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HIST3332
Module Reading List

The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, 2021/22, Semester 1, 2
Dr Peter Anderson
p.p.anderson@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

SEMESTER ONE

SECTION ONE: CAUSES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

Week 1

  1. a) Causes of the Civil War

Key Tasks

  • Watch the TV programme and listen to the radio programme and list the key causes of the Spanish Civil War.

TV Programme

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lu5f9hp0IP4

Radio Programme

 https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548wn

KEY QUESTIONS

  • Read the Preston and Payne articles and decide

How have left-leaning historians explained the origins of the conflict (e.g. Preston)?

How have right-wing historians explained the origins of the conflict (e.g. Payne)?

What are the four most important domestic causes of the Civil War?

Preston, P. ‘The Agrarian War in the South’, in Paul Preston, (ed.), Revolution and War in Spain 1931-1939 (London: Routledge, 1984), pp. 159-181. (Available through the library catalogue as an electronic book).

Payne, S. G., ‘Political Violence during the Spanish Second Republic’, Journal of Contemporary History, 25, 2 (1990), pp. 269-288. (Available electronically through the library catalogue).

  1. b) Significance of the Civil War
  • Read the following texts in the Online Course Readings Folder and think how the authors present the Civil War and why they give it such significance and meaning.

Londgo, Luigi, ‘An Important Stage in the Peoples’ Struggle against Fascism’, in Academy of Sciences of the USSR, International Solidarity with the Spanish Republic, 1936-1939 (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974), pp. 10-19. (See Online Course Readings Folder Week 1)

Radosh, R., Spain Betrayed the Soviet Union in the Spanish Civil War (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), pp. 1-15 (See Online Course Readings Folder Week 1)

You can read a critique of the Radosh book here (well worth doing so): https://go.gale.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=Newspapers&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=14&docId=GALE%7CEX1200540485&docType=Review&sort=Pub+Date+Forward+Chron&contentSegment=ZTLS-MOD1&prodId=TLSH&contentSet=GALE%7CEX1200540485&searchId=R2&userGroupName=leedsuni&inPS=true&ps=1&cp=14

Alexander, B., British Volunteers for Liberty, Spain 1936-1939 (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1982), pp. 17-28. (See Online Course Readings Folder Week 1).

Task

  • Read through the following timeline and pick out three events and decide why they are important.

https://warwick.ac.uk/services/library/mrc/archives_online/digital/scw/simpletimeline

SECTION TWO: FOREIGN INTERVENTION

Week 2 Non-Intervention: perfidious Albion?

Key Tasks

  • (1) Watch the TV programme and list some of the ways in which foreign intervention in the Civil War proved decisive.

TV Programme on International Intervention in the Spanish Civil War

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9DxXd0Kl3o

  • (2) Listen to the radio programme on British Help to Franco in the Spanish Civil War and list some of the ways in which foreign intervention in the Civil War proved decisive.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00773js

  • (3) Study these maps and pick out one or two that strike you as important in relation to the international dimension of the Spanish Civil War

https://warwick.ac.uk/services/library/mrc/archives_online/digital/scw/maps/

Key Questions

  • Read the following texts and consider

To what extent did ideology guide British policy during the Spanish Civil War?

To what extent did strategic considerations guide British policy during the Spanish Civil War?

Were the British malevolent, benevolent, both or neither?

Edwards, J., ‘Britain and the Origins of Non-Intervention’, in Edwards, J., The British Government and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939’, pp. 1-39. Available in the online course reading folder in Minerva.

Douglas Little, ‘Red Scare, 1936: Anti-Bolshevism and the Origins of British Non-Intervention in the Spanish Civil War’, Journal of contemporary history., Vol. 23, No. 2, (1988), pp. 291-311.

Enrique Moradiellos, ‘The British Government and the Spanish Civil War’, International journal of Iberian studies, 12, 1999. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Scott Ramsay, ‘Ensuring Benevolent Neutrality: The British Government’s Appeasement of General Franco During the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939’, The International History Review, 2018 (available online).

Primary Sources

What can we learn from Eden’s own account and should we believe him?

Eden, A., Book Two, Chapter V, Eden, A., The Eden Memoirs. Facing the Dictators (London: Casell, 1962), pp. 395-418. Available as an online course reading in Minvera.

Week 3 Britain and France and British Front-Line Diplomats

Key Tasks

  • Search The Manchester Guardian over the Summer of 1936 for articles on British foreign policy in the Spanish Civil War

https://leeds.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/search?query=any,contains,the%20guardian&vid=44LEE_INST:VU1

  • Search The Times over the summer of 1936 for articles on British foreign policy on the Spanish Civil War.

https://go.gale.com/ps/start.do?p=BNCN&u=leedsuni 

  • Do the articles suggest that the UK government took a malevolent attitude to the Spanish Republican authorities and favoured Franco?

Key Questions Group One

  • Read the following texts and consider

Did Eden oppose the Axis powers?

To what extent did Eden and Chamberlain agree on policy towards Spain?

Glyn Stone, ‘Britain, Non-Intervention and the Spanish Civil War’, European History Quarterly, 9, (1979), pp. 129-149 (available electronically through the library catalogue).

Glyn Stone, ‘Neville Chamberlain and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939’, The International History Review, 35, 2 (2013), pp. 377-395 (available electronically through the library catalogue).

William C. Mills, ‘the Nyon Conference: Neville Chamberlain, Anthony Eden and the Appeasement of Italy in 1937, International History Review, 15, 1, (1993), pp. 1-22.

Key Questions Group Two

  • Read the following texts and consider

To what extent did front-line diplomats influence British policy?

To what extent did front-line diplomats act impartially?

Peter Anderson, ‘British Government Maritime Evacuations in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939’, War in History (available online through the library catalogue).

Tom Buchanan, ‘Edge of Darkness: British ‘Front-Line’ Diplomacy in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1937, in Contemporary European History, 12, 3, (2003), pp. 279-303. (available online through the library catalogue).

Maria Thomas, ‘The Front Line of Albion’s perfidy. Inputs into the making of British policy towards Spain: The racism and snobbery of Norman King’ in International Journal of Iberian Studies, 20, 2, (2007), pp. 105-127. (Available online through the library catalogue).

PRIMARY SOURCES DISCUSSION

  • Compare and contrast the accounts of Sir Robert Hodgson and Sir Geoffrey Thompson (Peter Anderson will send these by e-mail)

4 German and Italian Intervention

GROUP ONE GERMANY

  • Why did the Germans intervene in the Spanish Civil War?

Leitz, Christian ‘Nazi Germany and Francoist Spain, 1936-1945’, in Preston P., and Balfour, S., Spain and the Great Powers in the Twentieth Century (London: Routeldge, 1999), pp. 127-150. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Smyth, D., ‘Reflex Reaction: Germany and the Onset of the Spanish Civil War’, in Preston, P., (ed.), Revolution and War in Spain, 1931-1939, (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 243-265. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Viñas, A. and Collado, C. ‘Franco’s Request to the Third Reich for Military Assistance’, Contemporary European History, 11, 2, (2002), pp. 191-210. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Group Two Italy

  • Why did the Italians intervene in the Spanish Civil War?

Preston, P., ‘Mussolini’s Spanish Adventure: From Limited Risk to War’, Preston, P., and Mackenzie, A., The Republic Besieged. Civil War in Spain 1936-1939, (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1999) (Peter Anderson will supply a copy).

Alpert, M., A New International History of the Spanish Civil War (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004). Available online through the library catalogue – read selectively for Italian intervention.

Group One

  • How did the Civil War influence the development of German airpower tactics?

Christopher C. Locksley, ‘Condor over Spain: The Civil War, combat experience and the development of the Luftwaffeairpower doctrine’, Civil Wars, 2, 1 (1999), pp. 66-99. (Available online through the library catalogue).

GROUP TWO

  • To what extent did Mussolini make Franco’s Spain more ‘fascist’?

Morten Heiberg, ‘Mussolini, Franco and the Spanish Civil War: an afterthought’, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 2, 3 (2001), pp. 55-68. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Primary Source Discussion

  • How revealing are the Documents on German Foreign Policy and Ciano’s diary and papers? Peter Anderson will supply these documents.

5 Soviet Intervention: saving the Republic?

KEY READING

  • When and why did the Soviets intervene?
  • To what extent were the Soviets interested in Spain?
  • How decisive was Soviet intervention?
  • What differences and similarities are there in the in interpretations offered by Haslam, Kowalsky, Smythe and Payne?

Haslam, J., The Soviet Union and the Struggle for Collective Security in Europe, 1933-1939), (London: Macmillan, 1984), chapter 7 (available in the online course reading folder).

Kowalsky, D., Stalin and the Spanish Civil War – chapter 2; available as an electronic book through the library catalogue.

Smythe, D., “We are with You”: Solidary and Self Interest in Soviet Policy towards Republican Spain, 1936-1939’, in Preston, P. and Mackenzie, A. The Republic Besieged, (Peter Anderson will supply).

Payne, S. G., The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union, and Communism, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), (Peter Anderson will supply).

Primary Sources

  • What can the historian learn from Ivan Masky’s Spanish Notebooks? (Peter Anderson will supply).

SECTION THREE: REVOLUTION

6 Revolution – eyewitnesses to the greatest revolution in history?

Key Tasks Group One

  • Watch the TV programmes and list the types of revolution that took place and decide how enduring and radical they were.

Granada TV programmes on revolution

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YhBDJvbl4k

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XN5TbqzxQBg

Key Tasks Group Two

  • Search the Daily Mail archive for late July to November 1936. How do the newspaper journalists portray the ‘revolution in Spain’

https://leeds.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?docid=alma991019452565405181&vid=44LEE_INST:VU1

  • Search The Economist for late July to November 1936. How does the magazine’s journalists portray the ‘revolution’ in Spain.

https://leeds.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/discovery/fulldisplay?docid=alma991019425131505181&vid=44LEE_INST:VU1

Key Reading

  • Read the following texts and consider

How spontaneous was the revolution?

What sense of time and place can we gain from the sources about the nature and extent of the revolution?

Bolloten, B., The Grand Camouflage: the Spanish Civil War and Revolution 1936-1939, (London: Pall Mall, 1968), chapter 5 (Available in the online course reading folder).

Dalgoff, S. (ed.), The Anarchist Collectives: workers’ self-management in the Spanish Revolution (1936-1939), (New York: Black Rose Books, 1990), chapter 1 (available in the online course reading folder).

Laval, G., Collectives in the Spanish Revolution, (London: Freedom Press, 1975), chapter 5 (available in the online course reading folder).

7 The Revolution in the Historiography: liberation or murder?

Task

Group One

  • Read the following chapter and list reasons why it is a conservative view of the revolution

Payne, S. G., The Spanish Revolution (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1970), Chapter 11 (available in the online course reading folder).

Group Two

  • Read the following chapter and list reasons why it is a more left-leaning interpretation

Ealham, Chris, Anarchism and the City: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Barcelona, 1898-1937 (Edinburgh: Ak Press, 2010), pp. 170-194 (available in the online course reading folder).

Group Three

  • Read the following online book (only a few pages are not accessible) and consider what we learn about the scale of the revolution and the political reasons why it was supressed

Andy Durgan, ‘Workers’ Democracy in the Spanish Revolution 1936-1937’, in Immanuel Ness and Dario Azzelini, (eds), Ours to Master and to Own: Workers’ Control from the Commune to the Present, (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2011), pp. 148-170. Available at:

http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=JxsXaC8ajvcC&oi=fnd&pg=PA148&dq=Andy+Durgan&ots=xoij4P_aZh&sig=18pJp_wM9HujDgW1X26--tU-kUQ#v=onepage&q=Andy%20Durgan&f=false

Key Reading

  • List the ways the following authors explain the difficulties experienced by revolutionaries

Ronald Fraser, ‘The Popular Experience of War and Revolution, 1936-1939’, in Paul Preston, (ed.), Revolution and War in Spain, 1931-1939, (London: Routledge, 2002), pp. 225-245. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Michael Seidman, ‘Work and Revolution: workers’ control in Barcelona in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1938’, Journal of Contemporary History, 17, 3, (1982), pp. 109-133. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Pierre Broué and Emile Témime, The Revolution and Civil War in Spain, (London: Haymarket Books, 2008) (Chapter 11 available in the online course reading folder).

CLASS DISCUSSION

How can we explain why the revolution took place?

How can we explain why the revolution came to an end?

Could the war have been fought and the revolution carried out at the same time?

8 Defying Male Civilisation: Spanish women to arms or back the kitchen?

TASKS

Group One

  • Read the following article and consider the role and purpose of Mujeres Libres

Martha A. Ackelsberg, ‘"Separate and Equal"? Mujeres Libres and Anarchist Strategy for Women's Emancipation’, Feminist Studies, 11, 1 (1985), pp. 63-83. (Available online through the library website).

Group Two

  • Read the following article and consider the role and purpose of Mujeres Libres

Martha A. Ackelsberg, ‘Women and the Politics of the Spanish Popular Front: Political Mobilization or Social Revolution?’ International Labor and Working Class History 30, 1, (1986).

Key Reading

  • Compare and contrast the arguments put forward by Mary Nash and Lisa Lines

Lisa Lines, ‘Female Combatants in the Spanish Civil War: Milicianas on the Front Lines and in the Rearguard’, Journal of International Women’s Studies, 10 (2009), pp. 168-185. (Available on line through the library catalogue).

Mary Nash, ‘Women in War: Milicianas and Armed Combat in Revolutionary Spain, 1936-1939’, The International History Review, 15, 2 (1993), pp. 269-282.

Case Studies

Group One

  • Read the following article and list the ways in which nursing transformed women’s role and position in society.

Dolores Moruno and Javier Ordez Rodrguez. "The nursing vocation as political participation for women during the Spanish Civil War." Journal of War & Culture Studies 2, no. 3 (2009): 305-319. (Available online through the library catalogue).

If you get interested in the topic, you could watch this video about women volunteers in Spain from the Marx Memorial Library

https://www.marx-memorial-library.org.uk/item/volunteers-liberty-women-and-spanish-civil-war

or

Jackson, A., ‘Blood and guts: nursing with the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939’, in Hallett, C. E., (ed.), One Hundred Years of Wartime Nursing Practices, 1854-1953 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2015), pp. 165-188 (available in the online course reading folder).

Group Two

  • Read the following chapter and consider the way women were represented

Caroline Brothers, War and Photography. A Cultural History (London: Routledge, 1997), Chapter 4 (available online through the library catalogue).

Group Three

  • Read either of the two following pieces and consider the way women were represented

Lannon, F., ‘Women and Images of Women in the Spanish Civil War’ Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 1 (1991), pp. 213-228. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Nash, M., ‘Milicianas and Homefront Heroines: images of women in revolutionary Spain (1936-1939), History of European Ideas, 11, (1989), pp. 235-244. (Available in the online course reading folder)

If you become interested and want to read more you could also look at

MacDonald, S., ‘Drawing the lines-gender, peace and war: an introduction’, InMacDonald, S., Images of Women in Peace and War: cross-cultural and historical perspectives (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 1-26.

For Those Who Would Like to Explore More

Carry out an internet search for posters from the Spanish Civil War and study the way men, women and children were portrayed.

SECTION FOUR: CULTURE AND THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

9 Photography: a new era

TASK

Group 1

  • Read the following piece and list the reasons that Agustí Centelles is such a significant photographer of the Spanish Civil War

Green, J. R., ‘Agustí Centelles: Spanish Civil War Photographer’ in History of Photography, 12, 2 (1988), pp. 147-159. (Available in the online course reading folder)

Group 2

  • Watch the following video and list the reasons why Robert Capa is such a significant photographer

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehQgrmaJRlU

Group 3

  • Watch the following documentary and list reasons why photographers in the Spanish Civil War were so important and what can we learn from Gerda Taro’s story?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KympSgVknO4

KEY READING

  • Read the following texts and consider:

To what extent do war photographers manipulate us?

Does war photography desensitise us?

To what extent can war photography drive us to act more ethically?

Brothers, Caroline, War and Photography (London: Routledge, 1997), chapters 2 and four (available online through the library catalogue).

Susie Linfield, The Cruel Radiance: Photography and Political Violence, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010). Chapters 1 and 2 (available online through the library catalogue).

Sontag, S., Regarding the Pain of Others (London: Penguin, 2004), chapter 2 (available in the online reading folder).

For those who would like to know more (totally optional)

Death of a Loyalist Soldier Controversy

http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/photoblog/2009/07/the_whole_story.html

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1201116/How-Capas-camera-does-lie-The-photographic-proof-iconic-Falling-Soldier-image-staged.html

10 Middle Class Writers: the last great cause?

Tasks

  • Watch the video and list the reasons why intellectuals went to Spain or identified so strongly with the Spanish Republican government and its cause

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibgvBxGiqp0

Key Reading

  • Read the following texts and consider

Why did so many intellectuals flock to Spain?

Buchanan, T., Britain and the Spanish Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 146-168. (Available in the online reading folder).

Hopkins, J., Into the Heart of the Fire: the British in the Spanish Civil War (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), chapters 1-3 (Available online through the library catalogue).

Benson, F., Writers in Arms the Literary Impact of the Spanish Civil War (London: University of London, 1968), pp. 51-87. (Available in the online reading folder).

Weintraub, S., The Last Great Cause: the intellectuals and the Spanish Civil War (London: W.H. Allen, 1968), pp. 12-53. (Available in the online reading folder).

If you would like to know more:

Buchanan, T., The Impact of the Spanish Civil War on Britain: war, loss and memory (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2007), pp. 64-82. (Available in the online reading folder).

TASKS

  • Read Authors Take Sides of the Spanish Civil War and consider what it tells us about feeling among intellectuals at the time. (Peter Anderson will supply the document).

Read the following and list the way in which the author criticises Ernest Hemmingway

Rob Stradling, ‘The Propaganda of the Deed: History, Hemingway and Spain’, Textual Practice, 3, 1, (1989), pp. 15-35. (Available in the online course reading folder).

Read Michele Haapamaki, ‘Writers in Arms and the Just War: The Spanish Civil War, Literary Activism and Leftist Masculinity’ and consider how the left created a cult of the Spanish Civil War. (Available by searching through Google Scholar).

SECTION FIVE: LEFT VOLUNTEERS

11 ‘Spain’s War is My War’: memoirs of the International Brigadiers.

TASKS

  • Watch the video and list the ways in which the left lauds the International Brigades

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5g_fVwqTsCg

TASK

Either

  • Read through a few International Brigade Memorial Trust Magazines and pick out three stories you think are interesting (and be ready to explain why you think they are interesting). Follow this link:

http://www.international-brigades.org.uk/newsletters-current

Or

Have a look through these photographs from the archives of the Marx Memorial Library and pick out three you think are interesting (and be ready to explain why you think they are interesting). Follow this link:

https://www.marx-memorial-library.org.uk/item/international-brigaders

Or  C

Read through this pamphlet from 1938 celebrating the British Battalion and consider how it depicts the volunteers as heroes

https://cdm21047.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/scw/id/3221

KEY READING

How did members of the International Brigades explain their reasons for going to Spain?

How did members of the International Brigades argue they experienced the war?

To what extent do the members of the International Brigades come across as faithful communists?

Alexander, B., British Volunteers for Liberty : Spain 1936-1939 (London: Lawrence Wishart, 1982). (Peter Anderson will supply part of the text).

Darman, P. Heroic Voices of the Spanish Civil War: memories of the International Brigades (London: New Holland, 2009), pp. 19-32. (Available as an online course reading).

Gregory, W., The Shallow Grave: a memoir of the Spanish Civil War (Nottingham: Five Leaves Publications, 1996), Chapter 9. (Available as an online course reading).

Gurney, J., Crusade in Spain (Newton Abbot: Readers Union, 1976), pp. 31-43.

Merriman, M. and Warren, L, American Commander in Spain: Robert Hale Merriman and the Abraham Lincoln Brigade (Reno, University of Nevada Press, 1986) (Peter Anderson will supply an extract)

SEMESTER TWO

12 International Brigades in the historiography of the Spanish Civil War: Comintern Army?

Task

Group One: Consult the Daily Telegraph archives for the International Brigades and Spain and look at how the newspaper depicted the volunteers. Follow this link

https://go.gale.com/ps/start.do?p=TGRH&u=leedsuni

If you get into it, you can check out the more right-leaning Daily Mail

https://go.gale.com/ps/start.do?p=DMHA&u=leedsuni

Group Two:  Read this pro-Franco leaflet and consider how the International Brigadiers are represented

https://cdm21047.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/scw/id/3221

Group Three: Read this article by André Marty and consider how he champions the Brigades

https://cdm21047.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/scw/id/16836

Key Reading (1)

To what extent were volunteers driven by their own motives or the products of trade union organisation?

Alexander, B., British Volunteers for Liberty in Spain, 1936-1939 (London: Lawrence and Wishart), p. 29-39. (Available in the online reading folder).

Francis, H. Miners against Fascism. Wales and the Spanish Civil War, (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1984). Chapter 9. (Available in the online course reading folder).

Key Reading (2)

To what extent were the volunteers controlled by Moscow?

Richardson, R.D., Comintern Army. The International Brigades and the Spanish Civil War, (Lexington: The University Press of Kentuky, 1982). (Chapter 3) (Available in the online course reading folder).

Stradling, R. ‘English-speaking Units of the International Brigades: War, Politics and Discipline’, Journal of Contemporary History, 45, 4, (2010), pp. 744-767. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Key Reading (3)

How and Why has the history and memory of the International Brigades been contested in Germany, Spain and Sweden?

Krammer, A., ‘The Cult of the Spanish Civil War in East Germany’, Journal of Contemporary History, 39, 4 (2004), pp. 531-560. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Marco, J. and Anderson, P. P., ‘Legitimacy by Proxy: searching for a usable past thorugh the International Brigades in Spain’s post-Franco democracy, 1975-2015’, Journal of Modern European History, 14, 3, pp. 391-410. Available here: http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/93332/3/MARCO%20AND%20ANDERSON%209.pdf

Scott, C.G., ‘The Swedish Left’s Memory of the International Brigades and the Creation of an Anti-Fascist Postwar Identity’, European History Quarterly, 39, 2 (2009), pp. 217-240. (Available online through the library catalogue).

13 Black International Brigaders

TASKS

  • Read the following newspaper story and decide if and why you find it interesting

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/dec/20/spanish-civil-war-black-fighter

  • Read the following and decide on their significance.

The New York Amsterdam News, ‘Black Rebels in Spain’, 29/08/1936, p. 12. (Available online though the library catalogue).

The New York Amsterdam News, ‘Mass Parade to denounce Fascism Here’, 27/03/1937, p. 1.

The New York Amsterdam News, ‘Ethiop Gifts Go to Spain, 31/03/1937, p. 2.

The New York Amsterdam News, ‘Ambulance off to Spain’, 12/11/1938, p. 15.

AN INTRODUCTION

  • Why did African-Americans go to fight in Spain?

Caroll, P. N., ‘The Lincoln Brigade and Racial Justice: a tradition’, The Volunteer, 21/03/2014. https://albavolunteer.org/2014/03/the-lincoln-brigade-and-racial-justice-a-tradition/

https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/african-american-anti-fascists-in-the-spanish-civil-war/

https://www.zinnedproject.org/fred-lucas-lincoln-brigade-hunger-marcher

THE IMPORTANCE OF ETHIOPIA

  • What was the relationship between Ethiopia and Spain for African-American volunteers?

Featherstone, D., ‘Black Internationalism, Subaltern Cosmopolitianism, and the Spatial Politics of Antifascism’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103, 6 (2013), pp. 1406-1420.

Featherstone, D., ‘Black Internationalism, International Communism and Anti-Fascist Political Trajectories: African American Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War’, Twentieth-Century Communism: A Journal of International History, 7, (2014), pp. 9-40. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Gebrekidan, F., ‘In Defense of Ethiopia: a comparative assessment of Carribbean and African American Anti-Fascist Protests’, 1935-1941’, Northeast African Studies, 2, 1 (1995), pp. 145-173. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Makalani, M., In the Cause of Freedom: radical black internationalism from Harlem to London, 1917-1939 (Durham: University of the Carolina, 2011), pp. 161-183. (available online through the library catalogue).

Midlo Hal, G., (ed.), A Black Communist in the Freedom Struggle. The Life of Harry Haywood (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), pp. 228-248 (available online through the library catalogue). 

LANGSTON HUGHES AND THE MEANING OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR FOR AN AFRICAN AMERICAN

  • What can we learn from the case of Langston Hughes?

Girón, Echevarría, L. G. ‘Langston Hughes’s Spanish Civil War Verse’, Annuario de Estudios Filológicos, XXVIII, 91-101, pp. 92-101. (Peter Anderson will supply – it is in English).

WIDER CONTEXT

Pankhurst, R., ‘Sylvia Pankhurst, Ethiopia and the Spanish Civil War’, Women’s History Review, 15, 5 (2006), pp. 773-7781. (Available online through the library catalogue).

SECTION SIX POLITICS BEHIND THE LINES

14 The Church and the Francoists: crusaders?

TASK

  • Have a look at the following websites and draw up a list of the ways Catholics present the experience of the faithful in the Spanish Civil War

https://www.osvnews.com/2011/07/20/catholic-persecution-in-the-spanish-civil-war/

https://chrc-phila.org/catholics-responses-to-the-spanish-civil-war/

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/29/spain.catholicism

Key Reading

  • How was the Catholic Church treated during the Spanish Civil War and how did it Respond?

Kent, P. C., ‘The Vatican and the Spanish Civil War’, European History Quarterly, 16, 4 (1986), pp. 441-464. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Lannon, F. ‘The Church’s Crusade against the Republic’, in Preston, P., (ed.), Revolution and War in Spain, 1931-1939(London: Routledge, 1993). (Available online through the library catalogue).

Raguer, H., ‘The Spanish Church and the Civil War: Between Persecution and Repression’, in Carlos Jerez-Ferrán and Samuel Amago, Unearthing Franco’s Legacy: Mass Graves and the Recovery of Historical Memory in Spain, (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2010), pp. 68-89. (available in the online course reading folder).

TASK

Group One

  • Read ‘The Collective Letter of the Spanish Bishops’ and outline the reaction of the Spanish Church to the Spanish Civil War (Peter Anderson will supply).

Group Two

  • Read Caroll, W. H., The Last Crusade, (Christendom Press Books, 2004). Chapter entitled ‘August’ (Peter Anderson will supply) and consider how some Catholics continue to interpret the Civil War.

Group Three

  • Read Bernanos, G. A Diary for My Times, in Valentine Cunningham, Spanish Front. Writers on the Civil War, (Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 145-152. (available in the online course reading folder) and account for why some Catholics turned against the Francoists

Group Four

  • Read Anderson, P., ‘From the Pulpit to the Dock: Basque Priests in Franco’s Military Courts in 1937’ in Sandra Ott (Ed.), War, Exile, Justice and Everyday Life, 1936-1945, (Nevada: University of Nevada Press, 2011), pp. 59-83. (Peter Anderson will supply) and consider how the Basque case complicates our picture of the Spanish Civil War.

15 The Diversity of Catholic Opinion

Group One

  • Read these articles and consider why and in what ways Catholics took different stances on the conflict.

Doering, Bernard, ‘Jacques Maritain and the Spanish Civil War’, The Review of Politics, 44, 4 (1982), pp. 489-522. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Flint, J., ‘Must God Go Fascist? English Catholic Opinion and the Spanish Civil War’, Church History, 56, 3, (1987), pp. 364-374. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Hale, F., ‘Fighting the Fight in Spain: the pro-Franco campagn of Bishop Peter Amigo of Southwark’, The Catholic Historical Review, 92, 3 (2005), pp. 462-483. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Group Two

  • Read these articles and consider why and in what ways Catholics took different stances on the conflict.

González Gullón, J. L., ‘Leocado Lobo: the Spanish Civil War as viewed by a Priest Exiled in the United States of America’, The Catholic Historical Review, 98, 4 (2012), pp. 726-750. (Available online through the library catalogue).

McGarry, F., ‘Irish Newspapers and the Spanish Civil War’, Irish Historical Studies, 33, 129 (2002), pp. 68-90. Available online through the library catalogue.

Valaik, J. D.,  "American Catholic Dissenters and the Spanish Civil War." The Catholic Historical Review,  53, 4 (1968), pp. 537-555. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Case Study

  • Read the following pamphlet and consider why the author first allied and then became disillusioned with the Franco side

Seamus Mckee, I Was A Franco Soldier (London: United Editorial, 1938). (Peter Anderson will supply).

If you want to place his experiences in context, please read

Stradling, R., The Irish and the Spanish Civil War (Manchester: Mandolin, 1999), Chapter 2. (Available in the online course reading folder).

And

Othen, C. Franco’s International Brigades Adventurers. Fascists and Christian Crusaders in the Spanish Civil War(London: Hurst, 2013), pp. 119-128. (Available in the online course reading folder).

16 May Days – Stalinist plot?

Task

  • Read the following primary sources and consider how Miravitlles (Catalonian nationalist) and Jellink (British Communist) explain the May Days.

Miravitlles, J., ‘Explosion in Barcelona’, in Payne, R., The Civil War in Spain: 1936-1939 (London: Secer & Warburg, 1963), pp. 234-251. (Available in the online course reading folder).

Jellink, F., The Civil War in Spain (London: Gollancz, 1938), pp. 234-251. (Available in the online course reading folder).

Key Reading Group One

  • How does Burnett Bolloten, (Cold-War era advocate of the view that the communists betrayed the revolution) explain the May Days and what are the criticisms made of him by Paul Preston and Herbert Southworth

Bolloten, B., in Souchy, A., The May Days, Barcelona 1937 (London: Freeedom Press 1987), pp. 61-93.

Preston, P., ‘The Spanish Civil War. Revolution and Counter-Revolution by Burnett Bolloten’, English Historical Review, 108, 429 (1993), pp. 990-992. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Southworth, H. R., ‘The Grand Camouflage: Julián Gorkin, Burnett Bolloten and the Spanish Civil War’, in Preston, P., The Republic Besieged: civil war in Spain, 1936-1939 (Edinburgh: Edindurgh University Press), pp. 261-310. (Available in the online course reading folder and through the library cataologue as an electronic book).

If you find this debate interesting, check out the fierce argument between the two in the Times Literary Supplement 

https://go.gale.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=Newspapers&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=5&docId=GALE%7CEX1200424455&docType=Review&sort=Pub+Date+Forward+Chron&contentSegment=ZTLS-MOD1&prodId=TLSH&contentSet=GALE%7CEX1200424455&searchId=R2&userGroupName=leedsuni&inPS=true&ps=1&cp=5

https://go.gale.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=Newspapers&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=7&docId=GALE%7CEX1200158249&docType=Editorial&sort=Pub+Date+Forward+Chron&contentSegment=ZTLS-MOD1&prodId=TLSH&contentSet=GALE%7CEX1200158249&searchId=R2&userGroupName=leedsuni&inPS=true&ps=1&cp=7

https://go.gale.com/ps/retrieve.do?tabID=Newspapers&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchResultsType=SingleTab&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=8&docId=GALE%7CEX1200158960&docType=Editorial&sort=Pub+Date+Forward+Chron&contentSegment=ZTLS-MOD1&prodId=TLSH&contentSet=GALE%7CEX1200158960&searchId=R2&userGroupName=leedsuni&inPS=true&ps=1&cp=8

Key Reading Group Two

  • How does Helen Graham explain the May Days?

Graham, H., ‘Against the State: A Genealogy of the Barcelona May Days (1937)’, European History Quarterly 29, 4 (1999), pp. 485-542. (Available online through the library catalogue).

If you become interested in Graham’s argument on the rebuilding of the state you could read

Graham, H., The Spanish Republic at War, 1936-1939 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 131-214. (Available in the online course reading folder).

For those interested in reading the anarchist perspective

Alexander, R. The Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War (London: Janus, 1999), pp. 901-944. (Available in the online course reading folder).

TASK EVERYONE

  • Have a look at one or two sources from the following pages and outline the perspective of one political organisation on the May Days.

https://warwick.ac.uk/services/library/mrc/archives_online/digital/scw/may/

Key Reading – Everyone

  • How much influence could the Soviet Union exert in Spain?

Rees, T., International Communism and the Communist International, 1919-1943 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998), pp. 143-167. (Available in the online course reading folder).

17 George Orwell: ropey journalist, prophet or Cold war Warrior?

Task

  • (1) List the reasons why Orwell went to Spain and the nature of his experience that you encounter in this BBC video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9XA5O_O0VA

  • (2) Read Orwell’s short essay ‘Spilling the Spanish Beans’ and outline his interpretation of the conflict and the role of the Communists. Available here
  • (3)

http://www.online-literature.com/orwell/893/

  • (4) Read Orwell’s short essay ‘Looking Back on the Spanish Civil War’ and outline what he learned from his time in Spain (see especially section 4). Available here
  • (5)

https://libcom.org/files/Looking%20back%20on%20the%20Spanish%20War%20-%20George%20Orwell.pdf

  • (6) Read this newspaper article on George Orwell and outline the main thrust of the author’s attack on the value of his memoir for historians

https://www.theguardian.com/books/2017/may/06/george-orwell-homage-to-catalonia-account-spanish-civil-war-wrong

Key Reading – Everyone

  • How and why has the reception of Orwell’s book changed over time?

Tom Buchanan, ‘Three Lives of Homage to Catalonia’, The Library, 3, 3, (2002), pp. 302-314.

Key Reading – Group One

  • List the criticisms and defences made by Paul Preston of Orwell’s work on Spain

Preston, P., ‘Lights and Shadows in George Orwell’s Homage to Catalonia’, Bulletin of Spanish Studies. Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America, (Available online through the library catalogue).

Key Reading - Group Two

  • How do Bill Alexander and Robert Stradling criticise Orwell’s work on Spain?

Bill Alexander, 'George Orwell and Spain', in Inside the Myth, in Christopher Norris, Inside the Myth: Orwell Views from the Left, (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1984), pp. 85-102. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Robert Stradling, 'Orwell and the Spanish Civil War: A Historical Critique', in Christopher Norris, Inside the Myth: Orwell Views from the Left, (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1984) pp. 103-115. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Key Reading – Group Three

  • How does Valentine Cunningham defend Orwell?

Valentine Cunningham, ‘Homage to Catalonia Revisited: Remembering and Misremembering the Spanish Civil War’, Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire 65, 3, (1987), pp. 501-514. Available on line through a Google search.

Key Reading – Group Three

  • Why did so many intellectual supporters of the Spanish Republic turn against Communists in the Cold War?

Spender, S., ‘Stephen Spender’, in Crossman, R. H. S., (ed.), The God that Failed: Six Studies in Communism (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1950), pp. 231-272. (Available in the online course reading folder).

SECTION SEVEN BOMBING, HUMANITARIANISM AND JOURNALISM

18 The Controversy over the Bombing of Guernica: truth as the first casualty of war

Tasks

  • Read the following newspaper reports and list what we learn about the bombing

https://cdm21047.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/scw/id/5024

The Times, 28/04/1937, ‘The Tragedy of Guernica’, p. 17 (Available online through the library catalogue – search for The Times and when you are on the newspaper’s webpages carry out an advanced search).

The Times, 5/051937, ‘The Times Bombs Guernica’, p. 17.

See also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OiX1VbzorU

The Times, 5/05/1937, ‘The Ruins of Guernica. A Rival View’, p. 16.

Key Reading – Group One

  • How did the Francoists try to deny their bombing of Guernica

No author, Guernica: Being the Official Report of a Commission Appointed by the Spanish National Government to Investigate the Causes of the Destruction of Guernica on April 26-28, 1937, (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1938) (Peter Anderson will supply).

Luis Bolín, ‘The Guernica Myth’

Bolín, Louis, Spain: the vital years, (London: Cassell and Company, 1967), pp. 274-282. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Key Reading Group Two

  • Read the collection of newspaper articles and list the evidence available at the time that the Francoists and their allies carried out the bombing.

Friends of Spain, The Spanish War. Foreign Wings over the Basque Country, (London: Friends of Spain, 1937). (Peter Anderson will supply).

Key Reading Group Three

  • Why did observers at the time react so strongly to the bombing of Guernica?

Stanley Baldwin, Hansard, 10 November 1932 (Peter Anderson will supply).

 Section from Douhet, G., The Command of the Air, 1921. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Section from Davies, John Langdon, Air Raid. The Technique of Silent Approach. High Explosive Panic, (London: George Routledge & Sons, 1938). Peter Anderson will supply.

Key Reading Group Four

  • Why did people react so viscerally to the bombing of Guernica?

Brett, H., "The Air Panic of 1935: British Press opinion between disarmament and rearmament." Journal of Contemporary History 46, 2 (2011), pp. 288-307.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1937/may/03/spain

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1937/may/06/spain-2

19 Children as Subjects of History: bombing, art, therapy and agency

Tasks

  • Browse the following webpages and think about the degree to which children were (a) exploited and subject to propaganda (b) traumatised by war (c) were able to use their own agency to express their views feelings and fears

https://library.ucsd.edu/dc/collection/bb4540678g

https://exhibitions.library.columbia.edu/exhibits/show/children

http://www.bne.es/es/Actividades/Exposiciones/Exposiciones/Exposiciones2006/apesardibujan/ (pages in Spanish but you can click to view the different sections of the exhibition and see the drawings)

If you would like to view children’s art from other conflicts, please follow this link:

https://alba-valb.org/resource/childrens-art-from-other-wars/

Key Reading

Group One

  • How had ideas developed on children’s art before the Spanish Civil War?

Sian Roberts, ‘Exhibiting Children at Risk: child art, international exhibitions and Save the Children fund in Vienna, 1919-1923’, Paedagogica Historica. International Journal of the History of Education, 45, 1-2 (2009), pp. 171-190. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Quance, R. A., ‘Maruja Mallo and the Interest in Children’s Art during the Second Spanish Republic’, Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 90, 8 (2013), pp. 803-818. (Available online thorugh the library catalogue).

Group Two

  • What can we learn from children’s civil war art?

Padrós Tuneu, N. et al, ‘The Spanish Civil War as Seen through Children’s Drawings of the Time’, Paedagogica Historica Interntional Journal of the History of Education, 51, 4, 2015, pp. 478-495.

Roith, C., ‘They Still Draw Pictures: The Spanish Civil War seen with Children’s Eyes’. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Group Three – Children’s Writing and Agency

  • How did children use writing to express their experiences and agency?

Keren, C., ‘Spanish Refugee Children in France, 1939: an insight into their experiences, opinions and culture’, Bulletin of Spanish Studies. Hispanic Studies and Researches on Spain, Portugal and Latin America, 89, 7-8 (2012), pp. 279-293.

Keren, C., ‘Autobiographies of Spanish Refugee Children at the Quaker Home in La Rouvière (France, 1940) : Humanitarian Communication and Children’s Writings’, Les Cahiers de Framespa. Nouveaux champs de l’histoire sociale, 5 (2010). Available here (in English) https://journals.openedition.org/framespa/268

Sierra Blas, V., ‘Educating the Communists of the Future: notes on the educational life of the Spanish children evacuated to the USSR during the Spanish Civil War’, Paedagogica Historica, 51, 4 (2015), pp. 496-519. (Available online through the library catalogue).

20 The Signal was Spain: aid for Spain

TASK

  • (1) Read the following webpages and outlines the motives and contribution of any three aid organisations

https://warwick.ac.uk/services/library/mrc/archives_online/digital/scw/aid/

  • (2) Read ‘The Visit of an All-Party group of Members of Parliament to Spain: report’ and decide what motivated the MPs to support humanitarian aid to Spain

https://cdm21047.contentdm.oclc.org/digital/collection/scw/id/3292

  • (3) Have a look through these photographs and choose two that you think are especially interesting

https://www.marx-memorial-library.org.uk/item/aid-spain

Key Reading

Group One

  • Compare and Contrast Buchanan and Fyrth on the ‘Aid Spain’ Movement

Buchanan, T., ‘Britain’s Popular Front? Aid Spain and the British Labour Movement’, History Workshop Journal, 31, Spring 1991, pp. 60-72. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Fyrth, J., ‘The Aid Spain Movement in Britain, 1936-1939’, History Workshop Journal, 35, 1993, pp. 153-65. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Group Two

  • How do historians of women explain female-aid work in the Spanish Civil War?

Bruley, S., ‘Women Against War and Fascism: Communism, Feminism and the People’s Front’, in Jim Fyrth, (ed.), Britain, Fascism and the Popular Front, (1985). (Available in the online course reading folder).

Jackson, A., British Women and the Spanish Civil War (London: Routledge, 2002), Chapter 3. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Roberts, S., ‘In the Margins of Chaos’: Francesca Wilson and Education for All in the Teachers’ Republic’, History of Education. Journal of the History of Education Society, 35, 6 (2006), pp. 653-668.

If you become interested in this topic, you could read the excellent:

Jackson, A., ‘For us it was Heaven’: the passion, grief and fortitude of Patience Darton from the Spanish Civil War to Mao’s China (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2012). (Available online through the library catalogue).

Or

Damousi, J., ‘Humanitarianism and Child Refugee Sponsorship. The Spanish Civil War and the Global Campaign of Esme Odgers’, Journal of Women’s History, 32, 1 (2020), pp. 111-134. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Key Reading – Group Three

  • Why did members of the Co-Operative movement and the Quakers take part in the Aid Spain campaign and how significant was their contribution?

Mason, E. ‘The Co-operative Commonwealth is the Only Answer to the Fascist Empire’: support for Republican Spain within the British Co-operative Movement, 1936-1939’, Labour History Review, 82, 3 (2017), pp. 189-213. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Mendelsohn, F., ‘The Ethics of Friends’ Relief Work in Republican Spain’, Quaker History, 88, 2 (1999), pp. 1-23. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Key Reading - Group Four

  • How were images of children used as ‘part of the visual economy of humanitarian and political activism’?

Holmes, R., ‘Make the Situation Real to Us without Stressing the Horrors. Children, Photography and Humanitarianism in the Spanish Civil War’, in Paulmann, J., Humanitarianism and Media: 1900 to the Present (New York: Berghahn Books, 2019), pp. 67-89.

Available here https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=N-V1DwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA67&ots=cT0xeDmbWK&sig=wFhHCBIs8QKhvEx_TvIcO5zFUpE#v=onepage&q&f=false

Roberts, S., ‘Activism, Agency and Archive: British Activists and the Representation of Educational Colonies in Spain during and after the Spanish Civil War’, Paedagogica Historica, 49, 6 (2013), pp. 796-812. (Available online through the library catalogue).

If you become interested in this topic, you could read

Braster, S., & Pozo Andrés, M., ‘Education and the Children’s Colonies in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): the images of the community ideal’, Paedagogica Historica, 51, 4 (2015), pp. 455-477. (Available online through the library catalogue).

21 Basque Children

TASK

  • (1) Listen to the podcast and list reasons why the history of the nearly 4,000 children evacuated from the Basque Country to Spain matters so much

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5DIDNrAf6M

  • (2) Read the following short pieces and consider why, how and with what results the children were evacuated to the United Kingdom

Ellis, R. W. B., ‘Four Thousand Basque Children’, The Lancet, 229, 5935 (29 May 1937), pp. 1303-1304. (available online through the library catalogue).

Gibson, R. G., ‘Four Thousand Basque Children: The Refugee Camp at Southampton’, The Lancet, 230, 5958 (6 November 1937), pp. 1091-1096. (Available online through the library catalogue).

The Daily Mail 24/05/1937, ‘Aeroplanes Terrify Basque Children’, p. 5.

The Courier and Advertiser, ‘Mass Hysteria in children’s Refugee Camp’, p. 7.

The Daily Mail, 16/07/1937, ‘Steps to Avoid Further Basque Camp Trouble. Elder Boys to be Sent from Scarborough to Leeds’, p. 11.

All available at British online newspapers :

https://leeds.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/44LEE_INST/13rlbcs/alma991010988769705181

Key Reading

  • (1) Why did it prove possible to evacuate Basque children to the UK and what was their experience in the UK?

Bell, Only for Three Months: the Basque Refugee Children in Exile (Norwich: Mousehold Press, 2012), pp. 36-68. (Available in the Online Course Reading Folder).

Benjamin, Natalia, ‘Recuerdos Basque Children Refugees in Great Britain (Oxford: Mousehold Press for Basque Children of ’37 Association UK, 2007), pp. 93-130. (Available in the Online Course Reading Folder).

Fyrth, J., ‘The Signal was Spain: the Spain Aid Movement in Britain, 1936-39 (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1986), pp. 220-242. (Available in the online course reading folder).

Manning, L., A Life for Education: an autobiography (London: Gollancz, 1970), pp. 112-140. (Available in the online course reading folder).

  • (2) Why was the repatriation of the Basque children so controversial?

Anderson, P., ‘The Struggle over the evacuation and repatriation of Basque Refugee Children in the Spanish Civil War: Symbols and Souls’, Journal of Contemporary History, 52, 2 (2017), pp. 297-318.

  • If you are interested in the agency of the Basque children, you could read:

Burns, J. ‘The Basques in Britain: an examination of refugee children’s agency and identity formation through self-produced journals Amistad and Cambria House Journal. Undergraduate dissertation University of Southampton. Available here: https://www.basquechildren.org/-/docs/articles/joshuaburnsLink to Cambria House Journal http://www.caerleon.net/cambria/basque/

22 Journalism and the Spanish Civil War: the first draft of history?

TASK

  • Read the pieces by Jay Allen and George Steer (Peter Anderson will supply) and consider their value as pieces of journalism and history.

Key Reading

  • (1) Are journalists a good source for historians?

Williams, K. ‘War Correspondents as Sources for History’, Media History, 18, 3-4 (2012), pp. 341-360. (Available online through the library catalogue).

  • (2) To what extent is political neutrality the same as objectivity?

Can partisans tell the truth?

Did journalists in the Spanish Civil War draft the first history of the conflict?

Buchanan, Tom ‘Journalism at War: George Lowther Steer, Guernica and the Resistance to Fascist Aggression’, in Tom Buchanan, The Impact of the Spanish Civil War on Britain. War, Loss and Memory, (Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 2007). (Peter Anderson will supply).

Deacon, David, ‘Elective and Experiential Affinities: British and American Foreign Correspondents and the Spanish Civil War’, Journalism Studies, 9, 3, (2008), 392-408. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Knightly, Philip, The First Casualty: the war correspondent as hero and myth maker from the Crimea to Iraq (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2004), pp. 208-236. (Peter Anderson will supply).

Preston, Paul, ‘Censorship and commitment: Foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War.’ International Journal of Iberian Studies 20, 3, (2007), 231-241. (Available online through the library catalogue).

Task

  • Read the following newspaper reports and decide on whether they are partisan (and the degree to which they are, if they are) and whether they help write the historical record.

The Daily Mail, 27/07/1936, ‘Spain’s Red Carmens’, p. 10.

The Daily Mail, 27/07/1936, ’27 Burned Alive by Spanish Reds’, p. 11.

The Daily Mail, 27/07/1936, ‘Priests Tortured in Spain’, p. 12.

The Daily Mail, 31/07/1936, ‘Blood-Lust & Terror in Madrid’, p. 10.

The Manchester Guardian, 17/09/1936, ‘Terrorism in Andalusia’, p. 12. (Available online through the library catalogue).

The Manchester Guardian, 4/05/1937, ‘The Women of Madrid’, p. 8. (Available online through the library catalogue).

The Manchester Guardian, 19/06/1937, ‘In the Midst of Revolution’, p. 16. (Available online through the library catalogue).

This list was last updated on 16/07/2021