Skip to main content

Reading List

Political and Development Geographies: The shaping of the world, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Martin Purvis
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Some overarching text books

Flint, C (2021) Introduction to Geopolitics (4th edition) Routledge

Heywood A (2014) Global PoliticsBasingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (available as an e-book)

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge.

Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power. 2nd edition. London: Sage.


Top of page

Week 1: Critical geographical perspectives on political and economic power

Key readings

Nye J S (2011) The future of power – especially Part 1 Types of Power – chapters on military power, economic power and soft power (available as e-book)

 Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power. 2nd edition. London: Sage. Chapter 1, p.4-18.

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge. Chpt 1 Introduction: power, space and 'political geography'

Further reading

Dalby, S. (2010) ‘Recontextualising violence, power and nature: The next twenty years of critical geopolitics’, Political geography. 29:280–88.

Dodds, K. (2019) Geopolitics. A very short introduction (3rd edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chpt 1 'What is geopolitics?'; Chpt 2 'Intellectual poison?'.

Gill, B (2020) 'China's global influence: post-Covid prospects for soft power' Washington Quarterly 43(2): 97-115

Ioannides, I (2021) The European Union and the geopolitics of Covid19 vaccines in the Western Balkans ELIAMEP Policy Brief 146 Also available online:

Ó Tuathail, G and Dalby, S (1998) ‘Introduction: Rethinking Geopolitics: Towards a Critical Geopolitics’ in G Ó Tuathail and S. Dalby (eds.) Rethinking geopolitics (ch 1) OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/11/2017) Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Synder, A and Sindyukov, M (2020) 'How Covid-19 is changing the soft power game' Diplomatic Courier 16 April

Scocozza C (2021) Coronavirus geopolitics. A reflection on the Russian case, Culture e Studi del Sociale 5(1) Special issue 389-393

Terry G S and Makarychev M (2021) Performative diplomacy and popular geopolitics: the case of Russian anti-COVID assistance to Italy, Problems of Post-Communism – in press – available on-line


Walton C D (2007) Geopolitics and the great powers in the twenty-first century : multipolarity and the revolution in strategic perspective (available as e-book)

Top of page

Block I: States and global power politics

Top of page

Week 2: Enlightenment and modernity

Key readings

Linehan D (2009) “Modernity”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International encyclopedia of human geography pp157-63

Ogborn M (2013) “Modernity and modernization”. In Cloke P, Crang P & Goodwin M (eds) Introducing Human Geographies (3rd edition) pp 480-492.

Further reading

Agnew J A (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics (2nd edition) – Chapter 3 “Turning time into space”

Berman M (1983) All that is solid melts into air : the experience of modernity – especially Chapter 1 “Introduction – modernity: yesterday, today and tomorrow”

Brayshay M (2009) “Capitalism and the division of labour”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International encyclopedia of human geography pp 390-401

Bush B (2006) Imperialism and postcolonialism – Chapter 3 “Imperialism and modernity” especially pp 77-100

Daniels P, Bradshaw M, Shaw D & Sidaway J (eds) (2012) An Introduction to Human Geography (4th edition) - Chapter 1 “Pre-capitalist worlds”; Chapter 2 “The rise and spread of capitalism”

Gregory D et al (eds) (2009) Dictionary of Human Geography (5th edition) -entries on “Modernity”, “Postmodernity” and “Postmodernism”

Nash C (2000) “Historical geographies of modernity”. In Graham, B & Nash, C (eds) Modern historical geographies pp 13-40.

Ogborn M (1998) Spaces of modernity : London's geographies, 1680-1780, – Chapter 1 “Spaces of modernity”

Short J R (2012) Globalization, modernity, and the city – Chapter 3 “Metropolitan modernities” – especially pp 53-66 and 74-84

Withers C W J (2009) “Enlightenment geography”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International encyclopedia of human geography pp 471-86


Top of page

Week 3: The origins of the modern state

Key readings

Agnew J A (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics (2nd edition) – Chapter 4 “A world of territorial states”

Jones M (2009) “State” In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) (2009) International encyclopedia of human geography pp 409-15

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge. Chpt 2 States and territories; Chpt 3 The state's changing forms and functions

Further reading

Abramson S (2017) The economic origins of the territorial state, International organization. 71(1): 97-130

Blacksell M (2006) Political Geography – Chapter 3 “The idea of the state”

Flint C & Taylor P J (2011) Political Geography: World Economy, Nation-State and Locality (6th edition) – Chapter 4 “Territorial states”

Gunn S, Grummitt D & Cools H (2008) “War and the state in early modern Europe: widening the debate”, War in history. 15: 371-88

Le Galès P (2002) European cities : social conflicts and governance – Chapter 2 “The long history of the European city” – especially pp 40-52

Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power – Chapter 2 “State formation” – especially pp 30-38

Spruyt H (2002) “The origins, development, and possible decline of the modern state”, Annual review of political science. 5: 127-49 – especially pp 129-40

Tilly C (ed) (1975) The Formation of National States in Western Europe – especially Chapter 1 “Reflections on the history of European state-making” and Chapter 9 “Western state-making and theories of political transformation”

Tilly C (1989) “The geography of European state-making and capitalism since 1500”. In Genovese E D & Hochberg L (eds) Geographic perspectives in history, pp 158-81 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (SRJ 06/11/2017) Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Tilly C (1989) “Cities and states in Europe, 1000-1800”, Theory and society. 18: 563-84

Tilly C (1990) Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990-1990, – especially Chapter 1 “Cities and states in world history”; Chapter 2 “European cities and states”; Chapter 3 “How wars made states, and vice versa” Chapter 3 Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Tilly C (1993) European revolutions, 1492-1992 – Chapter 2 “Transformations of Europe” – especially pp 21-35


Top of page

Week 4: Empire and imperialism

Key readings

Agnew J A (2003) Geopolitics: Re-visioning World Politics (2nd edition) – Chapter 5 “The three ages of geopolitics” – especially pp 85-101

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 (2021) Anticolonialism

Jones, M; Jones, R; Woods, M; Whitehead, M; Dixon, D; and Hannah, M. (2015) An introduction to political geography : space, place and politics (2nd edition), Abingdon: Routledge. Chpt 8 Geographies of empire

Power M (2009) “Empire”. In Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography pp 453-63

Further reading

Bell D (2016) Reordering the world : essays on liberalism and empire - Chapter 4 "Ideologies of empire" pp 91-118

Bush B (2006) Imperialism and postcolonialism – Chapter 1 “Untangling imperialism: comparisons over time and space”; Chapter 2 “Untangling imperialism: theories, concepts and historiography” especially pp 43-62

Burton A (2015) The trouble with empire : challenges to modern British imperialism - Chapter 1 "Introduction: the troubled ground of empire" pp 1-23

Butlin R A (2009) Geographies of empire : European empires and colonies, c.1880-1960 - Chapter 1 "Geography, imperialism and colonialism: concepts and frameworks" and Chapter 10 "Geographies of the 'civilising mission'"

Claeys, G (2010) Imperial Sceptics: British Critics of Empire, 1850-1920 (Cambridge University Press)

Curtin, P D (2000) The world and the West : the European challenge and the overseas response in the age of empire – Chapter 1 “The pattern of empire”; Chapter 2 “Technology and power”; Chapter 3 “The politics of imperialism”

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 (2021) Enlightenment and empire

Flint C & Taylor P J (2018) Political Geography: World-Economy, (7th edition) – Chapter 3 “Geography of imperialisms”

Gopal P (2019) Insurgent Empire: Anticolonial Resistance and British Dissent. London: Verso.

Gopal P (2019) Insurgent Empire: Priyamvada Gopal in conversation with Verso Books

Harris C (2004) “How did colonialism dispossess? Comments from an edge of empire” Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 94 (1): 165-182

Hicks, D (2020) The Brutish Museums: The Benin Bronzes, Colonial Violence and Cultural Restitution (Pluto) - available as an e-book

Howe S (2002) Empire: A Very Short Introduction – Chapters 1-5

Kitchin R & Thrift N (eds) (2009) International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography: Lester A, “Colonialism I” pp 175-81; Atkinson D, “Colonialism II” pp 182-88

Jackson A (2013) The British Empire : a very short introduction

Lester A (2000) “Historical geographies of imperialism”. In Graham, B & Nash, C (eds) Modern historical geographies pp 100-20.

Lester A (2002) “Constructing colonial discourse: Britain, South Africa and the empire in the 19thC”. In Blunt A & McEwan C (eds) Postcolonial geographies pp 29-45

Painter J & Jeffrey A (2009) Political geography : an introduction to space and power – Chapter 8 “Imperialism and postcolonialism”

Phillips R (2013) “Colonialism and post-colonialism”. In Cloke P, Crang P & Goodwin M (eds) Introducing Human Geographies (3rd edition) pp 493-508.

Popkin J D (2021) The Haitian Revolution comes of age: ten years of new research, Slavery & Abolition, 42(2): 382-401

Sharman J C (2018) Myths of military revolution: European expansion and Eurocentrism, European Journal of International Relations24(3), 491–513.

Sharman J C (2019) Power and profit at sea: the rise of the West in the making of the international system, International Security, 43(4): 163-196.

Sharp J (2009) Geographies of Postcolonialism: Spaces of Power and Representation – Part 1 “Colonialisms”

Steinmetz G (2005) “Return to empire: the new US imperialism in comparative historical perspective” Sociological theory. 23(4): 339-67

Wolfe P (2006) “Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native” Journal of genocide research. 8(4): 387-409


Top of page

Week 5: Relocating global power during the 20th century

Key readings

Immerman, R H and Goedde P (eds) (2013) The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt ‘Geopolitics and the Cold War’

Kalinovsky, A M and Daigle, C (eds) (2014) The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt 1 ‘Incompatible universalisms. The United States, the Soviet Union, and the beginnings of the Cold War’


Further reading 

Bacevich A J (ed) (2013) The short American century : a postmortem

Buettner, E (2016) Europe after Empire: Decolonization, Society and Culture (available as an e-book) – especially, but not only Chpt 1 “Myths of continuity and European exceptionalism: Britain, decolonization, and the Commonwealth family ideal” pp 23-77

de Grazia V (2009) Irresistible empire : America's advance through twentieth-century Europe

Fraser, C (1992) Understanding American policy towards the decolonization of European empires, 1945–64,  Diplomacy & Statecraft, 3(1): 105-125

Gillingham J (2003) European Integration, 1950-2003: Superstate or New Market Economy? ­(available as an e-book) – Part 1 A German solution to Europe’s problems? The early history of the European communities, 1950-1965

Hansen, P (2002) European integration, European identity and the colonial connection, European Journal of Social Theory, 5(4): 483-498

Harvey D (2005) The New Imperialism – especially (but not only) Chapter 2 “How America’s power grew”

Hopkins, A G (2017) Globalisation and decolonisation, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 45(5): 729-745

Immerman, R H and Goedde P (eds) (2013) The Oxford Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt ‘The Cold War and the imperialism of nation-states’; ‘Soviet-American relations through the Cold War’

Itzkowitz Shifrinson, J R (2020) Partnership or predation? How rising states contend with declining Great Powers, International Security 45(1), 90-126

James, L and Leake E (eds) (2015) Decolonization and the Cold War: Negotiating Independence – especially ‘Introduction’ pp 1-17

Kalinovsky, A M and Daigle, C (eds) (2014) The Routledge Handbook of the Cold War (available as an e-book) Chpt 7 ‘Decolonization and the Cold War’

Kim D H (2004) “Empire’s entrails and the imperial geography of ‘Amerasia’” City : analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action. 8(1): 57-88

Leffler, M P and Westad O A (eds) (2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume I Origins (available as an e-book) – especially Chpt 8 ‘The Marshall Plan and the creation of the West’; Chpt 9 ‘The Sovietization of Eastern Europe, 1944-1953’; Chpt 22 ‘Decolonization, the global South and the Cold War, 1919-1962’

Leffler, M P and Westad O A (eds) (2010) The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Volume II Crises and Détente (available as an e-book) – especially Chpt 7 ‘Soviet foreign policy 1962-1975’; Chpt 9 ‘European integration and the Cold War’; Chpt 13 ‘The Cold War in the Third World, 1963-1975’

Martel, G (2000) Decolonisation after Suez: retreat or rationalisation? Australian Journal of Politics and History  46(3): 403-417

Nye J S Jr (2019) The rise and fall of American hegemony from Wilson to Trump, International Affairs, 95(1): 63–80.

Sempa, F P (2014) The geopolitical vision of Alfred Thayer Mahan, The Diplomat, 30 December 

Slater D (1999) “Locating the American century: themes for a post-colonial perspective”. In Slater D & Taylor P J (eds) The American century : consensus and coercion in the projection of American power pp 17-31

Smith T (2012) America's Mission: the United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy (available as an e-book)

Sweeney, S (2019) The Europe Illusion. Britain, France, Germany and the Long History of European Integration – pp 253-265 on decolonisation and European integration

Taylor P J (1999) “Locating the American century: a world systems analysis”. In Slater D & Taylor P J (eds) The American century : consensus and coercion in the projection of American power pp 1-16

Thomas, M and Thompson, A (eds) (2018) The Oxford Handbook of the Ends of Empire (available as an e-book) – especially Chpts ‘Britain and decolonization in an era of global change’; ‘Empire by imitation? US economic imperialism within a British world system’; ‘Decolonization and the Cold War’; ‘Remnants of empire’


Top of page

Week 7: American empire today - political and economic

Key readings

Nye J S (2011) The future of power – Chapter 6 Power transition: the question of American decline (available as an e-book) 

Porter P (2018) Why America's Grand Strategy has not changed: power, habit, and the US foreign policy establishment, International security. 42(4): 9-46

Further reading

Allison G (2020) The new spheres of influence: sharing the globe with other great powers, Foreign Affairs. 99(2): 30-40

Biden J R (2020) Why American must lead again: Rescuing US foreign policy after Trump, Foreign Affairs. 99(2): 64-76.

Brooks S G and Wohlforth W C (2016) The once and future superpower: why China won’t overtake the United States, Foreign affairs 96(3): 91-104

Colby, E A and Mitchell A (2020) The age of great-power competition: How the Trump administration refashioned American strategy, Foreign Affairs 99(1), 118-130.

Fuchs, M H (2019) America doesn’t need a Grand Strategy, Foreign Policy 234 40-45

Haines, J R (2019) Redefining American security interests in Europe, Orbis: FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs, Autumn, 520-544 Available online.

Krasner, S D (2020) Learning to live with despots: the limits of democracy promotion, Foreign Affairs. 99(2): 49-55.

Rhodes, B (2020) The democratic renewal: what it will take to fix US foreign policy. Foreign Affairs 99(4): 46-83.

Rouhi M (2018) US–Iran tensions and the oil factor, Survival, 60(5), 33-40.

Sharma, R (2020) The comeback nation: U.S. economic supremacy has repeatedly proved declinists wrong, Foreign Affairs 99(3), 70-81

Sloan, S R (2020) US Foreign Policy in 2021. Atlantisch Perspectief44(5): 38-43

Stokes D (2018) Trump, American hegemony and the future of the liberal international order, International affairs. 94(1): 133–150

Struye de Swielande, T (2021) The Biden administration: an opportunity to affirm a flexible and adaptive American world leadership. World Affairs, 184(2): 130-150.

Trubowitz P and Harris P (2019) The end of the American century? Slow erosion of the domestic sources of usable power, International Affairs,95(3): 619–639.

Wright, T (2020) The folly of retrenchment: Why America can't withdraw from the World, Foreign Affairs 99(2), 10-18

Yang, X (2021) US-China crossroads ahead: Perils and opportunities for Biden. The Washington Quarterly, 44(1): 129-153.

Zakaria F (2019) The self-destruction of American power: Washington squandered the unipolar moment, Foreign Affairs, 98(4): 10-16.


Top of page

Week 8: China: a new superpower?

Key readings

Blanchard J-M F and Flint C (2017) The geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road initiative, Geopolitics. 22(2): 223-245

Jones L and Zeng J (2019) "Understanding China's Belt and Road Initiative: Beyond 'grand strategy' to a state transformation analysis". Third World Quarterly 40(8): 1415-1439

Nordin A H M, Weissmann M (2018) Will Trump make China great again? The Belt and Road initiative and international order, International affairs. 94(2): 231–249


Further reading

African Studies Quarterly (2016) Special Issue: China-Africa Relations: Political and Economic Engagement and Media Strategies, African studies quarterly [electronic resource]. 16(3-4) (

Alden C and Jiang L (2019) Brave new world: debt, industrialization and security in China-Africa relations, International Affairs, Volume 95, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages 641–657.

The Belt and Road Podcast (2021) - especially (2019) 10: Is the Belt and Road Initiative a 'Grand Strategy'?

Brands, H and Sullivan, J (2020) China’s two global paths to global domination, Foreign Policy 237, 46-51.

Cai K G (2018) The One Belt One Road and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank: Beijing’s new strategy of geoeconomics and geopolitics, Journal of contemporary China. (

Center for Strategic and International Studies (2021) The Asia Chess Board Podcasts - especially 'King of the Chess Board? Xi Jinping and the future of China's Grand Strategy'

China-Africa Project (2020) Weaponizing China’s Belt and Road Initiative

Council on Foreign Relations (2021) Podcast: China’s Influence in Latin America

deLisle, J (2020) Foreign policy through other means: Hard power, soft power, and China’s turn to political warfare to influence the United States, Orbis: the FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs. Spring, 174-206. Available online.

Fingar, T and Oi, J C (2020) China’s challenges: Now it gets much harder, The Washington Quarterly, 43(1), 67-84

Goldstein, G (2020) China’s Grand Strategy under Xi Jinping: reassurance, reform and resistance, International Security 45(1), 164-201

Guardian (2018) Cities of the New Silk Road (good journalistic coverage of the One Belt-One Road initiative, and specific projects connected with it)

Iftikhar M and Zhan J V (2020) The geopolitics of China’s overseas port investments: a comparative analysis of Greece and Pakistan, Geopolitics – in press – available on-line

Inkster N (2019) The Huawei affair and China's technology ambitions, Survival, 61(1), 105-111.

Lin S, Sidaway J D and Yuan Woon C (2019) Reordering China, respacing the world: Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路) as an emergent geopolitical culture, The Professional Geographer, 71(3), 507-522.

Mannan, M A (2020) China’s balancing behaviour against the United States and the special importance of Myanmar, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs 7(2), 177-201

Mayer M (2018) China’s historical statecraft and the return of history, International Affairs, 94(6): 1217–1235.

Rolland N (2017) China’s “Belt and Road Initiative”: underwhelming or game-changer? The Washington quarterly. 40(1): 127-142

Schreer B (2017): Towards contested ‘Spheres of Influence’ in the Western Pacific: rising China, classical geopolitics, and Asia-Pacific stability, Geopolitics. (

Scobell A (2018) The South China Sea and US‐China rivalry, Political science quarterly. 133(2): 199-224

Shinn, D H and Eisenman, J (2020) Evolving principles and guiding concepts: How China gains African support for its core national interests, Orbis: the FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs. Spring, 271-288 Available online.

Sudworth J (2018) China's hidden camps, BBC News (

Wong A (2021) How not to win allies and influence geopolitics: China's self-defeating economic statecraft, Foreign Affairs 100(3): 44-53 

Zhang, K (2019) Cautious bully: reputation, resolve, and Beijing’s use of coercion in the South China Sea, International Security 44(1): 117-159

Zhao S (2018) China and the South China Sea arbitration: geopolitics versus international law, Journal of contemporary China. , 27(109): 1-15


Top of page

Week 9: Russia - a disruptive power?

Key readings

Gotz E (2017) Putin, the state and war: the causes of Russia's Near Abroad assertion revisited, International Studies Review 19: 228-253 Available at:

Lukyanov F (2016) Putin’s foreign policy: the quest to restore Russia’s rightful place, Foreign affairs 95(3): 30-37

Tyushka A (2021) Weaponizing narrative: Russia contesting EUrope’s liberal identity, power and hegemony, Journal of Contemporary European Studiesin press -


Further reading

Abbas, S R (2020) Russian geopolitics and Eurasia: an analytical study of Russia's role in Eurasian integration. World Affairs Journal 24(2): 90-104

Bolt P J and Cross S N (2018) China, Russia and Twenty-First Century Global Geopolitics – esp Chpt 4 ‘Russia, China, and contemporary international conflicts: Ukraine and Syria’ (Oxford University Press) – available as an e-book

Clark J R (2019) Russia’s indirect grand strategy, Orbis, 63(2): 225-239.

Clunan A (2018) Russia and the Liberal World Order, Ethics and international affairs , 32(1): 45-59

Council on Foreign Relations (2021) Podcast: Russia

Feklyunina V (2016) Soft power and identity: Russia, Ukraine and the “Russian world(s)”, European journal of international relations. 22(4): 773-796

Foreign Affairs (2016) Special Issue: Putin’s Russia, Foreign affairs 95(3) – see especially (but not only): Kotkin S, Russia’s perpetual geopolitics: Putin returns to the historical pattern (pp 2-9); Trenin D, The revival of the Russian military: how Moscow reloaded (pp 23-29); Treisman D, Why Putin took Crimea: the gambler in the Kremlin (pp 47-55)

Foxall, A (2019) From Evropa to Gayropa: A critical geopolitics of the European Union as seen from Russia, Geopolitics 24(1), 174-193

Götz E (2015) It's geopolitics, stupid: explaining Russia's Ukraine policy, Global Affairs 1(1): 3-10 Available online:

Hill W H (2019) Russia’s search for a place in Europe, Survival, 61(3), 93-102.

Kalinin K (2019) Neo-Eurasianism and the Russian elite: the irrelevance of Aleksandr Dugin’s geopolitics, Post-Soviet Affairs 35 (5-6): 461-470

Kanet R E (ed) (2019) Routledge Handbook of Russian Security (Routledge) - available as an e-book – useful chapters include 1: ‘Russia’s pursuit of great-power status and security’; 5: ‘The Russian challenge to the liberal world order’; 15: ‘Russian security strategy and the geopolitics of energy in Eurasia’; 20: ‘Russian security policy towards the United States’; 21 ‘NATO enlargement: a new security dilemma for Russia’; 25 ‘The impacts of climate change on Russian Arctic security’; 33: ‘Russia’s ‘hybrid’ aggression against Ukraine’; 34: ‘Russia, the Middle East and the conflict in Syria’

Koch N and Tynkkynen V-P (2021) The geopolitics of renewables in Kazakhstan and Russia, Geopolitics 26(2): 521-540

Kuzio T (2018) Russia–Ukraine crisis: the blame game, geopolitics and national identity, Europe-Asia studies. , 70(3): 462-473

Lewis D G (2018) Geopolitical imaginaries in Russian foreign policy: the evolution of ‘Greater Eurasia’, Europe-Asia Studies, 70(10), 1612-1637.

Lewis, S (2019) Russia’s continued aggression against Ukraine, The RUSI Journal, 164(1): 18-26.

McFaul M (2018) Russia as it is: grand strategy for confronting Putin, Foreign affairs. 97(4), 82-91

Marten, K (2019) Russia’s back in Africa: Is the Cold War returning?, The Washington Quarterly 42:4, 155-170

Menon, R (2020) Puncturing the myth of Putin’s genius, Foreign Policy 235, 7-9 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (chg 06/10/2020) 

Mikulska, A (2020) Gazprom and Russian natural gas policy in the first two decades of the 21st Century, Orbis: FPRI’s Journal of World Affairs, Summer, 403-420 Available online.

O’Loughlin J, Toal G and Kolosov V (2016) Who identifies with the “Russian World”? Geopolitical attitudes in south-eastern Ukraine, Crimea, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Transnistria, Eurasian geography and economics. 57(6): 745-778

O’Loughlin J and Toal G (2019) The Crimea conundrum: legitimacy and public opinion after annexation, Eurasian Geography and Economics, 60(1), 6-27.

Pieper M (2019) ‘Rising power’ status and the evolution of international order: Conceptualising Russia’s Syria policies, Europe-Asia Studies 71(3), 365-387

Pieper M (2020) Russkiy Mir: The geopolitics of Russian compatriots abroad, Geopolitics 25(3), 756-779

Raik K (2019) The Ukraine crisis as a conflict over Europe’s political, economic and security order, Geopolitics 24(1): 51-70

Rezvani B (2020) Russian foreign policy and geopolitics in the post-Soviet space and the Middle East: Tajikistan, Georgia, Ukraine and Syria, Middle Eastern Studies 56(6): 878-899

Roberts K (2017) Understanding Putin: the politics of identity and geopolitics in Russian foreign policy discourse, International journal. 72(1): 28-55

Rosenberg, S (2020) Russian influence under threat in its own backyard, BBC News 3 December

Scholten D, Bazilian M, Overland I and Westphal K (2020) The geopolitics of renewables: new board, new game. Energy Policy, 138 - available on-line

Siddi M (2018) The role of power in EU–Russia energy relations: the interplay between markets and geopolitics, Europe-Asia Studies, 70(10), 1552-1571.

Suslov M (2018) “Russian World” concept: post-Soviet geopolitical ideology and the logic of “Spheres of Influence”, Geopolitics. 23(2): 330-353

Toal G (2017) Near abroad : Putin, the West and the contest over Ukraine and the Caucasus (available as an e-book)

Tsygankov A P (2015) Vladimir Putin's last stand: the sources of Russia's Ukraine policy, Post-Soviet affairs. 31(4): 279-303

Turoma S and Waldstein M (eds) (2016) Empire De/Centered. New Spatial Histories of Russia and the Soviet Union – esp Chpt 6 Pynnoniemi, K ‘The rearrangement of the post-Soviet space and the representation of Russia as a Eurasian bridge’ – available as an e-book

Wengren S K (ed) (2016) Putin’s Russia: Past Imperfect, Future Uncertain (6th edition) (London: Rowman & Littlefield) especially Part III Russia and the World (e-book)


Top of page

 Week 10: Further aspirants to global and regional power

Key reading

It is impossible to identify one or two readings which provide a complete and up-to-date overview. Think about which parts of the world interest you most and pick something from the list below that will increase your understanding of your chosen area. The readings include material on India/South Asia; Japan; the Middle East and Turkey; Europe/the European Union.


Further reading

Ahmad, P and Singh, B (2019) Sino-Pakistan friendship, changing South Asian geopolitics and India’s post-Obama options, South Asia Research 37(2), 133-146

Ahmadian H (2021) Iran and the new geopolitics of the Middle East: in search of equilibrium, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 23(3): 458-472

Bachmann, V. and Sidaway, J.D. (2009) ‘Zivilmacht Europa: a critical geopolitics of the European Union as a global power’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34, pp. 94-109.

Basrur, R (2019) India and China: A managed nuclear rivalry?, The Washington Quarterly 42(3), 151-170

BBC World Service (2020) The Real Story: Turkey flexes on the world stage, BBC World Service, 2 October

Beck, M (2020) The aggravated struggle for regional power in the Middle East: American allies Saudi Arabia and Israel versus Iran, Global Policy 11(1), 84-92

Benson, R & Zürn, M (2019) Untapped potential: How the G20 can strengthen global governance, South African Journal of International Affairs, 26(4), 549-562

Brandi, C (2019) Club governance and legitimacy: The perspective of old and rising powers on the G7 and the G20, South African Journal of International Affairs 26(4), 685-702

Browning C S (2018) Geostrategies, geopolitics and ontological security in the Eastern neighbourhood: The European Union and the ‘new Cold War’, Political geography. 62: 106-115.

Chakraborty, S (2018) Significance of BRICS: regional powers, global governance, and the roadmap for multipolar world, Emerging Economy Studies 4(2), 182-191

Chebankova E (2017) Russia’s idea of the multipolar world order: origins and main dimensions, Post-Soviet Affairs 33(3): 217-234

Council on Foreign Relations (2018) Podcast: India’s time is now

Council on Foreign Relations (2018) Podcast: Japan’s security renaissance

Downie, C (2017) One in 20: the G20, middle powers and global governance reform, Third World Quarterly, 38(7), 1493-1510

Ehteshami, A (2018) Saudi Arabia as a resurgent regional power, The International Spectator, 53(4), 75-94

Goldman Sachs (2003). Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050. Global Economics Paper No. 99. Available at:

Hastings Dunn D and Webber M (2016) The UK, the European Union and NATO: Brexit’s unintended consequences, Global Affairs 2(5): 471-480 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MAA 13/09/2017) Available online:

Hoffmann, C (2019) Neo-Ottomanism, Eurasianism or securing the region? A longer view on Turkey’s interventionism, Conflict, Security & Development, 19(3), 301-307

Kagan R (2019) The new German question: what happens when Europe comes apartForeign Affairs, 98(3), 108-121.

Kaufmann S and Lohaus M (2018) Ever closer or lost at sea? Scenarios for the future of transatlantic relations Futures. 97: 18-25

Kidwai, S A (2020) The rise of Iran as a regional power, India Quarterly 76(2), 313-328

Kim, T and Shin, S Y (2021) Competition or cooperation? The geopolitics of gas discovery in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Energy Research and Social Science 74 - in press - available at

Krotz U & Schild J (2018) Back to the future? Franco-German bilateralism in Europe's post-Brexit union, Journal of European public policy. 25(8): 1174-1193

Kukreja, V (2020) India in the emergent multipolar world order: dynamics and strategic challenges, India Quarterly 76(1), 8-23

Less T (2018) The great schism, The New statesman. 147 (Issue 5441 - 19 October): 22-25

Mukherjee, R (2020) Chaos as opportunity: the United States and world order in India’s grand strategy, Contemporary Politics 26(4), 420-438

Öniş, Z and Kutlay, M (2017) The dynamics of emerging middle-power influence in regional and global governance: the paradoxical case of Turkey, Australian Journal of International Affairs 71:2, 164-183

Polyakova A and Haddad B (2019) Europe alone: what comes after the Transatlantic alliance, Foreign Affairs, 98(4), 109-120.

Rahman Z U, Khan A, Lifang W and Hussain I (2021) The geopolitics of the CPEC and Indian Ocean: security implications for India, Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs 13(2): 122-145

Rajagopalan, R (2019) Did India Lose China?, The Washington Quarterly 42(1), 71-87

Sever, A (2020) Regional power role and intervention: The Turkish case over Syria in the 2000s, Contemporary Review of the Middle East 7(2), 143-164

Tol, G (2020) Viewpoint: why Turkey is flexing its muscles abroad, BBC News 16 October 

Wojczewski, T (2019) Identity and world order in India’s post-Cold War foreign policy discourse, Third World Quarterly 40(1), 180-198

Woods N (2016) The European disunion: how the continent lost its way, Foreign affairs 95(1): 160-165

Zakharov, A (2019) The geopolitics of the US-India-Russia strategic triangle, Strategic Analysis 43(5), 357-371


Top of page

Week 11: Shifting world orders and the impacts of  the COVID pandemic

Key readings

As was the case in Week 10, it is difficult to identify specific readings that stand out as significantly more useful than the rest of the list. Aim to pick something from the list below that reflects your personal interests and/or the subject of the assessed essay that you should be working on by now!


Further readings

Allison, G (2015) The Thucydides trap. Are the US and China headed for war?, The Atlantic 24 September

Andrews G J, Crooks V A, Pearce J R and Messina J P (eds) (2021) COVID-19 and Similar Futures: Pandemic Geographies - esp Chpt 25 Vaccine geopolitics during COVID-19: How pandemics thicken borders, exacerbate violence, and deepen existing fault lines pp 193-198

Babić M (2021) The COVID-19 pandemic and the crisis of the Liberal International Order: Geopolitical fissures and pathways to change. Global Perspectives 2(1) - in press - available at Also available online:

Bahi, R (2021) The geopolitics of COVID-19: US-China rivalry and the imminent Kindleberger trap. Review of Economics and Political Science6(1): 76-94

Csurgai G (2018) The increasing importance of geoeconomics in power rivalries in the twenty-first century, Geopolitics, 23(1), 38-46.

Doshi, T K (2021) The outlook for the Gulf Arab economies and regional geopolitics in a post-COVID age, USAEE Working Paper No. 21-484

Foreign Policy (2020) The future of the state, Foreign Policy 237, 7-11

Fukuyama, F (2020) The pandemic and political order, Foreign Affairs 99(4), 26-32

Gill, B (2020) China’s global influence: Post-COVID prospects for soft power, The Washington Quarterly, 43(2), 97-115.

Haass R (2019) How world order ends: and what comes in its wake, Foreign Affairs, 98(1), 22-30.

Johnston, A I (2019) China in a world of orders: rethinking compliance and challenge in Beijing’s international relations, International Security 44(2), 9-60

Kang D C and Ma X (2018) Power transitions: Thucydides didn’t live in East Asia, The Washington Quarterly, 41(1), 137-154.

Leonard, M (2019) The new age of clashing empires, New Statesman 1 November, 23-25. Available online

Mandelbaum M (2019) The new containment: handling Russia, China, and Iran, Foreign Affairs, 98(2), 123-131.

Mastro O (2019) The stealth superpower: how China hid its global ambitions, Foreign Affairs, 98(1), 31-39.

Mearsheimer, J J (2019) The rise and fall of the liberal international order, International Security 43(4), 7-50.

Patrick, S (2020) When the system fails: COVID-19 and the costs of global dysfunction, Foreign Affairs 99(4), 40-51

Pei, M (2020) China's coming upheaval: Competition, the coronavirus, and the weakness of Xi Jinping, Foreign Affairs 99(3), 82-95

Schell, O (2020) The ugly end of Chimerica, Foreign Policy 236, 26-29.

Thompson G A (2021) Applying global history: Globalization, geopolitics, and the US-China rivalry after Covid-19, Journal of Applied History in press - available on-line

Tsereteli M (2018) Can Russia’s quest for the New International Order succeed? Orbis 62(2): 204-219. Available online


This list was last updated on 13/08/2021