: Ashgate.

Kavalski, Emilian (2010) ‘Shanghaied into cooperation: framing China’s socialization of Central Asia’ Journal of Asian and African Studies. 45(2): 131–145.

Kawashima, Shin (2011) ‘The development of the debate over “hiding one’s talents and biding one’s time” (taoguan yanghui)’ Asia-Pacific Review. 18(2): 14–36.

Keith, Ronald C. (2009) China from the inside out : fitting the People's Republic into the world. London: Pluto Press.

Liu, Guoli (2008) ‘Domestic sources of China’s emerging grand strategy’ Journal of Asian and African Studies. 43(5): 543–561.

Liu Xiaobo (2010) ‘I have no enemies’ Foreign policy. ISSN: 0015-7228, 8 October, available at: 

Pei, Minxin (2008) China s Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pei, Minxin (2016) ‘The beginning of the end’ The Washington Quarterly 39(3): 131-142.

Saee, John (2011) China and the global economy in the 21st century London: Routledge.

Santoro, Michael A. (2009) China 2020 : how western business can--and should--influence social and political change in the coming decade. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Schweller, Randall L. and Xiaoyu Pu (2011) ‘After unipolarity: China’s visions of international order in an era of U.S. decline’ International Security. 36(1): 41–72.

Shambaugh, David (2016) ‘Contemplating China’s future’ The Washington Quarterly. 39(3): 121-130.

Suzuki, Shogo (2009) ‘Chinese soft power, insecurity studies, myopia and fantasy’ Third World Quarterly. 30(4): 779–793.

Wade, Geoff, ed. (2009) China and southeast Asia. London: Routledge.

Wang, Gungwu and Zheng Yongnian, eds. (2008) China and the new international order. London: Routledge.

Wasserstrom, Jeffrey (2016) ‘The Qing Dynasty’s past and the Communist Party’s future’ The Washington Quarterly 39(3):159-168.

Whyte, Martin King (2016) ‘China’s dormant and active social volcanoes’ The China journal. 75: 9-37.

Xiang, Lanxin (2012) 'China and the pivot' Survival. 54(5): 113–128.

Yang, Jian (2009) ‘China in the South Pacific: hegemon on the horizon? ’ The Pacific Review. 22(2): 139–158.

Zhang, Weihong (2010) ‘China’s cultural future: from soft power to comprehensive national power’ The International Journal of Cultural Policy. 16(4): 383–402.

Zhang, Yunling (2010) China and Asian regionalism. Singapore: World Scientific.

Zhao, Suisheng, ed. (2012) China and East Asian regionalism : economic and security cooperation and institution-building. London: Routledge.

Further Resources on Hong Kong and Taiwan

Abbas, M. Ackbar (1997) Hong Kong : Culture and the Politics of Disappearance. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ash, Robert, Peter Ferdinand, Brian Hook and Robin Porter, eds. (2003) Hong Kong in Transition : One Country, Two Systems London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Atkinson, Joel (2010) 'China-Taiwan diplomatic competition and the Pacific Islands' The Pacific Review.. 23(4): 407 – 427.

Brown, Melissa J. (2004) Is Taiwan Chinese? : The Impact of Culture, Power, and Migration on Changing Identities Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Callahan, William A. (2005) 'Nationalism, civilization and transnational relations: the discourse of Greater China' Journal of Contemporary China. 14(43): 269 – 289.

Carroll, John M. (2007) A Concise History of Hong Kong Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Cheng, Edmund W. (2016) ‘Street politics in a hybrid regime: the diffusion of political activism in post-colonial Hong Kong’ The China quarterly. 226: 383-406.

Cheng, Joseph YS, ed. (2007) The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in its first decade. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.

Cheong, Ching (2001) Will Taiwan Break Away? : The Rise of Taiwanese Nationalism. Singapore: World Scientific.

Cheung, Gordon CK (2009) 'Governing Greater China: dynamic perspectives and transforming interactions' Journal of Contemporary China. 18(58): 93 – 111.

Cheung, Peter TY (2011) 'Who's influencing whom? Exploring the influence of Hong Kong on politics and governance in China' Asian Survey. 51(4): 713 – 738.

Chiu, Stephen and Tai-Lok Lui (2009) Hong Kong : Becoming a Chinese Global City. London: Routledge.

Chow, Peter CY, ed. (2008) The "One China" Dilemma. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chu, Yun-han (2012) 'China and East Asian democracy: the Taiwan factor' Journal of Democracy. 23(1): 42 – 56.

Cohen, Warren I. and Li Zhao, eds. (1997) Hong Kong under Chinese Rule : The Economic and Political Implications of Reversion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hao, Zhidong (2010) Whither Taiwan and Mainland China : National Identity, The State, and Intellectuals Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

He, Kai and Huiyun Feng (2009) 'Leadership, regime security, and China's policy toward Taiwan: prospect theory and Taiwan crises' The Pacific Review. 22(4): 501 – 521.

Hsiao, Hsin-Huang M., ed. (2012) Chinese middle classes : Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and China. London: Routledge.

Hughes, Christopher (1997) Taiwan and Chinese Nationalism : National Identity and Status in International Society. London: Routledge.

Hung, Ho-fung and Iam-chong Ip (2012) 'Hong Kong's democratic movement and the making of China's offshore civil society' Asian Survey. 52(3): 504 – 527.

Jakobson, Linda (2005) 'A greater Chinese union' The Washington Quarterly. 28(3): 27 – 39.

Lo, Sonny S-H (2007) 'One formula, two experiences: political divergence of Hong Kong and Macao since retrocession ' Journal of Contemporary China. 16(52): 359 – 387.

Lo, Sonny S-H (2008) Political Change in Macao. London: Routledge.

Lo, Sonny Shiu-Hing (2020) ‘Hong Kong in 2019: Turning Point amid Tensions’ Asian Survey 60(1): 34-40.

Mathews, Gordon, Eric Kit-wah Ma and Tai-lok Lui (2008) Hong Kong, China : Learning to Belong to a Nation. London: Routledge.

Ong, Russell (2010) 'Taiwan's strategic options and the US' Asia-Pacific review. 17(2): 56 – 75.

Phillips, Steven (2016) 'Democracy and national destinies on Taiwan' Nations and nationalism. 22(4): 666-685.

Poon, Kit (2008) The Political Future of Hong Kong : Democracy within Communist China. London: Routledge.

Rigger, Shelley (2006) Taiwan's Rising Nationalism : Generations, Politics, and "Taiwanese Nationalism". Washington, DC: East-West Center.

Rowley, Chris and Mark Lewis, eds. (1996) Greater China : Political Economy, Inward Investment, and Business Culture. London: Frank Cass.

Scott, Ian (2013) 'Institutional design and corruption prevention in Hong Kong' Journal of Contemporary China. 22(79): 77 – 92.

Sing, Ming (2004) Hong Kong's Tortuous Democratization :A Comparative Analysis. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

So, Alvin Y. (1999) Hong Kong's Embattled Democracy :A Societal Analysis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Steinhardt, H. Christoph, Linda Chelan Li and Yihong Jiang (2018) ‘The Identity Shift in Hong Kong since 1997: Measurement and Explanation’ Journal of contemporary China. ISSN: 1067-0564 27(110): 261-276.

Tseng, Yen-Fen and Jieh-Min Wu (2011) 'Reconfiguring citizenship and nationality: dual citizenship of Taiwanese migrants in China' Citizenship Studies. 15(2): 265–282.

Wu, Guoguang (2008) 'Hong Kong's political influence over China: institutional, informative, and interactive dynamics of sovereignty' The Pacific review. 21(3): 279 – 302.

Wu, Rwei-Ren (2016) 'The Lilliputian dreams: preliminary observations of nationalism in Okinawa, Taiwan and Hong Kong' Nations and nationalism. 22(4): 686-705.

Yu, Chilik, Chun-Ming Chen and Min-Wei Lin (2013) 'Corruption perception in Taiwan: reflections upon a bottom-up citizen perspective' Journal of Contemporary China. 22(79): 56 – 76.

Zheng, Yongnian and Tok S. Keat (2007) 'Beijing responds to Hong Kong's democratization movement: from bureaucratic control to political leadership' Asian Affairs, an American review 33(4): 235 – 256.

This list was last updated on 09/12/2021