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Module Reading List

Political and Development Geographies, 2021/22, Semester 1, 2
Dr Martin Purvis
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Some overarching text books

Flint, C (2021) Introduction to Geopolitics (4th edition) Routledge   

Heywood A (2014) Global Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (available as an e-book)

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge.

Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power. 2nd edition. London: Sage.


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Week 1: Critical geographical perspectives on political and economic power

Key readings

Nye J S (2011) The future of power ISBN: 9781586488918 (hbk.) : No price; 1586488910 (hbk.) : No price – especially Part 1 Types of Power – chapters on military power, economic power and soft power (available as e-book)  

 Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power. 2nd edition. London: Sage. Chapter 1, p.4-18.

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge. Chpt 1 Introduction: power, space and 'political geography'

Further reading

Dalby, S. (2010) ‘Recontextualising violence, power and nature: The next twenty years of critical geopolitics’, Political geography. ISSN: 0962-6298 29:280–88.

Dodds, K. (2019) Geopolitics. A very short introduction (3rd edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chpt 1 'What is geopolitics?'; Chpt 2 'Intellectual poison?'.

Gill, B (2020) 'China's global influence: post-Covid prospects for soft power' Washington Quarterly 43(2): 97-115

Ioannides, I (2021) The European Union and the geopolitics of Covid19 vaccines in the Western Balkans ELIAMEP Policy Brief 146

Ó Tuathail, G and Dalby, S (1998) ‘Introduction: Rethinking Geopolitics: Towards a Critical Geopolitics’ in G Ó Tuathail and S. Dalby (eds.) Rethinking geopolitics (ch 1) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Synder, A and Sindyukov, M (2020) 'How Covid-19 is changing the soft power game' Diplomatic Courier 16 April

Scocozza C (2021) Coronavirus geopolitics. A reflection on the Russian case, Culture e Studi del Sociale 5(1) Special issue 389-393

Terry G S and Makarychev M (2021) Performative diplomacy and popular geopolitics: the case of Russian anti-COVID assistance to Italy, Problems of Post-Communism – in press – available on-line

Walton C D (2007) Geopolitics and the great powers in the twenty-first century : multipolarity and the revolution in strategic perspective ISBN: 9780415358538 (hbk. : alk. paper); 0415358531 (hbk. : alk. paper); 9780203004739 (ebk.); 0203004736 (ebk.) (available as e-book)

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Block I: States and global power politics

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Week 2: Enlightenment and modernity

Key readings

Linehan D (2009) “Modernity”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International encyclopedia of human geography pp157-63  

Ogborn M (2013) “Modernity and modernization”. In Cloke P, Crang P & Goodwin M (eds) Introducing Human Geographies (3rd edition) pp 480-492.

Further reading

Agnew J A (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics (2nd edition) – Chapter 3 “Turning time into space”

Berman M (1983) All that is solid melts into air : the experience of modernity ISBN: 0860917851 – especially Chapter 1 “Introduction – modernity: yesterday, today and tomorrow”

Brayshay M (2009) “Capitalism and the division of labour”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International encyclopedia of human geography pp 390-401

Bush B (2006) Imperialism and postcolonialism – Chapter 3 “Imperialism and modernity” especially pp 77-100

Daniels P, Bradshaw M, Shaw D & Sidaway J (eds) (2012) An Introduction to Human Geography (4th edition) - Chapter 1 “Pre-capitalist worlds”; Chapter 2 “The rise and spread of capitalism”

Gregory D et al (eds) (2009) Dictionary of Human Geography (5th edition) -entries on “Modernity”, “Postmodernity” and “Postmodernism”

Nash C (2000) “Historical geographies of modernity”. In Graham, B & Nash, C (eds) Modern historical geographies pp 13-40. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ogborn M (1998) Spaces of modernity : London's geographies, 1680-1780, – Chapter 1 “Spaces of modernity”

Short J R (2012) Globalization, modernity, and the city – Chapter 3 “Metropolitan modernities” – especially pp 53-66 and 74-84

Withers C W J (2009) “Enlightenment geography”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International encyclopedia of human geography pp 471-86


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Week 3: The origins of the modern state

Key readings

Agnew J A (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics (2nd edition) – Chapter 4 “A world of territorial states”

Jones M (2009) “State” In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) (2009) International encyclopedia of human geography pp 409-15

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge. Chpt 2 States and territories; Chpt 3 The state's changing forms and functions

Further reading

Abramson S (2017) The economic origins of the territorial state, International organization. ISSN: 0020-8183 71(1): 97-130

Blacksell M (2006) Political Geography – Chapter 3 “The idea of the state”

Flint C & Taylor P J (2011) Political Geography: World Economy, Nation-State and Locality (6th edition) – Chapter 4 “Territorial states”

Gunn S, Grummitt D & Cools H (2008) “War and the state in early modern Europe: widening the debate”, War in history. 15: 371-88

Le Galès P (2002) European cities : social conflicts and governance – Chapter 2 “The long history of the European city” – especially pp 40-52 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power – Chapter 2 “State formation” – especially pp 30-38

Spruyt H (2002) “The origins, development, and possible decline of the modern state”, Annual review of political science. 5: 127-49 – especially pp 129-40

Tilly C (ed) (1975) The Formation of National States in Western Europe – especially Chapter 1 “Reflections on the history of European state-making” and Chapter 9 “Western state-making and theories of political transformation”

Tilly C (1989) “The geography of European state-making and capitalism since 1500”. In Genovese E D & Hochberg L (eds) Geographic perspectives in history, pp 158-81 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Tilly C (1989) “Cities and states in Europe, 1000-1800”, Theory and society. 18: 563-84

Tilly C (1990) Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990-1990, – especially Chapter 1 “Cities and states in world history”; Chapter 2 “European cities and states”; Chapter 3 “How wars made states, and vice versa” Chapter 3 Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Tilly C (1993) European revolutions, 1492-1992 – Chapter 2 “Transformations of Europe” – especially pp 21-35 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva


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Week 4: Empire and imperialism

Key readings

Agnew J A (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics (2nd edition) – Chapter 5 “The three ages of geopolitics” – especially pp 85-101

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 (2021) Anticolonialism

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge. Chpt 8 Geographies of empire

Power M (2009) “Empire”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography pp 453-63

Further reading

Bell D (2016) Reordering the world : essays on liberalism and empire ISBN: 9780691138787 (hardcover : alk. paper); 9781400881024 ebk - Chapter 4 "Ideologies of empire" pp 91-118

Bush B (2006) Imperialism and postcolonialism – Chapter 1 “Untangling imperialism: comparisons over time and space”; Chapter 2 “Untangling imperialism: theories, concepts and historiography” especially pp 43-62

Burton A (2015) The trouble with empire : challenges to modern British imperialism ISBN: 9780199936601 (hbk.) : £19.99; 9780199936618 ebk - Chapter 1 "Introduction: the troubled ground of empire" pp 1-23

Butlin R A (2009) Geographies of empire : European empires and colonies, c.1880-1960 ISBN: 9780521740555 (pbk.); 9780521800426 (hbk.) - Chapter 1 "Geography, imperialism and colonialism: concepts and frameworks" and Chapter 10 "Geographies of the 'civilising mission'"

Claeys, G (2010) Imperial Sceptics: British Critics of Empire, 1850-1920 (Cambridge University Press)

Curtin, P D (2000) The world and the West : the European challenge and the overseas response in the age of empire – Chapter 1 “The pattern of empire”; Chapter 2 “Technology and power”; Chapter 3 “The politics of imperialism”

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 (2021) Enlightenment and empire

Flint C & Taylor P J (2018) Political Geography: World-Economy, (7th edition) – Chapter 3 “Geography of imperialisms”

Gopal P (2019) Insurgent Empire: Anticolonial Resistance and British Dissent. London: Verso.

Gopal P (2019) Insurgent Empire: Priyamvada Gopal in conversation with Verso Books

Harris C (2004) “How did colonialism dispossess? Comments from an edge of empire” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 94 (1): 165-182

Hicks, D (2020) The Brutish Museums: The Benin Bronzes, Colonial Violence and Cultural Restitution (Pluto) - available as an e-book

Howe S (2002) Empire: A Very Short Introduction – Chapters 1-5

Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) (2009) International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography: Lester A, “Colonialism I” pp 175-81; Atkinson D, “Colonialism II” pp 182-88

Jackson A (2013) The British Empire : a very short introduction ISBN: 9780199605415 (pbk.) : £7.99

Lester A (2000) “Historical geographies of imperialism”. In Graham, B & Nash, C (eds) Modern historical geographies pp 100-20.

Lester A (2002) “Constructing colonial discourse: Britain, South Africa and the empire in the 19thC”. In Blunt A & McEwan C (eds) Postcolonial geographies pp 29-45

Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power – Chapter 8 “Imperialism and postcolonialism”

Phillips R (2013) “Colonialism and post-colonialism”. In Cloke P, Crang P & Goodwin M (eds) Introducing Human Geographies (3rd edition) pp 493-508.

Popkin J D (2021) The Haitian Revolution comes of age: ten years of new research, Slavery & Abolition, 42(2): 382-401

Sharman J C (2018) Myths of military revolution: European expansion and Eurocentrism, European Journal of International Relations, 24(3), 491–513.

Sharman J C (2019) Power and profit at sea: the rise of the West in the making of the international system, International Security, 43(4): 163-196.

Sharp J (2009) Geographies of Postcolonialism: Spaces of Power and Representation – Part 1 “Colonialisms”

Steinmetz G (2005) “Return to empire: the new US imperialism in comparative historical perspective” Sociological theory. 23(4): 339-67

Taber, R D (2015) Navigating Haiti’s history: Saint-Domingue and the Haitian Revolution, History Compass 13(5): 235-250

Wolfe P (2006) “Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native” Journal of genocide research. 8(4): 387-409

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Week 5: Relocating global power during the 20th century

Key readings

Immerman, R H and Goedde P (eds) (2013) The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt ‘Geopolitics and the Cold War’

Kalinovsky, A M and Daigle, C (eds) (2014) The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt 1 ‘Incompatible universalisms. The United States, the Soviet Union, and the beginnings of the Cold War’

Further reading

Bacevich A J (ed) (2013) The short American century : a postmortem

Buettner, E (2016) Europe after Empire: Decolonization, Society and Culture (available as an e-book) – especially, but not only Chpt 1 “Myths of continuity and European exceptionalism: Britain, decolonization, and the Commonwealth family ideal” pp 23-77

de Grazia V (2009) Irresistible empire : America's advance through twentieth-century Europe

Fraser, C (1992) Understanding American policy towards the decolonization of European empires, 1945–64,  Diplomacy & Statecraft, 3(1): 105-125

Gillingham J (2003) European Integration, 1950-2003: Superstate or New Market Economy? ­(available as an e-book) – Part 1 A German solution to Europe’s problems? The early history of the European communities, 1950-1965

Hansen, P (2002) European integration, European identity and the colonial connection, European Journal of Social Theory, 5(4): 483-498

Harvey D (2005) The New Imperialism – especially (but not only) Chapter 2 “How America’s power grew”

Hopkins, A G (2017) Globalisation and decolonisation, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 45(5): 729-745

Immerman, R H and Goedde P (eds) (2013) The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt ‘The Cold War and the imperialism of nation-states’; ‘Soviet-American relations through the Cold War’

Itzkowitz Shifrinson, J R (2020) Partnership or predation? How rising states contend with declining Great Powers, International Security 45(1), 90-126

James, L and Leake E (eds) (2015) Decolonization and the Cold War: Negotiating Independence – especially ‘Introduction’ pp 1-17

Kalinovsky, A M and Daigle, C (eds) (2014) The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt 7 ‘Decolonization and the Cold War’

Kim D H (2004) “Empire’s entrails and the imperial geography of ‘Amerasia’” City : analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action. 8(1): 57-88

Leffler, M P and Westad O A (eds) (2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume I Origins (available as an e-book) – especially Chpt 8 ‘The Marshall Plan and the creation of the West’; Chpt 9 ‘The Sovietization of Eastern Europe, 1944-1953’; Chpt 22 ‘Decolonization, the global South and the Cold War, 1919-1962’

Leffler, M P and Westad O A (eds) (2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume II Crises and Détente (available as an e-book) – especially Chpt 7 ‘Soviet foreign policy 1962-1975’; Chpt 9 ‘European integration and the Cold War’; Chpt 13 ‘The Cold War in the Third World, 1963-1975’

Martel, G (2000) Decolonisation after Suez: retreat or rationalisation? Australian Journal of Politics and History 46(3): 403-417

Nye J S Jr (2019) The rise and fall of American hegemony from Wilson to Trump, International Affairs, 95(1): 63–80.

Sempa, F P (2014) The geopolitical vision of Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Diplomat, 30 December 

Slater D (1999) “Locating the American century: themes for a post-colonial perspective”. In Slater D & Taylor P J (eds) The American century : consensus and coercion in the projection of American power pp 17-31

Smith T (2012) America's Mission: the United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy (available as an e-book)

Sweeney, S (2019) The Europe Illusion. Britain, France, Germany and the Long History of European Integration – pp 253-265 on decolonisation and European integration

Taylor P J (1999) “Locating the American century: a world systems analysis”. In Slater D & Taylor P J (eds) The American century : consensus and coercion in the projection of American power pp 1-16

Thomas, M and Thompson, A (eds) (2018) The Oxford Handbook of the Ends of Empire (available as an e-book) – especially Chpts ‘Britain and decolonization in an era of global change’; ‘Empire by imitation? US economic imperialism within a British world system’; ‘Decolonization and the Cold War’; ‘Remnants of empire’

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Week 7: American empire today - political and economic

Key readings

Nye J S (2011) The future of power – Chapter 6 Power transition: the question of American decline (available as an e-book) 

Porter P (2018) Why America's Grand Strategy has not changed: power, habit, and the US foreign policy establishment, International security. ISSN: 0162-2889 42(4): 9-46

Further reading

Allison G (2020) The new spheres of influence: sharing the globe with other great powers, Foreign Affairs. 99(2): 30-40

Biden J R (2020) Why American must lead again: Rescuing US foreign policy after Trump, Foreign Affairs. 99(2): 64-76.

Brooks S G and Wohlforth W C (2016) The once and future superpower: why China won’t overtake the United States, Foreign affairs96(3): 91-104

Colby, E A and Mitchell A (2020) The age of great-power competition: How the Trump administration refashioned American strategy, Foreign Affairs 99(1), 118-130.

Fuchs, M H (2019) America doesn’t need a Grand Strategy, Foreign Policy 234 40-45

Haines, J R (2019) Redefining American security interests in Europe, Orbis: FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs, Autumn, 520-544 Available online.

Krasner, S D (2020) Learning to live with despots: the limits of democracy promotion, Foreign Affairs. 99(2): 49-55.

Rhodes, B (2020) The democratic renewal: what it will take to fix US foreign policy. Foreign Affairs 99(4): 46-83.

Rouhi M (2018) US–Iran tensions and the oil factor, Survival, 60(5), 33-40.

Sharma, R (2020) The comeback nation: U.S. economic supremacy has repeatedly proved declinists wrong, Foreign Affairs 99(3), 70-81

Sloan, S R (2020) US Foreign Policy in 2021. Atlantisch Perspectief44(5): 38-43

Stokes D (2018) Trump, American hegemony and the future of the liberal international order, International affairs.94(1): 133–150

Struye de Swielande, T (2021) The Biden administration: an opportunity to affirm a flexible and adaptive American world leadership. World Affairs, 184(2): 130-150.

Trubowitz P and Harris P (2019) The end of the American century? Slow erosion of the domestic sources of usable power, International Affairs,95(3): 619–639.

Wright, T (2020) The folly of retrenchment: Why American can't withdraw from the World, Foreign Affairs 99(2), 10-18

Yang, X (2021) US-China crossroads ahead: Perils and opportunities for Biden. The Washington Quarterly, 44(1): 129-153.

Zakaria F (2019) The self-destruction of American power: Washington squandered the unipolar moment, Foreign Affairs, 98(4): 10-16.


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Week 8: China: a new superpower?

Key readings

Blanchard J-M F and Flint C (2017) The geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road initiative, Geopolitics. 22(2): 223-245

Jones L and Zeng J (2019) "Understanding China's Belt and Road Initiative: Beyond 'grand strategy' to a state transformation analysis". Third World Quarterly 40(8): 1415-1439

Nordin A H M, Weissmann M (2018) Will Trump make China great again? The Belt and Road initiative and international order, International affairs. 94(2): 231–249

Further reading

African Studies Quarterly (2016) Special Issue: China-Africa Relations: Political and Economic Engagement and Media Strategies, African studies quarterly [electronic resource].16(3-4) (

Alden C and Jiang L (2019) Brave new world: debt, industrialization and security in China-Africa relations, International Affairs, Volume 95, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages 641–657.

The Belt and Road Podcast (2021) - especially (2019) 10: Is the Belt and Road Initiative a 'Grand Strategy'?

Brands, H and Sullivan, J (2020) China’s two global paths to global domination, Foreign Policy 237, 46-51.

Cai K G (2018) The One Belt One Road and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Beijing’s new strategy of geoeconomics and geopolitics, Journal of contemporary China.(

Center for Strategic and International Studies (2021) The Asia Chess Board Podcasts - especially 'King of the Chess Board? Xi Jinping and the future of China's Grand Strategy'

China-Africa Project (2020) Weaponizing China’s Belt and Road Initiative

Council on Foreign Relations (2021) Podcast: China’s Influence in Latin America

deLisle, J (2020) Foreign policy through other means: Hard power, soft power, and China’s turn to political warfare to influence the United States, Orbis: the FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs. Spring, 174-206. Available online.

Fingar, T and Oi, J C (2020) China’s challenges: Now it gets much harder, The Washington Quarterly, 43(1), 67-84

Goldstein, G (2020) China’s Grand Strategy under Xi Jinping: reassurance, reform and resistance, International Security 45(1), 164-201

Guardian (2018) Cities of the New Silk Road (good journalistic coverage of the One Belt-One Road initiative, and specific projects connected with it)

Iftikhar M and Zhan J V (2020) The geopolitics of China’s overseas port investments: a comparative analysis of Greece and Pakistan, Geopolitics – in press – available on-line

Inkster N (2019) The Huawei affair and China's technology ambitions, Survival, 61(1), 105-111.

Lin S, Sidaway J D and Yuan Woon C (2019) Reordering China, respacing the world: Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路) as an emergent geopolitical culture, The Professional Geographer, 71(3), 507-522.

Mannan, M A (2020) China’s balancing behaviour against the United States and the special importance of Myanmar, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs 7(2), 177-201

Mayer M (2018) China’s historical statecraft and the return of history, International Affairs, 94(6): 1217–1235.

Rolland N (2017) China’s “Belt and Road Initiative”: underwhelming or game-changer? The Washington quarterly.40(1): 127-142

Schreer B (2017): Towards contested ‘Spheres of Influence’ in the Western Pacific: rising China, classical geopolitics, and Asia-Pacific stability, Geopolitics.(

Scobell A (2018) The South China Sea and US‐China rivalry, Political science quarterly.133(2): 199-224

Shinn, D H and Eisenman, J (2020) Evolving principles and guiding concepts: How China gains African support for its core national interests, Orbis: the FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs. Spring, 271-288 Available online.

Sudworth J (2018) China's hidden camps, BBC News (

Wong A (2021) How not to win allies and influence geopolitics: China's self-defeating economic statecraft, Foreign Affairs 100(3): 44-53 

Zhang, K (2019) Cautious bully: reputation, resolve, and Beijing’s use of coercion in the South China Sea, International Security 44(1): 117-159

Zhao S (2018) China and the South China Sea arbitration: geopolitics versus international law, Journal of contemporary China., 27(109): 1-15

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Week 9: Russia - a disruptive power?

Key readings

Gotz E (2017) Putin, the state and war: the causes of Russia's Near Abroad assertion revisited, International Studies Review 19: 228-253 Available at:

Lukyanov F (2016) Putin’s foreign policy: the quest to restore Russia’s rightful place, Foreign affairs 95(3): 30-37

Tyushka A (2021) Weaponizing narrative: Russia contesting EUrope’s liberal identity, power and hegemony, Journal of Contemporary European Studiesin press - 

Further reading

Abbas, S R (2020) Russian geopolitics and Eurasia: an analytical study of Russia's role in Eurasian integration. World Affairs Journal 24(2): 90-104

Bolt P J and Cross S N (2018) China, Russia and Twenty-First Century Global Geopolitics – esp Chpt 4 ‘Russia, China, and contemporary international conflicts: Ukraine and Syria’ (Oxford University Press) – available as an e-book

Clark J R (2019) Russia’s indirect grand strategy, Orbis, 63(2): 225-239.

Clunan A (2018) Russia and the Liberal World Order, Ethics and international affairs, 32(1): 45-59

Council on Foreign Relations (2021) Podcast: Russia

Feklyunina V (2016) Soft power and identity: Russia, Ukraine and the “Russian world(s)”, European journal of international relations.22(4): 773-796

Foreign Affairs (2016) Special Issue: Putin’s Russia, Foreign affairs95(3) – see especially (but not only): Kotkin S, Russia’s perpetual geopolitics: Putin returns to the historical pattern (pp 2-9); Trenin D, The revival of the Russian military: how Moscow reloaded (pp 23-29); Treisman D, Why Putin took Crimea: the gambler in the Kremlin (pp 47-55)

Foxall, A (2019) From Evropa to Gayropa: A critical geopolitics of the European Union as seen from Russia, Geopolitics 24(1), 174-193

Götz E (2015) It's geopolitics, stupid: explaining Russia's Ukraine policy, Global Affairs 1(1): 3-10

Hill W H (2019) Russia’s search for a place in Europe, Survival, 61(3), 93-102.

Kalinin K (2019) Neo-Eurasianism and the Russian elite: the irrelevance of Aleksandr Dugin’s geopolitics, Post-Soviet Affairs 35 (5-6): 461-470

Kanet R E (ed) (2019) Routledge Handbook of Russian Security (Routledge) - available as an e-book – useful chapters include 1: ‘Russia’s pursuit of great-power status and security’; 5: ‘The Russian challenge to the liberal world order’; 15: ‘Russian security strategy and the geopolitics of energy in Eurasia’; 20: ‘Russian security policy towards the United States’; 21 ‘NATO enlargement: a new security dilemma for Russia’; 25 ‘The impacts of climate change on Russian Arctic security’; 33: ‘Russia’s ‘hybrid’ aggression against Ukraine’; 34: ‘Russia, the Middle East and the conflict in Syria’

Koch N and Tynkkynen V-P (2021) The geopolitics of renewables in Kazakhstan and Russia, Geopolitics 26(2): 521-540

Kuzio T (2018) Russia–Ukraine crisis: the blame game, geopolitics and national identity, Europe-Asia studies., 70(3): 462-473

Lewis D G (2018) Geopolitical imaginaries in Russian foreign policy: the evolution of ‘Greater Eurasia’, Europe-Asia Studies, 70(10), 1612-1637.

Lewis, S (2019) Russia’s continued aggression against Ukraine, The RUSI Journal, 164(1): 18-26.

McFaul M (2018) Russia as it is: grand strategy for confronting Putin, Foreign affairs. 97(4), 82-91

Marten, K (2019) Russia’s back in Africa: Is the Cold War returning?, The Washington Quarterly 42:4, 155-170

Menon, R (2020) Puncturing the myth of Putin’s genius, Foreign Policy 235, 7-9 Available online 

Mikulska, A (2020) Gazprom and Russian natural gas policy in the first two decades of the 21st Century, Orbis: FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs, Summer, 403-420 Available online.

O’Loughlin J, Toal G and Kolosov V (2016) Who identifies with the “Russian World”? Geopolitical attitudes in south-eastern Ukraine, Crimea, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Transnistria, Eurasian geography and economics. 57(6): 745-778

O’Loughlin J and Toal G (2019) The Crimea conundrum: legitimacy and public opinion after annexation, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 60(1), 6-27.

Pieper M (2019) ‘Rising power’ status and the evolution of international order: Conceptualising Russia’s Syria policies, Europe-Asia Studies 71(3), 365-387

Pieper M (2020) Russkiy Mir: The geopolitics of Russian compatriots abroad, Geopolitics 25(3), 756-779

Raik K (2019) The Ukraine crisis as a conflict over Europe’s political, economic and security order, Geopolitics 24(1): 51-70

Rezvani B (2020) Russian foreign policy and geopolitics in the post-Soviet space and the Middle East: Tajikistan, Georgia, Ukraine and Syria, Middle Eastern Studies 56(6): 878-899

Roberts K (2017) Understanding Putin: the politics of identity and geopolitics in Russian foreign policy discourse, International journal.72(1): 28-55

Rosenberg, S (2020) Russian influence under threat in its own backyard, BBC News 3 December

Rumer, E (2019) Russia in the Middle East: jack of all trades, master of none, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Scholten D, Bazilian M, Overland I and Westphal K (2020) The geopolitics of renewables: new board, new game.  Energy Policy, 138 - available on-line

Siddi M (2018) The role of power in EU–Russia energy relations: the interplay between markets and geopolitics, Europe-Asia Studies, 70(10), 1552-1571.

Suslov M (2018) “Russian World” concept: post-Soviet geopolitical ideology and the logic of “Spheres of Influence”, Geopolitics. 23(2): 330-353

Toal G (2017) Near abroad : Putin, the West and the contest over Ukraine and the Caucasus(available as an e-book)

Tsygankov A P (2015) Vladimir Putin's last stand: the sources of Russia's Ukraine policy, Post-Soviet affairs.31(4): 279-303

Turoma S and Waldstein M (eds) (2016) Empire De/Centered. New Spatial Histories of Russia and the Soviet Union – esp Chpt 6 Pynnoniemi, K ‘The rearrangement of the post-Soviet space and the representation of Russia as a Eurasian bridge’ – available as an e-book

Wengren S K (ed) (2016) Putin’s Russia: Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain (6th edition) (London: Rowman & Littlefield) especially Part III Russia and the World (e-book)

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 Week 10: Further aspirants to global and regional power

Key reading

It is impossible to identify one or two readings which provide a complete and up-to-date overview. Think about which parts of the world interest you most and pick something from the list below that will increase your understanding of your chosen area. The readings include material on India/South Asia; Japan; the Middle East and Turkey; Europe/the European Union.

Further reading

Ahmad, P and Singh, B (2019) Sino-Pakistan friendship, changing South Asian geopolitics and India’s post-Obama options, South Asia Research 37(2), 133-146

Ahmadian H (2021) Iran and the new geopolitics of the Middle East: in search of equilibrium, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 23(3): 458-472

Bachmann, V. and Sidaway, J.D. (2009) ‘Zivilmacht Europa: a critical geopolitics of the European Union as a global power’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34, pp. 94-109.

Basrur, R (2019) India and China: A managed nuclear rivalry?, The Washington Quarterly 42(3), 151-170

BBC World Service (2020) The Real Story: Turkey flexes on the world stage, BBC World Service, 2 October

Beck, M (2020) The aggravated struggle for regional power in the Middle East: American allies Saudi Arabia and Israel versus Iran, Global Policy 11(1), 84-92

Benson, R & Zürn, M (2019) Untapped potential: How the G20 can strengthen global governance, South African Journal of International Affairs, 26(4), 549-562

Brandi, C (2019) Club governance and legitimacy: The perspective of old and rising powers on the G7 and the G20, South African Journal of International Affairs 26(4), 685-702

Browning C S (2018) Geostrategies, geopolitics and ontological security in the Eastern neighbourhood: The European Union and the ‘new Cold War’, Political geography. ISSN: 0962-6298 62: 106-115.

Chakraborty, S (2018) Significance of BRICS: regional powers, global governance, and the roadmap for multipolar world, Emerging Economy Studies 4(2), 182-191

Chebankova E (2017) Russia’s idea of the multipolar world order: origins and main dimensions, Post-Soviet Affairs  33(3): 217-234

Council on Foreign Relations (2018) Podcast: India’s time is now

Council on Foreign Relations (2018) Podcast: Japan’s security renaissance

Downie, C (2017) One in 20: the G20, middle powers and global governance reform, Third World Quarterly, 38(7), 1493-1510

Ehteshami, A (2018) Saudi Arabia as a resurgent regional power, The International Spectator, 53(4), 75-94

Goldman Sachs (2003). Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050. Global Economics Paper No. 99. Available at:

Hastings Dunn D and Webber M (2016) The UK, the European Union and NATO: Brexit’s unintended consequences, Global Affairs 2(5): 471-480 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Hoffmann, C (2019) Neo-Ottomanism, Eurasianism or securing the region? A longer view on Turkey’s interventionism, Conflict, Security & Development, 19(3), 301-307

Kagan R (2019) The new German question: what happens when Europe comes apart, Foreign Affairs, 98(3), 108-121.

Kaufmann S and Lohaus M (2018) Ever closer or lost at sea? Scenarios for the future of transatlantic relations Futures. ISSN: 0016-3287 97: 18-25

Kidwai, S A (2020) The rise of Iran as a regional power, India Quarterly 76(2), 313-328

Kim, T and Shin, S Y (2021) Competition or cooperation? The geopolitics of gas discovery in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Energy Research and Social Science 74 - in press - available at

Krotz U & Schild J (2018) Back to the future? Franco-German bilateralism in Europe's post-Brexit union, Journal of European public policy. ISSN: 1350-1763 25(8): 1174-1193

Kukreja, V (2020) India in the emergent multipolar world order: dynamics and strategic challenges, India Quarterly 76(1), 8-23

Less T (2018) The great schism, The New statesman. ISSN: 1364-7431 147 (Issue 5441 - 19 October): 22-25

Mukherjee, R (2020) Chaos as opportunity: the United States and world order in India’s grand strategy, Contemporary Politics 26(4), 420-438

Öniş, Z and Kutlay, M (2017) The dynamics of emerging middle-power influence in regional and global governance: the paradoxical case of Turkey, Australian Journal of International Affairs 71:2, 164-183

Polyakova A and Haddad B (2019) Europe alone: what comes after the Transatlantic alliance, Foreign Affairs, 98(4), 109-120.

Rahman Z U, Khan A, Lifang W and Hussain I (2021) The geopolitics of the CPEC and Indian Ocean: security implications for India, Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs 13(2): 122-145

Rajagopalan, R (2019) Did India Lose China?, The Washington Quarterly 42(1), 71-87

Sever, A (2020) Regional power role and intervention: The Turkish case over Syria in the 2000s, Contemporary Review of the Middle East 7(2), 143-164

Tol, G (2020) Viewpoint: why Turkey is flexing its muscles abroad, BBC News 16 October 

Wojczewski, T (2019) Identity and world order in India’s post-Cold War foreign policy discourse, Third World Quarterly 40(1), 180-198

Woods N (2016) The European disunion: how the continent lost its way, Foreign affairs 95(1): 160-165

Zakharov, A (2019) The geopolitics of the US-India-Russia strategic triangle, Strategic Analysis 43(5), 357-371

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Week 11: Shifting world orders and the impacts of the COVID pandemic

Key readings

As was the case in Week 10, it is difficult to identify specific readings that stand out as significantly more useful than the rest of the list. Aim to pick something from the list below that reflects your personal interests and/or the subject of the assessed essay that you should be working on by now!

Further readings

Allison, G (2015) The Thucydides trap. Are the US and China headed for war?, The Atlantic 24 September

Andrews G J, Crooks V A, Pearce J R and Messina J P (eds) (2021) COVID-19 and Similar Futures: Pandemic Geographies - espChpt 25 Vaccine geopolitics during COVID-19: How pandemics thicken borders, exacerbate violence, and deepen existing fault lines pp 193-198

Babić M (2021) The COVID-19 pandemic and the crisis of the Liberal International Order: Geopolitical fissures and pathways to change. Global Perspectives 2(1) - in press - available at

Bahi, R (2021) The geopolitics of COVID-19: US-China rivalry and the imminent Kindleberger trap. Review of Economics and Political Science6(1): 76-94

Csurgai G (2018) The increasing importance of geoeconomics in power rivalries in the twenty-first century, Geopolitics, 23(1), 38-46.

Doshi, T K (2021) The outlook for the Gulf Arab economies and regional geopolitics in a post-COVID age, USAEE Working Paper No. 21-484

Foreign Policy (2020) The future of the state, Foreign Policy 237, 7-11

Fukuyama, F (2020) The pandemic and political order, Foreign Affairs 99(4), 26-32

Gill, B (2020) China’s global influence: Post-COVID prospects for soft power, The Washington Quarterly, 43(2), 97-115.

Haass R (2019) How world order ends: and what comes in its wake, Foreign Affairs, 98(1), 22-30.

Johnston, A I (2019) China in a world of orders: rethinking compliance and challenge in Beijing’s international relations, International Security 44(2), 9-60

Kang D C and Ma X (2018) Power transitions: Thucydides didn’t live in East Asia, The Washington Quarterly, 41(1), 137-154.

Leonard, M (2019) The new age of clashing empires, New Statesman1 November, 23-25. Available online

Mandelbaum M (2019) The new containment: handling Russia, China, and Iran, Foreign Affairs, 98(2), 123-131.

Mastro O (2019) The stealth superpower: how China hid its global ambitions, Foreign Affairs, 98(1), 31-39.

Mearsheimer, J J (2019) The rise and fall of the liberal international order, International Security 43(4), 7-50.

Patrick, S (2020) When the system fails: COVID-19 and the costs of global dysfunction, Foreign Affairs 99(4), 40-51

Pei, M (2020) China's coming upheaval: Competition, the coronavirus, and the weakness of Xi Jinping, Foreign Affairs 99(3), 82-95

Schell, O (2020) The ugly end of Chimerica, Foreign Policy 236, 26-29.

Thompson G A (2021) Applying global history: Globalization, geopolitics, and the US-China rivalry after Covid-19, Journal of Applied History in press - available on-line

Tsereteli M (2018) Can Russia’s quest for the New International Order succeed? Orbis 62(2): 204-219. Available online


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BLOCK II Challenging states and state power: resistance and alternatives

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Some overarching text books

Flint, C. 2012. Introduction to Geopolitics. Second edition. Abingdon: Routledge. 

Sharp, J.P. 2009. Geographies of Postcolonialism. London: Sage.

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Week 14: Framing alternatives and resistance

Key readings

Dittmer, J. and Gray, N. 2010. Popular geopolitics 2.0: towards new methodologies of the everyday. Geography Compass. 4(11), 1664-1677.

Jones, L. and Sage, D. 2010. New directions in critical geopolitics: an introduction. GeoJournal. 75(4), pp. 315-325. 

Further readings

Atkinson, R., Parker, S. and Morales, E.R. 2017. Non-state space: the strategic ejection of dangerous and high maintenance urban space. Territory, Politics, Governance. 5(4), pp. 443-458. Available online at: 

Braden, K. and Shelley, F.M. 2000. Engaging Geopolitics. Abingdon: Routledge. (Esp. Ch. 2). Available online here.

Brickell, K. 2012. Geopolitics of home. Geography Compass. 6(10), pp. 575-588.

Chaturvedi, S. and Doyle, T. 2015. Climate Terror: A Critical Geopolitics of Climate Change. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Chapter 1)   

Dittmer, J. 2010. Popular Culture, Geopolitics and Identity. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield. (Chapter 1)

Dodds, K. 2010. Popular geopolitics and cartoons: representing power relations, repetition and resistance. Critical African Studies. 2(4), pp.113-131.

Isoke, Z. 2014. Can't I be seen? Can't I be heard? Black women queering politics in Newark. Gender, Place and Culture. 21(3), pp.353-369.

Ó Tuathail, G. 2006. Introduction: thinking critically about geopolitics. In O’Tuathail, G., Dalby, S. and Routledge, P. eds. The Geopolitics Reader (2nd edition). London: Routledge, pp. 1-14. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Ó Tuathail, G. and Dalby, S. 1998. Introduction: rethinking geopolitics: towards a critical geopolitics. In O’Tuathail, G. and Dalby, S. eds. Rethinking geopolitics ISBN: 0415172519 (pbk ; hbk); 0415172500. London: Routledge. pp. 1-15. (Available in the online course readings folder in the VLE).

Ó Tuathail, G. 1998. ‘Postmodern geopolitics? The modern geopolitical imagination and beyond’ in G. O’Tuathail and S. Dalby (eds) Rethinking Geopolitics. London: Routledge. pp. 16-38. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 26/01/2018)  

Ó Tuathail, G. 1996. Critical Geopolitics: The Politics of Writing Global Space. London: Routledge (Ch 2 - Critical Geopolitics)

McFarlane, T. and Hay, I. 2003. The battle for Seattle: protest and popular geopolitics in The Australian newspaper. Political Geography. 22(2), pp.211-232.

Pain, R. 2009. Globalized fear? Towards an emotional geopolitics. Progress in Human Geography. 33, pp.466-486. 

Painter, J. and Jeffrey, A. 2009. Political Geography: An Introduction to Space and Power. Second edition. London: Sage. (Chapter 9 - Geopolitics and Anti-Geopolitics)

Routledge, P. 1996. Critical geopolitics and terrains of resistance. Political Geography. 15, pp. 509-531.

Sharp, J.P., Routledge, P., Philo, C. and Paddison, R. 2000. Geographies of power: geographies of domination/resistance. In Sharp, J.P., Routledge, P., Philo, C. and Paddison, R. eds. Entanglements of Power: Geographies of Domination/Resistance. London: Routledge, pp.1-42.    

Staeheli, L. 1994. Empowering political struggle: spaces and scales of resistance. Political Geography 13(5), pp.387-391.

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Week 15: Feminist and post-colonial geopolitics

Key reading

Hyndman, J. 2001. Towards a feminist geopolitics. The Canadian Geographer, 45(2), pp. 210-222.

Sidaway, J. 2000. Postcolonial geographies: an exploratory essay. Progess in Human Geography. 24(4), pp.591-612.

Further reading

Bhambra, G.K. 2018. The state: Postcolonial histories of the concept. In: Rutazibwa, O.U. and Shilliam, R. eds. Routledge handbook of postcolonial politics. ISBN: 9781317369400 (e-book). Oxford: Routledge. Chapter 17.

Bhambra, G.K. 2014. Postcolonial and Decolonial Dialogues. Postcolonial Studies. 17(2), pp. 115-121.

Carey, H.F. and Raciborski, R. 2004. Postcolonialism: A Valid Paradigm for the Former Sovietized States and Yugoslavia? Eastern Europe. East European Politics and Societies: and Cultures18(2), pp.191 - 235.

Clayton, D. 2003. Critical imperial and colonial geographies. In: Anderson, K., Domosh, M., Pile, S. and Thrift, N. eds. Handbook of Cultural Geography. London: Sage, pp. 354-369.

Dixon, D. 2015. Feminist geopolitics : material states ISBN: 9781472480200 pbk. : alk. paper; 9781409455462 hbk. : alk. paper; 1409455467 hbk. : alk. paper; 1472480201 pbk. : alk. paper; 9781409455479 ebk.; 9781472403568 epub.. Farnham: Ashgate and Routledge (especially chapter 1).   

Dixon, D. and Marston, S. 2011. Introduction: feminist engagements with geopolitics. Gender, Place, and Culture. 18, pp.445-453.

Dowler, L. and Sharp, J.P. 2001. A feminist geopolitics? Space and Polity, 5(3), pp. 165-176. 

Flint, C. and Taylor, P. 2011. Political Geography: World-Economy, Nation-State and Locality. Sixth edition. Harlow: Pearson. (Ch 3. - Geography of Imperialisms).

Gibson, C. 2016. Indigenous Geopolitics. In Dodds, K., Kuus, M. and Sharp, J. eds. The Routledge Research Companion to Critical Geopolitics. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 421-437. (Note: this also appears in the library catalogue under its 2013 title of The Ashgate research companion to critical geopolitics ISBN: 9781409423805 (hbk. : alk. paper); 1409423808 (hbk. : alk. paper); 9781409423812 (ebk.); 1409423816 (ebk.); 9781315612874 (ebk.); 1315612879 (ebk.)). 

Gilmartin, M. and Berg, L.D. 2007. Locating postcolonialism. Area. 39(1), pp. 120-124.

Gregory, D. 1995. Imaginative geographies.  Progess in Human Geography. 19(4), pp. 447-485.

Hyndman, J. 2003. Beyond either/or: A feminist analysis of September 11th. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, 2(1), pp. 1-13.

Jazeel, T. 2019. Postcolonialism. Abingdon: Routledge.  

Koopman, S. 2011. Alter-geopolitics: other securities are happening.  Geoforum. 42(3), pp.274-284.

Light, R. 2018. Unknown Anzacs: The Politics and Performance of Bodily Repatriation in Postcolonial State Formation. Australian Historical Studies. 49(2): 237-254.

Massaro, V.A. and Williams, J. 2013. Feminist geopolitics. Geography Compass. 7(8), pp. 567-577. 

Noxolo, P. 2017. Introduction: Decolonising geographical knowledge in a colonised and re-colonised postcolonial world. Area. 49(3), pp. 317-319.

Naylor, L., Daigle, M., Zaragocin, S., Ramirez, M.M., Gilmartin, M. 2018. Interventions: Bringing the decolonial to political geography. Political Geography. 66, pp. 199-209.

Painter, J. and Jeffrey, A. 2009. Political Geography: An Introduction to Space and Power. Second edition. London: Sage. (Chapter 8 - Imperialism and Postcolonialism)

Sharp, J. 2013. Geopolitics at the margins? Reconsidering genealogies of critical geopolitics. Political Geography. 37, pp.20-29.

Sharp, J. 2011. A subaltern critical geopolitics of the war on terror: postcolonial security in Tanzania. Geoforum. 42(3), pp. 297-305.

Sharp, J. 2007. Geography and gender: finding feminist political geographies. Progress in Human Geography. 31, pp. 381-387.

Torres, R.M. 2018. A crisis of rights and responsibility: feminist geopolitical perspectives on Latin American refugees and migrants. Gender, Place and Culture. 25(1): 13-36.

Young, R.J.C. 2003. Postcolonialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Available via the library catalogue as an ebook.

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Week 16: New nationalisms

 Key reading

Agnew, J. 2017. The tragedy of the nation-state. Territory, Politics, Governance. 5(4), pp. 347-350. Available online at: 

Friedman, J. 1996. Nationalism in theory and reality. Critical Review. 10(2) pp.155-167.

Further reading

Agnew, J. 2018. Too many Scotlands? Place, the SNP, and the future of nationalist mobilization. Scottish Geographical Journal . 134(1–2), pp. 5–23.

Béland, D. and Lecours, A. 2019. Nationalism and the politics of austerity: comparing Catalonia, Scotland, and Québec. National Identities. DOI: 10.1080/14608944.2019.1660312

Convery, A. and Lundberg, T.C. 2017. Decentralisation and the centre-right in the UK and Spain: central power and regional responsibility. Territory, Politics, Governance. 5(4) pp. 388-405. Avvailable online at: 

Crameri, K. 2015. Political power and civil counterpower: The complex dynamics of the Catalan independence movement. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics. 21(1), pp. 104-120.

Fine, R. 1994 The ‘new nationalism’ and democracy: A critique of Pro Patria.  Democratization. ISSN: 1351-0347, 1(2), pp.423-443. Available online here: 

Gillespie, R. 2017. The contrasting fortunes of pro-sovereignty currents in Basque and Catalan nationalist parties: PNV and CDC compared. Territory, Politics, Governance. 5(4), pp. 406-424. Available online at: 

Glen, C.M. 2015. Nationalism, identity and Scotland's referendum. Contemporary European Studies. 1. Available online at:

Guibernau, M. 2014. Catalan Secessionism: Young People's Expectations and Political Change. The International Spectator. 49(3), pp. 106-117.

Halikiopoulou, D. and Vlandas, T. 2019. What is new and what is nationalist about Europe's new nataionalism? Explaining the rise of the far right in Europe. Nations and Nationalism. 25(2), pp. 409-434.

Jeram, S. 2013.Immigrants and the Basque nation: diversity as a new marker of idenitity. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 36(11), 1770-1788.  

Kaldor, M. 2004. Nationalism and Globalisation. Nations and Nationalism. 10(1/2), pp. 161–177

Obershall, A. 2000. The manipulation of ethnicity: from ethnic cooperation to violence and war in Yugoslavia. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 23(6), pp. 982-1001.  

Olivieri, V.M. 2015. Sub-state nationalism in Spain: primers and triggers of identity politics in Catalonia and the Basque Country. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 38(9), pp. 1610-1626.

Pattie, C. and Johnston, R. 2017. Sticking to the Union? Nationalism, inequality and political disaffection and the geography of Scotland's 2014 independence referendum. Regional and Federal Studies. 27(1), pp.83-96.  

Sharp, J., Cumbers, A., Painter, J., and Wood, N. 2014. Deciding whose future? Challenges and opportunities of the Scottish Independece Referendum 2014 for Scotland and beyond. Political Geography. 41, pp. 32-42.

Shulman, S. 2002. Challenging the Civic/Ethnic and West/East Dichotomies in the Study of Nationalism. Comparative Political Studies35(5), pp.554-585

Soule, D.P.J., Leith, M.S. and Steven, M. 2012. Scottish devolution and national idenitity. National Idenitites. 14(1), pp. 1-10.

Valluvan, S. 2017. Defining and challenging the new nationalism. Juncture. 23(4), pp. 232-239.

Yack, B. 1996. The myth of the civic nation. Critical Review. 10(2), pp. 193-211

Xenos, N. 1996. Civic nationalism: Oxymoron? Critical Review.  10(2), pp.213-231

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Week 17: Post-nationalism

Key reading

Hansen, R. 2009. The poverty of postnationalism:citizenship, immigration and the new Europe. Theory and Society. 38(1), pp. 1-24.

Further reading

Abizadeh, A. 2004. Liberal Nationalist Versus Postnational Social Integration: On the Nation’s Ethno-Cultural Particularity and Concreteness. Nations and Nationalism. 10(3), pp. 231–250.  

Abji, S. 2013. Post-Nationalism Re-Considered: A Case Study of the ‘No One Is Illegal’ Movement in Canada. Citizenship Studies. 17(3-4), pp. 322–338.  

Breen, K. and O'Neill, S. 2010. Introduction: A postnationalist era? In. Breen, K. and O'Neill, S. eds. After the Nation? Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp.1-15.  

Brubaker, R. 2001. The return of assimilation? Changing perspective on immigration and its sequels in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 24(4), pp. 531–548.  

Edmunds, J. 2012. The Limits of Post-National Citizenship: European Muslims, Human Rights and the Hijab. Ethnic and Racial Studies. 35(7), pp. 1181–1199.  

Feldblum, M. 1998. Reconfiguring citizenship in western Europe. In Joppke, C. ed. Challenge to the nationstate: Immigration in western Europe and the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.231-271.

Fenton, S. 2008. The semi-detached nation: post-nationalism and Britain. Cycnos. 25(2). 

Goodhart, D. 2017. The road to somewhere : the populist revolt and the future of politics ISBN: 9780141986975 paperback. London: C. Hurst & Co. (See chapter 4)

Johnsen, H.C.G. and Knudsen, J.P. 2018. Coping with politics: From post-nationalism to re-nationalism. In Johnsen, H.C.G.; Holtskog, H. and Ennals, R. eds. Coping with the Future: Rethinking Assumptions for Society, Business and Work. London: Routledge, pp. 17-33. .

Joppke, C. 1998. Immigration challenges the nation-state. In Joppke, C. ed. Challenge to the nationstate: Immigration in western Europe and the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.5-48.  

Koopmans, R. and Statham, P. 1999. Challenging the liberal nation-state? Postnationalism, multiculturalism and the collective claims making of migrants and ethnic minorities in Britain and Germany. American Journal of Sociology. 105(3), pp. 652-696.  

Sassen, S. 2002. Towards post-national and denationalized citizenship. In Isin, E. F., and Turner, B. S. eds. Handbook of Citizenship Studies. London: Sage, pp. 277–291.  

Tonkiss, K. 2019. Locating the post-national activist: migration rights, civil society and the practice of post-nationalism. Ethnic and racial studies. 42(2), pp. 159-177.

Waldinger, R. and Fitzgerald, D. 2004. Transnationalism in question. American Journal of Sociology. 109(5), pp. 1177–1195.  

Walby, S. 2003. The Myth of the Nation-State: Theorising Societies and Polities in a Global Era. Sociology. 37(3), pp. 529–546.

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Week 18: Populism

Key reading

Goodhart, D. 2017. The road to somewhere : the populist revolt and the future of politics ISBN: 9780141986975 paperback. London: C. Hurst & Co. (See chapters 1 and 3)    

Mudde, C. 2017. Introduction to the populist radical right. In Mudde, C. ed. The Populist Radical Right: A Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 1-13.

Further reading

Abts, K., Rummens, S. 2007. Populism versus Democracy. Political Studies. 55(2), pp. 405–24.

Arditi, B. 2010. Populism is Hegemony is Politics? On Ernesto Laclau's On Populist Reason. Constellations. 17(3), pp. 488–97.

Aslanidis, P. 2016. Is populism an ideology? A refutation and a new perspective.  Political Studies. 64(1 supplement), pp. 88-104.

Aslanidis, P. 2016. Populist Social Movements of the Great Recession. Mobilization: An International Quarterly. 21(3), pp. 301-321.

Bornschier, S. 2012. Why a Right-Wing Populist Party Emerged in France but not in Germany: Cleavages and Actors in the Formation of a New Cultural Divide. European Political Science Review. 4(1), pp. 121-145.

Canovan, M. 1999. Trust the People! Populism and the Two Faces of Democracy. Political Studies. 47(1), 2–16.

Eatwell, R. and Goodwin, M. 2018. National populism : the revolt against liberal democracy ISBN: 9780241312001; 0241312000; 9780241312018 (ebook). London: Pelican.     Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Fraser, N. 2016. Progressive neoliberalism versus reactionary populism: a choice that feminist should refuse. NORA - Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research. 24(4), pp. 281-284.

Greven, T. 2016. The rise of right wing populism in Europe and the United States: A comparative perspective. Washington, DC: Friedrich Ebert Foundation. Available at:

Lowndes, J. 2017. Populism in the United States. In Kaltwasser, C.R., Taggart, P., Espejo, P.O. and Ostiguy, P. eds. The Oxford handbook of populism ISBN: 9780198803560; 0198803567. Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapter 12.

Moffitt, B. and Tormey, S. 2014. Rethinking populism: politics, mediatisation and political style. Political Studies. 62(2), pp. 381-397.

Mouffe, C. 2018. For a Left Populism. London: Verso (especially pages 9-24).   

Mudde, C. 2013. Three Decades of Populist Radical Right Parties in Western Europe: So What? European Journal of Political Research. 52(1), pp. 1-19.

Mudde, C. 2004. The Populist Zeitgeist. Government and Opposition. 39(4), pp.541- 563.

Müller, J.W. 2017 What is populism? London: Penguin. (Introduction) Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Revelli, M. 2019. The New Populism: Democracy Stares into the Abyss. London: Verso.   

Stanley, B. 2008. The Thin Ideology of Populism. Journal of Political Ideologies. 13(1), pp. 95–110.

Stavrakakis, Y. and Katsambekis, G. 2014. Left-wing populism in the European periphery: the case of SYRIZA. Journal of Political Ideologies. 19(2), pp. 119-142.

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Week 20: London is the place for me: An intersectional approach to understanding the Windrush Generation Horror

 Key readings:

Hammond Perry, K. (2015) London is the Place for Me: Black Britons, Citizenship and the Politics of Race (Introduction Windrush politics) Oxford University Press: New York.

Rajina, F. (2021) Chapter 2 They needed us, and now they are terrified in Qureshi, A. (ed.) I refuse to condemn: Resisting racism in times of national securityManchester Press, UK: 43-53   

Further reading:

Beckles-Raymond, G. (2018) Chapter 7 Revisiting the Home as a Site of Freedom and Resistance in Emejulu, A. and Sobande, F. (ed.) To Exist is to Resist: Black Feminism in Europe, Pluto Press, UK: 91-102.

Crenshaw, K. (1991) Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color, Stanford Law Review, 43(6): 1241-1299.

David, E. "The Produce of More Than One Country": Race, Identity, and Discourse in Post-Windrush Britain, Journal of Narrative Theory, 31(2): 214-232.

Gilroy, P. (1987) "There ain't no black in the Union Jack": the cultural politics of race and nation, Routledge: London.

Gilroy, P. (2004) After Empire: melancholia or convivial culture?, Routeldge: London.

Emejulu, A. and Sobande, F. (ed.) To Exist is to Resist: Black Feminism in Europe, Pluto Press, UK.

Hammond Perry, K. (2014) Black Britain and the Politics of Race in the 20th Century, History Compass 12(8): 651–663.

Hill Collins, P. and Bilge, S. (2016) Intersectionality, Polity Press: Cambridge.

Johnson, A. (2017) Getting comfortable to feel at home: clothing practices of black muslim women in Britain, Gender, Place & Culture, 24(2): 274-287.

Lyons, H. (2018) The Intangible Nation: Spatializing experiences of Britishness and belonging for young British Muslim women, Geoforum, 90: 55-63.

Nayak, A. (2017) Purging the nation: race, conviviality and embodied encounters in the lives of British Bangladeshi Muslim young women. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographies, 42: 289–302. Available online

Rattansi, A. (2000) On Being And Not Being Brown/Black-British: Racism, Class, Sexuality and Ethnicity in Post-imperial Britain, International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 2(1): 118-134.

Tyler, I. (2010) Designed to fail: A biopolitics of British citizenship, Citizenship Studies, 14(1): 61-74.

Tyler, I. (2013) Revolting subjects, social abjection and resistance in neoliberal Britain, Zed books: London.

The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in ‘70s Britain, Centre for contemporary cultural studies (1994) London: Routledge.

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Week 21: Ni Una Muerta Mas! (Not one more!): protesting feminicidio in Mexico

Key readings:

Fregoso, R. and Bejarano, C. (2010) Introduction: A Cartography of Feminicide in the Américas in Fregoso, L. ( Terrorizing Women: Feminicide in the Americas. Durham: Duke University Press:1-42.

Phipps, A. (2020) Chapter 2 Me, Not You in Me Not You: The trouble with mainstream feminism, Manchester Press: UK: 35-56 

Further reading:

Mexico’s glitter revolution’ targets violence against women,

Adams, J. (2002) Art in Social Movements: Shantytown Women's Protest in Pinochet's Chile, Sociological Forum, 17(1): 21-56.

Alvarez, N. and Zaiontz, K. (2018) Feminist Performance Forensics, Contemporary Theatre Review, 28(3):285-298.

Bosco, F. (2001) Place, space, networks, and the sustainability of collective action: the Madres de Plaza de Mayo, Global Networks. A Journal of Transnational Affairs, 1(4): 307-329.

Fregoso, L. et.a.l. (2010) Terrorizing Women: Feminicide in the Americas. Durham: Duke University Press.

Jacons, K. (2016) Disorderly conduct: Feminist nudity in Chinese protest movements, Sexualities, 19(7): 819-835.

McCaughan, E. (2014) Queer subversions in Mexican and Chicana/o art activism, Agenda, 28(4): 108-117. Available online

Milles, A. (2006) Lourdes Portillo's Senorita Extraviada: hegemonic power, gender and murder (feminicidio) in the Mexican-US frontera. International Journal of Education Through Art, Vol.2:5-15.

Nicholls, W. (2009) Place, Networks, Space: Theorising the Geographies of Social Movements, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34(1):78-93. Available online

Wright, M. (2013) Feminicidio, narcoviolence, and gentrification in Ciudad Juárez: the feminist fight, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 31: 830 – 845.

Wright, M. (2011) Epistemological Ignorances and Fighting for the Disappeared: Lessons from Mexico, Antipode, 49(1): 249–269.


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Week 22: #EndSars: legacies of colonialism and police brutality in Nigeria

 Key readings:

Rodney, W. (2018) Chapter 6 Colonialism as a system for underdeveloping Africa in How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, Verso: UK.  

Davis Y. A., (2003) Chapter 5 The Prison Industrial Complex in Are prisons absolute? Seven Stories Press: USA: 84-104 available here  

Further reading:

Crenshaw, K. (1991) Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color, Stanford law review, 43 (6): 1241-1299. 

Gaskins, N. (2019) Techno-Vernacular Creativity and Innovation across the African Diaspora and Global South in Benjamin. R. (ED.) Captivating Technology: race, carceral technoscience, and liberatory imagination in everyday life, Duke University Press: USA, pp. 252-274.

Elliot-Cooper, A. (2021) Chapter 6 Futures of Black resistance: disruption, rebellion, abolition in Black Resistance to British Policing,Manchester Press: UK 164-183.

Gilroy, P. and Wilson Gilmore, R. (ed) (2021) Stuart Hall: selected writings on race and difference, Duke Press: USA.  

Nkrumah, K. (1968) Neo-colonialism: the last stage of imperialism, London : Heinemann Educational.   

Olufemi, L. (2020) Feminism Interrupted: disrupting power, Pluto Press: UK  

Quan, H.L.T. (ed) (2019) Cedric J. Robinson: On racial capitalism, Black Internationalism, and cultures of resistance, Pluto Press: UK.  

Wilson Gilmore, R. (2002) Fatal Couplings of Power and Difference: Notes on Racism and Geography, The Professional Geographer, 54(1): 15-24  

Wilson Gilmore, R. (2007) Golden gulag: prisons, surplus, crisis, and opposition in globalizing California, University of California Press: USA.  

Winston, C. (2021) Black ground truths and police abolition, Transactions of The Institute of British Geographers,  

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Week 23: Black snake: challenging environmental racism and land appropriation in the USA

 Key readings:

Heynen, N. and Ybarra, M. (2021) On Abolition Ecologies and Making “Freedom as a Place”, Antipode, 53(1): 21–35  

Sealey-Huggins, L. (2018) Chapter 10 'The climate crisis is a racist crisis': Structural racism, inequality and climate change in Johnson, A., Joseph-Salisbury, R. and Kamunge, B. (ed.) The Fire Now: anti-racist scholarship in times of explicit racial violence, Zed Books: London: 99-113.

Further reading:

Gonzalez-Sobrino, B. (2018) Puerto Rico’s Politics of Exclusion, Contexts, 17(1):80-81.

Agyeman, J. and Evans, B. (2006) Justice, governance, and sustainability: perspectives on environmental citizenship from North America and Europe In Environmental citizenship, Dobson, A. and Bell, D. (ed.) Cambridge, MA: MIT Press: 185–206.

Amílcar A. and Lozano, K. (2017) Hierarchies of belonging: intersecting race, ethnicity, and territoriality in the construction of US citizenship, Citizenship Studies, 21(8): 999-1014.

Buckingham, S. and Kulcur, R. (2009) Gendered geographies of environmental injustice. Antipode 41(4): 659–683.

Byrnes, M. (2014) Climate Justice, Hurricane Katrina, and African American Environmentalism, Journal of African American Studies, 18(3):305–314.

Colón-Morera, J. (2017) US policy toward its territories: a complex and perhaps intractable problem, Political Science and Politics, 50(2):525-528. Available online

Cupples, J. and Glynn, K. (2013) The Mediation and Remediation of Disaster: Hurricanes Katrina and Felix in/and the New Media Environment, Antipode, 46(2): 359-381.

Di Chiro, G. (2003) Beyond ecoliberal “common futures”: environmental justice, toxic touring, and a transcommunal politics of place In Race, nature, and the politics of difference, Moore, D. S., Kosek, J. and Pandian, A. (ed.) Durham, NC: Duke University Press: 205–232.

Gabrielson, T. and Parady, K. (2010) Corporeal citizenship: rethinking green citizenship through the body, Environmental Politics 19(3):374-391.

Lebron, M. (2017) They Don't Care If We Die: The Violence of Urban Policing in Puerto Rico, Journal of Urban History, 1-20.

Negron-Muntaner, F. (ed.) (1997) Puerto Rican Jam: Rethinking Colonialism and Nationalism, University of Minnesota Press.

Negron-Muntaner, F. (ed.) (2007) None of the Above: Puerto Ricans in the Global Era (New Directions in Latino American Culture), Palgrave: New York.

Scoville, C. (2016) George Orwell and ecological citizenship: moral agency and modern estrangement, Citizenship Studies, 20(6-7):830-845.

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Week 24: The revolution will not be televised: The Arab Spring 10 years on

 Key readings:

AlSayyad, N. and Guvenc, M. (2015) Virtual Uprisings: On the Interaction of New Social Media, Traditional Media Coverage and Urban Space during the ‘Arab Spring’, Urban Studies, 52(11) 2018–2034.  

Mhajne, A. and Whetstone, C. (2018) The use of political motherhood in Egypt’s Arab Spring uprising and aftermath, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 20(1): 54-68  

Further reading:

allBear, K. (2019) Chapter 1 Badass Indigenous Women Caretake Relations: #Standingrock, #IdleNoMore, #BlackLivesMatter in Estes, N. and Dhillon, J. (ed.) Standing with Standing Rock Voices from the #NoDAPL Movement, University of Minnesota Press: USA.  

Blanco Ramírez, G., Scott Metcalfe, A. (2017) Hashtivism as public discourse: Exploring online student activism in response to state violence and forced disappearances in Mexico, Research in Education, 97(1): 56-75.

Carney, N. (2016) All Lives Matter, but so Does Race: Black Lives Matter and the Evolving Role of Social Media, Humanity & Society, 40(2) 180-199.

Dhillon, J. (2019) Chapter 18 What Standing Rock Teaches Us about Environmental Justice in Estes, N. and Dhillon, J. (ed.) Standing with Standing Rock Voices from the #NoDAPL Movement, University of Minnesota Press: USA

Erlick, E. (2018) Trans Youth Activism on the Internet, Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 39(1): 73-92.

Gerbaudo, P. (2012) Tweets and the Streets, New York: Pluto Prees.

Ince, J., Rojas, F.; Davis, C. (2017) The social media response to Black Lives Matter: how Twitter users interact with Black Lives Matter through hashtag use, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(11): 1814-1830.

Juris, J. (2012) Reflections on #Occupy Everywhere: Social media, public space, and emerging logics of aggregation, American Ethnologist, Journal of The American Ethnological Society, 39(2): 259-279.

Kaun, A. (2016) ‘Our time to act has come’: desynchronization, social media time and protest movements, Media, Culture & Society, 39(4): 469-486.

Mislán, C. and Dache-Garbino, A. (2018) Not a Twitter Revolution: Anti-neoliberal and Antiracist Resistance in the Ferguson Movement, International Journal of Communication 12: 2622–2640.

Morozov, Foreign Policy,

Nadesan, N. (2019) Chapter 3 Making Space: Black and Womxn of Colour Feminist Activism in Madrid in Emejulu, A. and Sobande, F. (ed.) To exist is to resist: black feminism in Europe, Pluto Press: London: 34-45.

Newsom, V. and Lengel, L. (2012) Arab Women, Social Media, and the Arab Spring: Applying the framework of digital reflexivity to analyze gender and online activism, Journal of International Women’s Studies, 13(5): 31-45.

Petray, T. and Collin, R. (2017) Your Privilege Is Trending: Confronting Whiteness on Social Media, Social Media + Society: 1–10.

Sobande, F., (2019) Resisting media marginalisation: Black women's digital content and collectivity. Consumption, Markets and Culture, 1-16.

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Online Course Readings

McGrew, A, (2010) Chapter 1: Globalization and Global Politics. FROM: Baylis, J, The globalization of world politics : an introduction to international relations, 5th edition. pp.14-31. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Flint, Colin, (2011) Chapter 6. FROM: Flint, Colin, Introduction to geopolitics, 2nd edition. pp.159-193. London: Routledge. - Available on library catalogue as e-book Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Painter, J, (2009) Chapter 9: Geopolitics and Anti-Geopolitics. FROM: Painter, J, Political geography : an introduction to space and power ISBN: 9781412901383 (pbk.) : £22.99; 9781412901376 (hbk.) : £65.00; 1412901375 (hbk.) : £65.00; 1412901383 (pbk.) : £22.99. pp.196-220. London: Sage. - Available on library catalogue as e-book Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Rahnema, M, (1997) Introduction. FROM: Rahnema, M., The post-development reader . pp.ix-xix. Zed Books: London.  Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Heinberg, Richard, (2005) Managing the collapse. FROM: Heinberg, Richard, The party's over : oil, war and the fate of industrial societies . pp.225-262. Forest Row: Clairview. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Kennedy, P, (2006) Chapter 8 : The Promise and the Peril of the Twenty-first Century. FROM: Kennedy, P, The parliament of man : the United Nations and the quest for world government. pp.243-279. London: Allen Lane. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Braden, K, (2000) Chapter 8: International Law. FROM: Braden, K, Engaging geopolitics. pp.123-145. Harlow: Prentice Hall. - Available on library catalogue as e-book Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Bayoumi, M, (2000) Chapter 4 Orientalism. FROM: Bayoumi, M, The Edward Said reader ISBN: 0375709363. pp.63-113. New York: Vintage Books. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Lynch, Marc, (2012) Chapter 8: America's Challenge. FROM: Lynch, Marc, The Arab uprising : the unfinished revolutions of the new Middle East ISBN: 9781610390842; 1610390849; 9781610390859 (electronic); 1610390857 (electronic), 1st edition. pp.193-235. New York: Public Affairs. - Available on library catalogue as e-book Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Holloway, J, (1998) Introduction. FROM: Holloway, J, Zapatista! : reinventing revolution in Mexico ISBN: 0745311776 (pbk.) : £13.99; 0745311784. pp.1-18. London: Pluto Press. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Cloke, Paul J, (1991) Chapter 8: The differences of postmodern human geography. FROM: Cloke, Paul J, Approaching human geography : an introduction to contemporary theoretical debates. pp.186-201. London: Chapman. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Rodney, Walter, (1972) Europe and the roots of African underdevelopment - to 1885. FROM: Rodney, Walter, How Europe underdeveloped Africa. pp.100-139. London: Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Frank, A.G, (1995) The development of under-development. FROM: Corbridge, Stuart, Development studies : a reader ISBN: 0340614528 (pbk); 0340632127. pp.27-37. London: E. Arnold. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Tilly, C, (1989) The geography of European state-making and capitalism since 1500. FROM: Genovese, E.D, Geographic perspectives in history ISBN: 0631145214. pp.158-181. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Ogborn, Miles, (1998) Chapter 1: Spaces of modernity. FROM: Ogborn, Miles, Spaces of modernity : London's geographies, 1680-1780 ISBN: 1572303654 (pbk); 1572303433. pp.1-38. New York: Guilford Press. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/11/2017) Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Pécoud, A. and de Guchteneire, P. (2006) International Migration, Border Controls and Human Rights: Assessing the Relevance of a Right to Mobility, Journal of borderlands studies. ISSN: 0886-5655; 2159-1229, 21 (1), pp. 69-86. Freely available online:

Esteva, Gustavo, (1998) From global to local: Beyond neoliberalism to the international of hope. FROM: Esteva, Gustavo, Grassroots post-modernism: remaking the soil of cultures. pp.19-49. London: Zed Books. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Routledge, P, (2000) Geopoetics of Resistance: India's Baliapal Movement. FROM: Alternatives : global, local, political. ISSN: 0304-3754 v.25. pp.375-389. Lynne Reiner: Boulder, CO. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Burnell, P, (2001) Foreign aid in a changing world. FROM: Desai, Vandana, The companion to development studies. pp.473-477. London: Arnold. - 3rd ed. e-book available on library catalogue Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Corbridge, S, (2001) Third World Debt. FROM: Desai, Vandana, The companion to development studies. pp.477-480. London: Arnold. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Redclift, M, (2001) Sustainable development. FROM: Desai, Vandana, The companion to development studies. pp.275-278. London: Arnold. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Weiss, T, (2007) Chapter 1: World politics continuity and change since 1945. FROM: Weiss, T, The Oxford handbook on the United Nations ISBN: 9780199560103 (pbk); 9780199279517 (hbk.); 0199279519 (hbk.). pp.3-38. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

West, Johnny, (2011) Chapter 8: We Are All Khaled Said. FROM: West, Johnny, Karama! : journeys through the Arab spring. pp.141-170. London: Heron Books. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Manhire, Toby, (2012) Extract. FROM: Manhire, Toby, Arab Spring : rebellion, revolution, and a new world order ISBN: 9780852652541 (pbk.) : £12.99; 0852652542 (pbk.) : £12.99. pp.221-256. London: Guardian. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Power, M, (2003) Chapter 7: Globalisation, Government and Power. FROM: Power, M, Rethinking development geographies ISBN: 041525079X (pbk.) : £20.99; 0415250781. pp.143-168. London: Routledge. - Available on library catalogue as e-book Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Ó Tuathail, Gearóid, (1998) Chapter 1: Introduction: Rethinking Geopolitics: Towards a Critical Geopolitics. FROM: Ó Tuathail, Gearóid, Rethinking geopolitics ISBN: 0415172519 (pbk ; hbk); 0415172500. pp.1-15. London: Routledge. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Rozick, E, (1993) Looking at and Living with Our Own Ugliness. FROM: Schumacher, E.F, Small is beautiful : a study of economics as if people mattered. pp.135-139. London: Vintage. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

This list was last updated on 06/02/2022