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HIST2115
Module Reading List

Charles the Great to Alfred the Great: Franks, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in the Ninth Century, 2021/22, Semester 2
Professor Julia Barrow
j.s.barrow@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General reading on Western Europe in the ninth century

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995) Ebook available

(This is a big book broken up into short but definitive chapters on separate chronological periods of political history and a wide variety of other themes - social, cultural and religious. A good point to get your bearings from)  

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011) Excellent survey of the social and political framework of the Carolingian empire; good survey of events and social and political developments; ebook available   

J.L. Nelson, ‘England and the Continent in the ninth century: I: ends and beginnings’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser., 12 (2002) – discusses trends in historiography of ninth century

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London: Longman, 1983) Ebook available

Charlemagne, Father of Europe

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), pp. 65-79 (events of the reign) and 154-97 (coronation of 800 and patterns of government): good starting point; ebook available   

Janet Nelson, King and Emperor: a New Life of Charlemagne (London: Allen Lane, 2019) Ebook available   

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995) Ebook available   

Rosamond McKitterick, The Frankish kingdoms under the Carolingians, 751-987 (London: Longman, 1983) Ebook available

Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser. 35 (1985)  

Stuart Airlie, ‘Narratives of triumph and rituals of submission: Charlemagne’s mastering of Bavaria’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser., 9 (1999)

Donald Bullough, ‘Europae Pater’, English historical review., 85 (1970), 59-105

Charlemagne : empire and society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: MUP, 2005): introductory essays by experts on different aspects of Charlemagne and his empire; another good starting point (available in hard copy only)

Charlemagne’s government and law

Rosamond McKitterick, Charlemagne : the formation of a European identity (Cambridge: CUP, 2008) Ebook available

Jennifer Davis, Charlemagne's practice of empire(Cambridge: CUP, 2015) Ebook available

Rosamond McKitterick, The Carolingians and the Written Word (Cambridge: CUP, 1989) Ebook available

The Uses of literacy in early medieval Europe, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1990) Ebook available

Janet Nelson, 'Charlemagne and the bishops', in Religious Franks : religion and power in the Frankish kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong , ed. Rob Meens et al. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016) Ebook available   

Janet Nelson, ‘Charlemagne and the paradoxes of power’, in Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: the Legacy of Timothy Reuter, ed. Patricia Skinner (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), 29-50 Ebook available

Stuart Airlie, ‘“For it is written in the law”: Ansegis and the writing of Carolingian royal authority’, in Early medieval studies in memory of Patrick Wormald, ed. by Stephen Baxter and others (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009)

Matthew Innes, State and society in the early Middle Ages : the middle Rhine valley, 400-1000 (Cambridge: CUP, 2000)

Matthew Innes, 'Charlemagne's government', in Charlemagne : empire and society, ed. by Joanna Story (Manchester: MUP, 2005), pp. 71-89  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Charles West, Reframing the feudal revolution : political and social transformation between Marne and Moselle, c. 800 to c. 1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013), chs 1-3 on counts and local assemblies(Ebook available)

Narrative sources about Charlemagne

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two lives of Charlemagne, trans. by Lewis Thorpe (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969)    

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious : the lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. by Thomas F.X. Noble (University Park, PA: Penn State UP, 2009) Ebook available   

Kingship, court and coronation

Kings and kingship in medieval Europe, ed. by Anne Duggan (London: King’s College London CLAMS, 1993), chapter 5, Janet Nelson, 'The political ideas of Alfred of Wessex', reprinted in Janet Nelson, Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe (London: Routledge, 2019) Ebook available

J. Nelson, ‘Early medieval rites of queen-making and the shaping of medieval queenship’, originally published in Queens and queenship in medieval Europe : proceedings of a conference held at King's College London, April 1995, ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997); reprinted in Janet Nelson, Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe (London: Routledge, 2019) Ebook available

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), chapter 6, ‘Elite society’ on aristocracy Ebook available   

Janet Nelson, ‘Hincmar of Rheims on king-making: the evidence of the Annals of St Bertin, 861-882’, in Coronations : medieval and early modern monarchic ritual, ed. by Janos Bak (Berkeley: UCP, 1990), 16-34, reprinted in Janet Nelson, Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe (London: Routledge, 2019) Ebook available

Janet Nelson, ‘The Lord’s Anointed and the People’s Choice: Carolingian Royal Ritual’, originally published in Rituals of royalty : power and ceremonial in traditional societies, ed. by D. Cannadine and S. Price (Cambridge: CUP, 1987), repd in Janet Nelson, The Frankish world, 750-900 (Hambledon, 1996) Ebook available  

Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London: Hambledon, 1986) Ebook available

Henry Mayr-Harting, ‘Charlemagne, the Saxons and the imperial coronation of 800’, English historical review., 111 (1996)

Mayke de Jong, ‘The empire that was always decaying: the Carolingians (800-888)’, Medieval Worlds, 2 (2015), 6-25 (on-line version available): important on historiography of nature of Carolingian rule and empire

David Rollason, ‘Forests, parks, palaces, and the power of place in early medieval kingship’, Early Medieval Europe, 20 (2012), 428-49

Eric Goldberg, In the Manner of the Franks: Hunting, Kingship and Masculinity in Early Medieval Europe (Philadelphia, PA: UPennPress, 2020)

David Rollason, ‘Charlemagne’s palace’ (review article), Archaeological Journal, 172 (2015), 443-8

Charlemagne’s family life

Janet Nelson, ‘Women at the court of Charlemagne’ in her The Frankish world, 750-900 (Hambledon, 1996) Ebook available: originally published in Medieval queenship, ed. J.C. Parsons (Stroud: Sutton, 1994)

Anton Scharer, ‘Charlemagne’s daughters’, in Early medieval studies in memory of Patrick Wormald, ed. by Stephen Baxter (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009)  

Matthew Innes, 'Queenship in dispute: Fastrada, history and law', in Writing the early Medieval West : studies in honour of Rosamond McKitterick , ed. Elina Screen and Charles West (Cambridge: CUP, 2018) Ebook available   

Matthew Innes, ‘Charlemagne’s will’, English historical review., 112 (1997)

Janet Nelson, ‘Did Charlemagne have a private life?’, in Writing Medieval Biography, 750-1250: Essays in Honour of Frank Barlow, ed. David Bates, Julia Crick and Sarah Hamilton (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2006), 15-28 (ebook available)

The Frankish Empire after Charlemagne (814-877)

Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald

The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995): articles by J. Nelson, J. Fried

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world, chs. 4, 8 Ebook available   

Louis the Pious

Mayke de Jong, 'Power and humility in Carolingian society: the public penance of Louis the Pious', Early medieval Europe., 1 (1992), 29-52   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Philippe Depreux, 'The penance of Attigny (822) and the leadership of the bishops in amending Carolingian society', in Religious Franks : religion and power in the Frankish kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong , ed. Rob Meens et al. (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2016)   

David Ganz, 'The Astronomer's Life of Louis the Pious', in Rome and religion in the medieval world : studies in honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) Ebook available

Mayke de Jong, Epitaph for an Era: Politics and Rhetoric in the Carolingian World (Cambridge: CUP, 2019)

Confronting Crisis in the Carolingian Empire: Paschasius Radbertus' Funeral Oration for Wala of Corbie, tr. Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020) Ebook available

Eric Goldberg, 'Louis the Pious and the hunt', Speculum, 88 (2013), 613-43

Charles the Bald

Janet Nelson, Charles the Bald (London: Longman, 1992) : best starting-point; ebook available 

Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London : Hambledon, 1986) Ebook available

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Charles the Bald and the image of Kingship’, History today., 38 (6) June 1988

J.L. Nelson, ‘Early medieval rites of queen-making and the shaping of medieval queenship’, in Queens and queenship in medieval Europe : proceedings of a conference held at King's College London, April 1995, ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1997), reprinted in Janet Nelson, Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe (London: Routledge, 2019) EBOOK AVAILABLE

Zubin Mistry, ‘Ermentrude’s consecration (866): queen-making rites and biblical templates for Carolingian fertility’, Early Medieval Europe, 27 (2019), 567-88

The annals of St-Bertin, transl. by Janet Nelson (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1991) Ebook available

Hincmar of Rheims : life and work, ed. by Rachel Stone and Charles West (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2015), ch 5

Lothar I and Louis the German

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056(Harlow: Longman, 1991), ch. 4: best starting-point; ebook available

Elina Screen, ‘The importance of the emperor: Lothar I and the Frankish civil war 840-843’, Early medieval Europe., 12 (2003) (compares how Lothar I presented himself in charters with the more negative portrayal of him by Nithard)

Elina Screen, 'Remembering and forgetting Lothar I', in Writing the early Medieval West : studies in honour of Rosamond McKitterick, ed. Elina Screen and Charles West (Cambridge: CUP, 2018)

The annals of Fulda, transl. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1992) Ebook available

Ingrid Rembold, Conquest and Christianization : Saxony and the Carolingian world, 772-888(Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2017) Ebook available

Ingrid Rembold, 'Quasi una gens: Saxony and the Frankish World, c.772-888', History Compass, 15 (2017)

Court and aristocracy

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), chapter 6, ‘Elite society’ on aristocracy (best starting-point) (Cambridge Core https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511973987 )

Stuart Airlie, ‘The palace of memory: the Carolingian court as political centre’, in Courts and regions in medieval Europe, ed. by S. Rees Jones, R. Marks and A.J. Minnis (York: York Medieval Press, 2000); repd in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Farnham: Variorum, 2012)   

Stuart Airlie, ‘The aristocracy’, in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, pp. 431-50

Stuart Airlie, ‘The anxiety of sanctity: St Gerald of Aurillac and his maker’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 43 (1992), 372-95 (a tenth-century interpretation of the activities of a nobleman in the late ninth century)

Matthew Innes, ‘Charlemagne’s will’, English historical review., 112 (1997)

Rachel Stone, Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), ch. 5 Ebook available

Rachel Stone, ‘Political culture and the changing role of countesses, 750-1050’, History, 102 (2017), 824-39

Timothy Reuter, ‘The medieval nobility in twentieth-century historiography’, in Companion to Historiography, ed. Michael Bentley (London: Routledge, 1997), 166-90 Ebook available

Valerie Garver, Women and Aristocratic Culture in the Carolingian World (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2009) Ebook available

Eric Goldberg, In the Manner of the Franks: Hunting, Kingship and Masculinity in Early Medieval Europe (Philadelphia, PA: UPennPress, 2020)

Eric Goldberg, 'Louis the Pious and the hunt', Speculum, 88 (2013), 613-43

Lothar II’s divorce case

The divorce of King Lothar and Queen Theutberga : Hincmar of Rheims's De Divortio , transl. Rachel Stone and Charles West (Manchester: MUP, 2016) Ebook available

Stuart Airlie, ‘Private bodies and the body politic in the divorce case of Lothar II’, Past & present., 161 (1998), 3-38

Rachel Stone, Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), chs. 8-9 Ebook available

Charles West, ' "Dissonance of speech, consonance of meaning". The 862 Council of Aachen and the transmission of Carolingian conciliar records, in Writing the early Medieval West : studies in honour of Rosamond McKitterick , ed. Elina Screen and Charles West (Cambridge: CUP, 2018)

Zubin Mistry, Abortion in the Early Middle Ages, c.500-900 (Woodbridge: York Medieval Press, 2015), ch. 7

Valerie Flint, ‘Magic and marriage in ninth-century Francia’, in The Culture of Christendom : essays in medieval history in memory of Denis L.T. Bethel, ed. by Marc Meyer (London: Hambledon, 1993), pp. 61-74 Ebook available

BBC Radio 4 programme: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b00snm1v/A_History_of_the_World_in_100_Objects_Inside_the_Palace_Secrets_at_Court_(700_950_AD)_Lothair_Crystal/

Karl Heidecker, The divorce of Lothar II : Christian marriage and political power in the Carolingian world (Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2010) (Available in hard copy only)

The Anglo-Saxons from Offa’s reign (757-96) to Alfred’s accession (871)

General

Barbara Yorke, Kings and kingdoms in early Anglo-Saxon England (London: Seaby, 1990) Ebook available   

Simon Keynes, ‘England, 700-900’ in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Rory Naismith,  Early Medieval Britain, c.500-1000 (Cambridge: CUP, 2021), chs 9-10 Ebook available

Rory Naismith, Money and power in Anglo-Saxon England : the southern English kingdoms, 757-865 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012)

N.P. Brooks, ‘England in the ninth century: the crucible of defeat’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 29 (1979)

John Blair, Building Anglo-Saxon England (Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2018)

Mercia

Steven Bassett, ‘Divide and rule? The military infrastructure of eighth- and ninth-century Mercia’, Early medieval Europe., 15 (2007), 53-85

Steven Bassett, 'Anglo-Saxon fortifications in Western Mercia', Midland History, 36 (2011), 1-23

Rory Naismith, Citadel of the Saxons: the Rise of Early London (London: I.B. Tauris, 2019), ch. 4 and the opening of ch. 5 Ebook available   

Vikings and the Danelaw, ed. J. Graham-Campbell and others (Havertown: Oxbow Books, 2016): note in particular: D.M. Hadley, ‘In search of the Vikings: the problems and the possibilities of interdisciplinary approaches’, pp. 13-30; Lesley Abrams, ‘The conversion of the Danelaw’, pp. 31-44; Martin Biddle and Birthe Kjølbye-Biddle, ‘Repton and the “great heathen army”, 873-4’, pp. 45-96; Richard Hall, ‘Anglo-Scandinavian urban development in the East Midlands’, pp. 143-55; Alan Vince, ‘Lincoln in the Viking Age’, pp. 157-79 (Ebook available)

Martin Biddle and Birthe Kjølbye-Biddle, ‘Repton and the Vikings’, Antiquity., 66 (1992)

Dawn Hadley, ‘Viking and native: re-thinking identity in the Danelaw’, Early medieval Europe., 11 (2002), 45-70

R.A. Hall, ‘The five boroughs of the Danelaw: a review of present knowledge’, Anglo-Saxon England.,18 (1989), 149-206

Wessex

Barbara Yorke, Wessex in the early Middle Ages (London: Leicester UP, 1995) Ebook available

Simon Keynes, ‘The control of Kent in the ninth century’, Early medieval Europe., 2 (1993)  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Simon Keynes, ‘The West Saxon Charters of King Æthelwulf and his sons’, English Historical Review, 109 (1994), 1109-49

Rory Naismith, Money and power in Anglo-Saxon England : the southern English kingdoms, 757-865 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012) Ebook available

Rory Naismith, 'The origins of the line of Egbert, king of the West Saxons, 802-839', English Historical Review, 126 (2011), 1-16

Janet Nelson, ‘England and the Continent in the Ninth Century: III, Rights and Rituals’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 14 (2004), 1-24 (see section on Æthelwulf)

See also section on Alfred below

The Vikings in England

Clare Downham, 'The earliest Viking activity in England', English historical review., 132 (2017), 1-12

Vikings and the Danelaw, ed. J. Graham-Campbell and others (Havertown: Oxbow Books, 2016), Ebook available: note in particular: D.M. Hadley, ‘In search of the Vikings: the problems and the possibilities of interdisciplinary approaches’, pp. 13-30; Lesley Abrams, ‘The conversion of the Danelaw’, pp. 31-44; Martin Biddle and Birthe Kjølbye-Biddle, ‘Repton and the “great heathen army”, 873-4’, pp. 45-96; Richard Hall, ‘Anglo-Scandinavian urban development in the East Midlands’, pp. 143-55; Alan Vince, ‘Lincoln in the Viking Age’, pp. 157-79

Gillian Fellows-Jensen, ‘The Vikings in England: a review’, Anglo-Saxon England., 4 (1975) – overview of work done on place-names and settlement down to 1975

Pauline Stafford, ‘The Danes and the Danelaw’, History today. October 1986 pp. 17-23

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000) Ebook available   

Lesley Abrams, ‘Edward the Elder’s Danelaw’, in Edward the Elder, 899-924, ed. Nick Higham and David Hill (London: Routledge, 2001)   

Lesley Abrams, ‘Diaspora and identity in the Viking Age’, Early Medieval Europe, 20 (2012), 17-38

Dawn Hadley, The Vikings in England : settlement, society and culture (Manchester: MUP, 2006)   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards, 'The winter camp of the Viking Great Army, AD 872-3, Torksey, Lincolnshire', Antiquaries Journal, 96 (2016), 23-67 

The Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Churches in the Ninth Century

The Frankish Church

Mayke de Jong, ‘Religion’, in The early Middle Ages, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Oxford: OUP, 2001), pp. 131-64 – useful overview  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Janet Nelson, ‘Religion in the reign of Charlemagne’, in The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity, ed. John Arnold (Oxford: OUP, 2014), pp. 490-514; in the same volume, note Sarah Hamilton, ‘Bishops, education and discipline’ and Rob Meens, ‘Penitential varieties’; ebook available 

Janet Nelson, ‘Religion and politics in the reign of Charlemagne’, in Religion and Politics in the Middle Ages: Germany and England by Comparison/ Religion und Politik im Mittelalter: Deutschland und England im Vergleich, ed. Ludger Körntgen and Dominik Wassenhoven (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013), 17-29; ebook available

chapters by Nelson, Morris, Barrow, Palazzo and Angenendt in The Cambridge History of Christianity III: Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100, ed. T.F.X. Noble and J.M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008) Ebook available

Rachel Stone, 'Spiritual heirs and families: episcopal relatives in early medieval Francia', in Celibate and childless men in power : ruling eunuchs and bishops in the pre-modern world, ed. Almut Hofert, Matthew Mesley and Serena Tolino (London: Routledge, 2018 [in fact 2017])

Hincmar of Rheims : life and work, ed. by Rachel Stone and Charles West (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2015): note chs 5-6 on politics, 7-9 on law and 12-14 on pastoral care and heresy   

Theo Riches, review of Steffen Patzold, Episcopus (Ostfildern: Thorbecke, 2008), in Reviews in History (September, 2010), no. 961 http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/961 (about how bishops developed their own concepts of their office and their authority in the ninth century)

Janet Nelson, 'Charlemagne and the bishops', in Religious Franks : religion and power in the Frankish kingdoms: studies in honour of Mayke de Jong , ed. Rob Meens et al. (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2016); in the same volume note also articles by Philippe Depreux and by Stefan Esders and Steffen Patzold   

Rob Meens, 'Sanctuary, penance and dispute settlement under Charlemagne: the conflict between Alcuin and Theodulf of Orleans over a sinful cleric', Speculum, 82 (2007), 277-300

Janet Nelson, ‘Making ends meet: wealth and poverty in the Carolingian church’, repd in Janet Nelson, The Frankish world, 750-900 (London: Hambledon, 1996)

Paul Fouracre, ‘Eternal light and earthly need’, in Property and power in the early Middle Ages, ed. by Wendy Davies and Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Carine van Rhijn, Shepherds of the Lord : priests and episcopal statutes in the Carolingian period (Turnhout: Brepols, 2007)   

Men in the middle : local priests in early medieval Europe, ed. Steffen Patzold and Carine van Rhijn (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2016)  

Sarah Hamilton, 'The unique favour of penance: the Church and the people c.800-c.1100', in The Medieval World, ed. Peter Linehan, Janet Nelson and Marios Costambeys, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2018)

John Van Engen, 'Christening, the kingdom of the Carolingians and European humanity', in Rome and religion in the medieval world : studies in honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) Ebook available

Ingrid Rembold, Conquest and Christianization : Saxony and the Carolingian world, 772-888 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2017) Ebook available

Christopher Carroll, ‘The bishoprics of Saxony’, Early medieval Europe., 8 (1999), 219-46

Felice Lifshitz, ‘The migration of Neustrian relics in the Viking Age’, Early medieval Europe., 4 (1995), 175-92

Missionaries, Vikings and Christianity

Simon Coupland, ‘The rod of God’s wrath or the people of God’s wrath? The Carolingian theology of the Viking invasions’, Journal of ecclesiastical history., 42 (1991), 535-54

B. and P. Sawyer, ‘Scandinavia enters Christian Europe’, in The Cambridge History of Scandinavia, I: Prehistory to 1520, ed. Knut Helle (Cambridge: CUP, 2008), 147-59, esp. 147-50; ebook available

James Palmer, ‘Rimbert’s Vita Anskarii and Scandinavian mission in the ninth century’, Journal of ecclesiastical history., 55 (2004) 235-56

Ian Wood, ‘The Northern frontier; Christianity face to face with paganism’, in The Cambridge History of Christianity III: Early medieval Christianities, c.600--c.1100, ed. T.F.X. Noble and J.M.H. Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 2008) Ebook available

Lesley Abrams, ‘The Anglo-Saxons and the Christianization of Scandinavia’, Anglo-Saxon England., 24 (1995) – mostly about the 10th-11th cs., but the opening pages are of relevance

See also Rembold, Conquest and Christianization in the preceding section, for comparison

Carolingian monasteries

Mayke de Jong, ‘Carolingian monasticism: the power of prayer’, in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995), pp. 622-53

Mayke de Jong, ‘Growing up in a Carolingian monastery’, Journal of Medieval History., 9 (1983), 99-128 (on-line copy available)

Janneke Raaijmakers, The making of the monastic community of Fulda, c.744 - c.900 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2012)

Confronting Crisis in the Carolingian Empire: Paschasius Radbertus' Funeral Oration for Wala of Corbie, tr. Mayke de Jong and Justin Lake (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2020) Ebook available

Carolingian renaissance

Donald Bullough, ‘Alcuin’, in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000, ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, 61 vols (Oxford: OUP, 2004); use the on-line version

Anne Freeman, ‘Theodulf of Orleans and the Libri Carolini ’, Speculum., 32, 1957

Marcelle Thiébaux, tr. Dhuoda, Handbook for her warrior son : Liber manualis (Cambridge: CUP, 1998)

M.A. Claussen, ‘Fathers of power and mothers of authority: Dhuoda and the Liber manualis’, French Historical Studies, 19 (1996), 785-809

J.L. Nelson, ‘Dhuoda on dreams’, in Motherhood, Religion and Society in Medieval Europe, ed. Conrad Leyser and Lesley Smith (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011), 21-53 (Ebook available)

Mayke de Jong, ‘Carolingian political discourse and the biblical past: Hraban, Dhuoda, Radbert’, in The Resources of the Past in Early Medieval Europe, ed. Clemens Gantner, Rosamond McKitterick and Sven Meeder (Cambridge: CUP, 2015), 87-102 (Ebook available)

Henry Mayr-Harting, ‘Charlemagne as a patron of art’ in The Church and the arts : papers read at the 1990 summer meeting and the 1991 winter meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society, ed. D. Wood, Studies in Church History, 21 (Oxford: Blackwell: 1992), pp. 43-77)

Anglo-Saxon church

John Blair, The church in Anglo-Saxon society (Oxford: OUP, 2005) esp. pp. 291-323 (Ebook available)

Barbara Yorke, Nunneries and the Anglo-Saxon royal houses (London: Continuum, 2003), chs. 2-3

Paul Cavill, ‘Analogy and genre in the legend of St Edmund’, Nottingham medieval studies., 47 (2003), 21-45  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 03/02/2021) 

A.T. Thacker, ‘Kings, saints and monasteries in pre-Viking Mercia’, Midland history., 10 (1985) 1-25

A.T. Thacker, ‘Chester and Gloucester’, Northern history., 18 (1982), 199-211  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 03/02/2021) 

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), esp. articles by Abrams, Barrow, Halsall  

Thomas Pickles, Kingship, Society and the Church in Anglo-Saxon Yorkshire (Oxford: OUP, 2018)

Dawn Hadley, ‘Conquest, colonisation and the church: ecclesiastical organisation in the Danelaw’, Historical research. 69 (1996), 109-128

Dawn Hadley, The Vikings in England : settlement, society and culture (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2006), ch. 5    

Julia Barrow, 'Danish ferocity and abandoned monasteries: the twelfth-century view', and Rob Bartlett, 'The Viking Hiatus in the cult of saints' in The long twelfth-century view of the Anglo-Saxon past, ed, by Martin Brett and David Woodman (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015), pp. 77-93 (Ebook available)

HARD COPY ONLY

Nicholas Brooks, The early history of the Church of Canterbury : Christ Church from 597 to 1066 (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1984)   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

William Aird, St Cuthbert and the Normans : the Church of Durham, 1071-1153 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998)   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Warfare in the ninth century

Some of the articles below can also be found on the De re militari website, http://www.deremilitari.org

For the political events of the reigns of Louis the Pious and Charles the Bald, see The Frankish empire after Charlemagne section above.

Timothy Reuter, ‘Plunder and tribute’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 35 (1985), 75-94 : this article and the following one are important reading for key political developments in the Frankish empire

Timothy Reuter, ‘The end of Carolingian military expansion’, in Charlemagne's heir : new perspectives on the reign of Louis the Pious (814-840), ed. by Peter Godman and Roger Collins (Oxford: OUP, 1990), repd in Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), 251-67 (Ebook available)

Simon Coupland, ‘Carolingian arms and armour’, Viator., 21 (1990), 29-50  also available on-line from De re militari at Carolingian Arms and Armor in the Ninth Century » De Re Militari   

Simon Coupland, ‘The Carolingian army and the struggle against the Vikings’, Viator., 35 (2004), 49-70  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 03/02/2021) 

Christian Cooijmans, Monarchs and Hydrarchs: the Conceptual Development of Viking Activity across the Frankish Realms (c.750-940) (London: Routledge, 2020)  

Guy Halsall, Warfare and society in the barbarian West, 450-900 (London: Routledge, 2003) Ebook available   

Guy Halsall, review of B.S. Bachrach, Early Carolingian warfare : prelude to empire (Philadelphia, 2001), in Peritia., 16 (2002), 483-8   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 03/02/2021) 

N.P. Brooks, review of G. Halsall, Warfare and society in the barbarian West, 450-900 (London, 2003), in English historical review., 120 (2005), 424-6

Janet Nelson, ‘The Church’s military service in the ninth century: a contemporary view’, in The Church and war : [papers read at the Twenty-First Summer Meeting and the Twenty-Second Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society], ed. by W.J. Sheils, Studies in Church History 20 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1983), repd in Janet Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London: Hambledon, 1986), pp. 117-32 Ebook available

Timothy Reuter, ‘The recruitment of armies in the early middle ages: what can we know?’, in Military Aspects of Scandinavian Society in a European Perspective AD1-1360 (1997), available at http://www.deremilitari.org

Timothy Reuter, ‘Carolingian and Ottonian warfare’, in Medieval warfare : a history, ed. by Maurice Keen (Oxford: OUP, 1999) (Ebook available)

E.J. Goldberg, ‘Popular revolt, dynastic politics and aristocratic factionalism in the early middle ages: the Saxon Stellinga reconsidered’, Speculum, 70 (1995)

Matthew Innes, State and society in the early Middle Ages : the middle Rhine valley, 400-1000 (Cambridge: CUP, 2000), ch. 5, pp. 141-64

Ethos of warfare

Karl Leyser, ‘Early medieval canon law and the beginnings of knighthood’, in Karl Leyser, Communications and power in medieval Europe : the Carolingian and Ottonian centuries (London: Hambledon, 1994) (Ebook available)

Rachel Stone, Morality and masculinity in the Carolingian empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), ch. 3 ‘Warfare’ (Ebook available)

Janet Nelson, ‘Ninth-Century Knighthood: the Evidence of Nithard’, repd in Janet Nelson, The Frankish world, 750-900 (Hambledon, 1996) Ebook available

Violence and society in the early medieval West, ed. by Guy Halsall (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1998), articles by Nelson and Fouracre (hard copy only)

Rachel Stone, ‘Waltharius and Carolingian morality: satire and lay values’, Early Medieval Europe, 21 (2013), 50-70

Alice Rio, ‘Waltharius at Fontenoy? Epic heroism and Carolingian political thought’, Viator, 46 (2015), 41-64

Fortifications and bridges in Francia

Simon MacLean, ‘The Edict of Pîtres, Carolingian defence against the Vikings, and the origins of the medieval castle’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 30 (2020), 29-54

Carroll Gillmor, ‘The logistics of fortified bridge-building’, Anglo-Norman Studies, 11: Proceedings of the Battle Conference 1988 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1989), pp. 87-106 (Ebook available)

Simon Coupland, ‘The fortified bridges of Charles the Bald’, Journal of Medieval History., 17 (1991), 1-12   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 03/02/2021) 

Carolingian Marches (border areas; fines imperii )

J.M.H. Smith, ‘Fines imperii: the marches’ in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995), pp. 169-89

Neil S. Price, ‘The Vikings in Brittany’, Saga Book: the Viking Society for Northern Research, 22 (1989) available from De re militari https://deremilitari.org/2013/07/the-vikings-in-brittany/

C.J. Wickham, Early Medieval Italy (London: Macmillan, 1981) (Ebook available)

Jonathan Conant, ‘Louis the Pious and the contours of Empire’, Early Medieval Europe, 22 (2014), 336-60 (about Spain)

Jonathan Jarrett, Rulers and ruled in frontier Catalonia, 880-1010 : pathways of power , (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2010) (Ebook available)

Viking allies and mercenaries

J.L. Nelson, ‘England and the Continent in the ninth century: II the Vikings and Others’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 6th ser., 13 (2003), 1-28

Simon Coupland and Janet Nelson, ‘The Vikings on the Continent’, History today., 38, December 1988, 12-19

Simon Coupland, ‘From poachers to gamekeepers: Scandinavian warlords and Carolingian kings’, Early medieval Europe., 7 (1998), 85-114

Simon Coupland, ‘The Frankish tribute payments to the Vikings and their consequences’, Francia. 26/1 (1999), 1-37 available on-line from De re militari at The Frankish Tribute Payments to the Vikings and their Consequences » De Re Militari

Niels Lund, ‘Allies of God or man?’, Viator., 20 (1989), 45-59   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 03/02/2021) 

Viking raids and warfare

N.P. Brooks, ‘England in the ninth century: the crucible of defeat’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 29 (1979), 1-20, repd. in Nicholas Brooks, Communities and warfare, 700-1400 (London: Hambledon, 2000) 

Simon Coupland, ‘The Vikings on the Continent in myth and history’, History., 88 (2003), 186-203

Simon Coupland, ‘The Vikings in Francia and Anglo-Saxon England to 911’, in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Christian Cooijmans, Monarchs and Hydrarchs: the Conceptual Development of Viking Activity across the Frankish Realms (c.750-940) (London: Routledge, 2020)

Niels Lund, ‘Scandinavia, c.700-1066’, in The new Cambridge medieval history. Vol. 2, c.700-c.900, ed. by Rosamond McKitterick (Cambridge: CUP, 1995)

Clare Downham, ‘Viking ethnicities: a historiographical overview’, History Compass, 10 (2012), 1-12

The Cambridge history of Scandinavia, I: Prehistory to 1520, ed. by Knut Helle (Cambridge: CUP, 2003), chs 5-8

Roberta Frank, ‘Viking atrocity and Skaldic verse: the rite of the Blood Eagle’, English historical review., 99 (1984), 332-43

Alfred Smyth, ‘The effect of Scandinavian raiders on the English and Irish churches: a preliminary reassessment’, in Britain and Ireland, 900-1300 : insular responses to medieval European change, ed. by Brendan Smith (Cambridge: CUP, 1999) (Ebook available)

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by Dawn Hadley and Julian Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000), esp. articles by Hadley, Trafford (too extreme), Innes and Townend  

Dawn Hadley, ‘In search of the vikings: the problems and the possibilities of interdisciplinary approaches’ in Vikings and the Danelaw: Select Papers from the Proceedings of the Thirteenth Viking Congress, ed. J. Graham-Campbell, R. Hall, J. Jesch and D.N. Parsons (Oxford: Oxbow, 2001) (Ebook available)

Caitlin Ellis, 'Remembering the Vikings: ancestry, cultural memory and geographical variation', History Compass, 19 (2021) e12652 available on-line

The writing of history

Rosamond McKitterick, History and memory in the Carolingian world (Cambridge, CUP: 2004) Ebook available   

Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Constructing the past in the early middle ages: the case of the Royal Frankish Annals’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6th ser., 7 (1997), 101-29

Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two lives of Charlemagne, trans. by Lewis Thorpe (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969)

Charlemagne and Louis the Pious : the lives by Einhard, Notker, Ermoldus, Thegan, and the Astronomer, trans. by Thomas F.X. Noble (University Park, PA: Penn State UP, 2009)

David Ganz, 'The Astronomer's Life of Louis the Pious', in Rome and religion in the medieval world : studies in honor of Thomas F.X. Noble, ed. by Valerie Garver and Owen M. Phelan (Farnham: Ashgate, 2014) (Ebook available)

The annals of St-Bertin, transl. by J.L. Nelson (Manchester: MUP, 1991) Ebook available

J.L. Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Aldershot: Variorum, 1999), chs 9, 16-17 Ebook available

The annals of Fulda, transl. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: MUP, 1992) Ebook available

The Uses of the Past in the Early Middle Ages, ed. Yitzhak Hen and Matthew Innes (Cambridge: CUP, 2000) Ebook available. Note Rosamond McKitterick, ‘Political ideology in Carolingian historiography’; Mayke de Jong, ‘The empire as ecclesia: Hrabanus and biblical historia for rulers; Matthew Innes, ‘Teutons or Trojans? The Carolingians and the Germanic past’

Elina Screen and Charles West, ed. Writing the early Medieval West : studies in honour of Rosamond McKitterick(Cambridge: CUP, 2018), esp. Innes (useful on Einhard among others) and Screen (useful on Regino)

Paul Fouracre, ‘The context of the OHG Ludwigslied ’, Medium aevum., 54, 1985, 87-103

Matthew Innes, ‘Memory, orality and literacy in an early medieval society’, Past & present., 158 (1998), 3-36

Janet Nelson, ‘Public histories and private histories in the work of Nithard’, in Nelson, Politics and Ritual (London : Hambledon, 1986) Ebook available

Stuart Airlie, ‘“Sad stories of the death of kings”: narrative patterns and structures of authority in Regino of Prüm’s Chronicle ’, in Narrative and history in the early medieval West, ed. by Elizabeth Tyler and Ross Balzaretti (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), 105-131, repd. in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Aldershot: Variorum, 2012), ch. 12   

Charles West, ‘Knowledge of the past and the judgement of history in tenth-century Trier: Regino of Prüm and the lost manuscript of Bishop Adventius of Metz’, Early Medieval Europe, 24 (2016), 137-59

Matthew Innes, ‘Memory, orality and literacy in an early medieval society’, Past and Present, 158 (1998), 3-36

Sarah Foot, ‘Annals and chronicles in Western Europe’, in The Oxford History of Historical Writing, II: 400-1400, ed. Sarah Foot, C.F. Robinson and I. Hesketh (Oxford: OUP, 2012), 346-67 (Ebook available; this chapter is a general overview of annals across the middle ages, not just in the ninth century)

Pauline Stafford, After Alfred: Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and Chroniclers, 900-1150 (Oxford: OUP, 2020), ch. 1 (ebook available)

Anton Scharer, ‘The writing of history at King Alfred’s court’, Early medieval Europe., 5 (1996), 185-206 (see also section on Alfred towards the end of this list)   Available online 

Barbara Yorke, ‘The representation of early West Saxon history in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle’ and Anton Scharer, ‘The Anglo-Saxon chronicle and continental annal-writing’, in Reading the Anglo-Saxon chronicle : language, literature, history, ed. A. Jorgensen (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010), respectively 141-60 and 161-66  

Eleventh and Twelfth-Century Rewriting of History

Katherine Cross, Heirs of the Vikings: History and Identity in Normandy and England, c.950-c.1015 (Woodbridge: York Medieval Press, 2018)

The long twelfth-century view of the Anglo-Saxon past, ed. by Martin Brett and David A. Woodman (Farnham: Ashgate, 2015), chs. 2, 5 (Ebook available)

Matthew Gabriele and Jace Stuckey, ed. The legend of Charlemagne in the Middle Ages : power, faith, and crusade (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008) Ebook available

Vikings, Towns, Trade and Slavery

Economy (general)

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011): chs 5 and 7 provide a slightly longer introduction – good starting point (Cambridge Core https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511973987 )

Adriaan Verhulst, The Carolingian economy (Cambridge: CUP, 2002) – provides more detail (Cambridge Core https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511817083 )

Peter Spufford, Money and its Use in Medieval Europe (Cambridge: CUP, 1988) (Ebook available)

Elina Screen, 'Coining it? Carolingian rulers and the Frankish coinage, ca. 750-900', History Compass, 2019

Rory Naismith, 'The social significance of monetization in the early middle ages', Past and Present, 223 (2014), 3-39

Matthew Innes, ‘Framing the Carolingian economy’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 9 (2009), 42-58 (arguing that Carolingian great estates were principally domainial rather than being intended to produce surpluses)

Yoshiki Morimoto, 'Aspects of the early medieval peasant economy as revealed in the Polyptych of Prum I', in The Medieval World, ed. Peter Linehan, Janet Nelson and Marios Costambeys, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2018)

Towns and trade

The Cambridge urban history of Britain I, ed. by David Palliser (Cambridge: CUP, 2000) Ebook available

Simon Coupland, ‘Trading places: Quentovic and Dorestad reassessed’, Early medieval Europe., 11 (2002), 209-32

Adriaan Verhulst, The rise of cities in north-west Europe (Cambridge: CUP, 1999), ch. 3; deals with Flanders (Cambridge Core https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612275 )

Rory Naismith, Citadel of the Saxons: the Rise of Early London (London: I.B. Tauris, 2019), ch. 5 Ebook available   

R.A. Hall, ‘The five boroughs’, Anglo-Saxon England., 18 (1989), 149-206

Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by D. Hadley and J. Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000): articles by Hall, Stocker  

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b00sqw6p/A_History_of_the_World_in_100_Objects_Pilgrims_Raiders_and_Traders_(900_1300_AD)_Vale_of_York_Hoard/

Slavery

Alice Rio, Slavery after Rome, 500-1100, (Oxford: OUP, 2017), esp. ch 1 ('Slave raiding and slave trading'); note also chs 4-5   

Michael McCormick, ‘New Light on the “Dark Ages”: How the Slave Trade Fuelled the Carolingian Economy’, Past & present., 177 (2002), 17-54

David Pelteret, ‘The image of the slave in some Anglo-Saxon and Norse sources’, Slavery & Abolition : a journal of slave and post-slave studies., 23 (2002), 75-90

J-P. Devroey, ‘Men and women in early medieval serfdom: the ninth-century North Frankish evidence’, Past and Present, 166 (2000), 3-30

R.M. Karras, Slavery and Society in Medieval Scandinavia (New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1988) (ebook available)

R.M. Karras, ‘Concubinage and slavery in the Viking age’, Scandinavian studies., 60 (1990), 141-62   

Poul Holm, ‘The slave trade of Dublin, ninth to twelfth centuries’, Peritia., 5 (1986), 317-45   

Adriaan Verhulst, ‘The decline of slavery’, Past & present., 133 (1991), 195-203

J. Henning, ‘Slavery or freedom? The causes of early medieval Europe’s economic advancement’, Early medieval Europe., 12 (2003), 269-77

Alfred the Great

Patrick Wormald, 'Alfred', in Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000, ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, 61 vols (Oxford: OUP, 2004) : good introduction to Alfred

Richard Abels, Alfred the Great : war, kingship, and culture in Anglo-Saxon England, (Harlow: Longman, 1998) - another good starting point Ebook available   

Richard Abels, ‘Alfred and his biographers’, in in Writing Medieval Biography, 750-1250: Essays in Honour of Frank Barlow, ed. David Bates, Julia Crick and Sarah Hamilton (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2006), 61-75 (ebook available)

Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge, Alfred the Great : Asser's Life of Alfred and other contemporary sources (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1983)

Pauline Stafford, After Alfred: Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and Chroniclers, 900-1150 (Oxford: OUP, 2020), ch. 3; ebook available

Items by Yorke and Scharer in The Writing of History above

Alfred the Great : papers from the eleventh-centenary conferences, ed. by Timothy Reuter (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003) – note articles by Brooks, Keynes and Stafford on politics, by Abels on campaigns against Vikings, by Nelson and Scharer on Alfred’s Carolingian contemporaries and by Yorke on Alfred’s reputation after his death

Barbara Yorke, Wessex in the early Middle Ages (Leicester: Leicester UP, 1995) (Ebook available)

Danes in Wessex: the Scandinavian Impact on Southern England c.800-c.1100, ed. Simon Roffey and Ryan Lavell (Oxford: Oxbow, 2016), especially chs. 2 (Roffey and Lavelle), 3 (T.J.T. Williams) 4 (D. Gore) and 5 (J. Baker and S. Brookes) (ebook available)

Janet Nelson, ‘“A king across the sea”. Alfred in continental perspective’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 36 (1986), 47-66

David Pratt, The political thought of King Alfred the Great (Cambridge: CUP, 2007)

Janet Nelson, ‘The political ideas of Alfred of Wessex’ in Kings and kingship in medieval Europe, ed. by Anne Duggan (London: KCL, CLAMS, 1993), repd. in Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Ashgate, 1999) (Ebook available)

Janet Nelson, ‘Reconstructing a royal family’, in People and places in northern Europe 500-1600 : essays in honour of Peter Hayes Sawyer, ed. by Ian Wood and Niels Lund (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1991), repd. in Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Ashgate, 1999) (Ebook available)

Janet Nelson, Rulers and ruling families in early medieval Europe : Alfred, Charles the Bald, and others (Ashgate: Variorum, 1999) (Ebook available)

Anton Scharer, ‘The writing of history at King Alfred’s court’, Early medieval Europe., 5 (1996), 185-206

Paul Kershaw, ‘Illness, power and prayer in Asser’s Life of King Alfred ’, Early medieval Europe., 10 (2001), 201-24

David Pratt, ‘The illnesses of King Alfred the Great’, Anglo-Saxon England., 30 (2001)

Simon Keynes, ‘The cult of King Alfred the Great’, Anglo-Saxon England., 28 (1999), 225-356 (about Alfred’s posthumous reputation)

Simon Keynes, ‘A tale of two kings: Alfred the Great and Æthelred the Unready’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society., 5th ser., 36 (1986), 195-217

M.J. Swanton, ‘King Alfred’s ships: text and context’, Anglo-Saxon England., 28 (1999), 1-22

Paul Kershaw, ‘The Alfred-Guthrum treaty’, in Cultures in contact : Scandinavian settlement in England in the ninth and tenth centuries, ed. by D. Hadley and J. Richards (Turnhout: Brepols, 2000) Ebook available

NB: Alfred Smyth, King Alfred the Great (Oxford: OUP, 1995) should only be handled with extreme caution: if you do look at it try also to read the following review articles:

Janet Nelson, ‘Waiting for Alfred’, Early medieval Europe., 7 (1998)

Simon Keynes, ‘On the authenticity of Asser’s Life of King Alfred’, Journal of ecclesiastical history.47 (1996)

The Late Ninth and Early Tenth Centuries: New Political Directions

Francia at the end of the ninth century

Marios Costambeys, Matthew Innes and Simon MacLean, The Carolingian world (Cambridge: CUP, 2011), pp. 419-35 (Cambridge Core https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511973987 

Simon MacLean, ‘The Carolingian response to the revolt of Boso, 879-887’, Early medieval Europe., 10 (2001), 21-48

Simon MacLean, Kingship and politics in the late ninth century : Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire (Cambridge: CUP, 2003) (Ebook available)

Simon MacLean, ‘Queenship, nunneries and royal widowhood in Carolingian Europe’, Past & present., 178 (2003), 3-38

History and politics in late Carolingian and Ottonian Europe : the chronicle of Regino of Prüm and Adalbert of Magdeburg, transl. by Simon MacLean (Manchester: MUP, 2009) (Ebook available)

Stuart Airlie, ‘The Nearly men: Boso of Vienne and Arnulf of Bavaria’, in Nobles and nobility in medieval Europe : concepts, origins, transformations, ed. Anne Duggan (London: KCL CLAMS, 2000) (Ebook available)

Stuart Airlie, ‘“Sad stories of the death of kings”: narrative patterns and structures of authority in Regino of Prüm’s Chronicle ’, in Narrative and history in the early medieval West, ed. by Elizabeth Tyler and Ross Balzaretti (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), 105-131, repd. in Stuart Airlie, Power and its problems in Carolingian Europe (Aldershot: Variorum, 2012), ch. 12   

Paul Fouracre, ‘The context of the OHG Ludwigslied ’, Medium aevum , 54 (1985), 87-103

The annals of Fulda, transl. by Timothy Reuter (Manchester: MUP, 1992) (Ebook available)

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056(Harlow: Longman, 1991) (Ebook available)

Timothy Reuter, ‘Sex, lies and oath-helpers: the trial of Queen Uota’, in Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities (Cambridge: CUP, 2006) (Ebook available)

Chapters by Nelson and Fried in NCMH ii

Charles West, ‘ “Fratres, omni die videtis cum vadit istud regnum in perdicionem”: Abbo of Saint-Germain and the crisis of 888’, Reti Medievali Rivista, 17.2 (2016), 301-17 (available on-line)

Charles West, Reframing the feudal revolution : political and social transformation between Marne and Moselle, c. 800 to c. 1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013) (Ebook available)

Tenth-century England

Pauline Stafford, ‘The Annals of Æthelflaed’, in Myth, rulership, church and charters : essays in honour of Nicholas Brooks, ed. by Julia Barrow and Andrew Wareham (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008) Ebook available   

Pauline Stafford, After Alfred: Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and Chroniclers, 900-1150 (Oxford: OUP, 2020), chs. 4-5; ebook available

Charles Insley, 'Collapse, Reconfiguration or Renegotiation? The Strange End of the Mercian Kingdom,850-924', Reti Medievali Rivista, 17 (2), 2016 http://www.rmojs.unina.it/index.php/rm/article/view/5004

Barbara Yorke, Aethelred, Lord of the Mercians, and his Deerhurst Connections, Deerhurst Lecture 2019 (Deerhurst: Friends of Deerhurst Church, 2020) ISBN 9780993272134 

M. Blake and A. Sargent, ‘ “For the protection of all the people”: Æthelflad and her burhs in Northwest Mercia’, Midland History, 43.2 (2018), 120-54

Danes in Wessex: the Scandinavian Impact on Southern England c.800-c.1100, ed. Simon Roffey and Ryan Lavell (Oxford: Oxbow, 2016), especially chs. 2 (Roffey and Lavelle), 4 (D. Gore) and 5 (J. Baker and S. Brookes) (ebook available)

Ryan Lavelle, ‘The politics of rebellion: the Ætheling Æthelwold and West Saxon royal succession, 899-902’, in Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: the Legacy of Timothy Reuter, ed. Patricia Skinner (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), pp. 51-80 (ebook available)

Edward the Elder, 899-924, ed. by N.J. Higham and D.H. Hill (London: Routledge, 2001), esp. articles by Abrams, Keynes, Yorke; see also articles by Bailey, Ward, Griffiths; Ebook available   

England and the continent in the tenth century : studies in honour of Wilhelm Levison (1876-1947), ed. by David Rollason, Conrad Leyser and Hannah Williams (Turnhout: Brepols, 2010)

John Blair, ‘Palace or minster? Northampton and Cheddar reconsidered’, Anglo-Saxon England, 25 (1997 for 1996), 97-121

Chris Wickham, ‘Problems in doing comparative history’, in Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: the Legacy of Timothy Reuter, ed. Patricia Skinner (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), pp. 5-28 (ebook available)

George Molyneaux, The formation of the English kingdom in the tenth century(Oxford: OUP, 2015) Ebook available

Tenth-century West Francia

Chris Wickham, ‘Problems in doing comparative history’, in Challenging the Boundaries of Medieval History: the Legacy of Timothy Reuter, ed. Patricia Skinner (Turnhout: Brepols, 2009), pp. 5-28 (ebook available)

Régine Le Jan, ‘Continuity and change in the tenth-century nobility’ in Nobles and nobility in medieval Europe : concepts, origins, transformations, ed. by Anne Duggan (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2000), pp. 53-68 (Ebook available)

Fraser McNair, ‘Political culture and ducal authority in Aquitaine, c.900-1040’, History Compass, 18.8 (2020) e12622

Fraser McNair, 'The politics of being Norman in the reign of Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy (r. 942-996)', Early medieval Europe. , 23 (2015)

Charles West, Reframing the feudal revolution : political and social transformation between Marne and Moselle, c. 800 to c. 1100 (Cambridge: CUP, 2013), chs 4-5(Ebook available)

Tenth-century East Francia

Timothy Reuter, Germany in the early Middle Ages c.800-1056(Harlow: Longman, 1991) (Ebook available)

Timothy Reuter, Medieval polities and modern mentalities (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), chs 15-17 (Ebook available)

Karl Leyser, Communications and power in medieval Europe : the Carolingian and Ottonian centuries (London: Hambledon, 1994), chs 5, 12 (Ebook available)

Timothy Reuter, ‘The medieval nobility in twentieth-century historiography’, in Companion to Historiography, ed. by M. Bentley (London: Routledge, 1997) (Ebook available)

Reference works

Encyclopaedias

The Blackwell encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Michael Lapidge and others (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998) – the first point of call for anything Anglo-Saxon.   

Oxford dictionary of national biography : from the earliest times to the year 2000, ed. by H.C.G. Matthew and Brian Harrison, 61 vols (Oxford: OUP, 2004); also available in a fuller electronic version: with the electronic version, in addition to individuals (e.g. Offa, Alfred, Halfdan, Æthelflaed) you can click on the Themes tag and look up whole groups of people, e.g. ‘Rulers of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms’; ‘Viking and Scandinavian kings and leaders’.

Atlases (hard copy only)

Atlas of Medieval Europe, ed. by Angus MacKay and David Ditchburn, 2nd edn (London: Routledge, 2007)

David Hill, An atlas of Anglo-Saxon England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1981)

Cultural atlas of the Viking world, ed. by James Graham-Campbell (New York: Facts on File, 1994)

This list was last updated on 09/02/2022