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Module Reading List

Theories of International Relations, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Adrian Gallagher
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Week 1: Welcome to IR

Seminar questions

  1. What is International Relations (IR) and why do the IR theories differ so much? 

Essential reading

Ø Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater, ‘Introduction’, in Burchill and Linklater (Eds), Theories of International Relations , fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 1-31. 

Acharya, Amitav, ‘What “Introduction to International Relations” Misses Out: Civilizations, World Orders, and the Rise of the West’ (December 16, 2020). Available at SSRN: or

Further introductory readings

Ø Sankaran Krishna, ‘Race, Amnesia, and the Education of International Relations’, Alternatives, 26, 2001, 401-424. Also available:

Stephen Walt. 'One World Many Theories'. Foreign Policy. 110. 1998. 

Arlene  Tickner and Karen Smith, Eds. International Relations from the Global South: Worlds of Difference. Routledge, 2020. 

Ø Rowey, C., Shepherd, L. (2012). Contemporary politics: Using the 'F' word and teaching gender in international relations. Teaching Politics and International Relations, (pp. 146-161). United Kingdom: Palgrave .

B. C. Schmidt, ‘Lessons from the Past: Reassessing the Interwar Disciplinary History of International Relations’, International studies quarterly. 42.3 (1998).Dunne, Hansen, and Wight, Ed. Special Issue: The End of International Relations Theory? ’, European journal of international relations., vol. 19, no. 3. 2013, pp. 405-665.

Daniel Levine. Recovering International Relations: The Promise of Sustainable Critique. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

B. C. Schmidt, 'On the History and Historiography of International Relations', in Walter Carlsnaes, Bet A. Simmons, and Thomas Risse-Kappen (eds.), Handbook of international relations (London: Sage, 2002), pp. 3-22.


Week 2: Realism[s]

Seminar questions to consider as you read the essential readings

  1. What key concepts do we associate with realism?
  2. Do you thnk the Liberal International Order is bound to fail?

Essential Readings:

Jack Donnelly, ‘Realism’, in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of International Relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 32-57.

John J. Mearsheimer, 'Bound to Fail: The Rise and Fall of the Liberal International Order', International Security', Volume 43 | Issue 4 | Spring 2019, pp.7-50

Further reading on realism

Stephen Walt, ISIS as Revolutionary State, Foreign Affairs, December 2015, Available online

E. H. Carr. The Twenty Years' Crisis 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations [1939] (Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).

Morgenthau. Scientific Man vs. Power Politics (University of Chicago Press, 1946).

Michael Williams (ed) Realism reconsidered : the legacy of Hans Morgenthau in international relations (New York: OUP, 2007).

Richard Little , The balance of power in international relations : metaphors, myths, and models (CUP, 2007).

Elman & Jensen (Ed.) Realism reader (Routledge, 2014).

H., Morgenthau Politics Among Nations:The Struggle for Power and Peace (McGrew Hill, 1985).

Scott Burchill The national interest in international relations theory (2005) ch. 2.

Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War (New York: Penguin, 1972).

John J. Mearsheimer, ‘A Realist Reply’, International Security, (1995, pp. 82-93)

Robert A. Pape, ‘When Duty Calls: A Pragmatic Standard for Humanitarian Intervention’, International security. Vol. 37. No. 1 (2012) pp. 41-80.

George F. Kennan ‘Morality and Foreign Policy’, Foreign affairs., 64/2: 205-218 (1985).

Rosenberg ‘What's the Matter With Realism', Review of international studies .vol. 16(4), 1990, pp. 285-304.

Lucian Ashworth “Did the Realist-Idealist Great Debate Really Happen? A Revisionist History of International Relations”, International relations. , 2002, 16 (1) 33-51.

Buzan 'The Timeless Wisdom of Realism? ' in Smith, Booth and Zalewski, International theory: positivism and Beyond, pp. 47-65.

Ken Booth, Theory of world security (CUP. 2007), pp. 31-37: ‘the prism and Prison of realism’. This is digitized and its only six pages.

Milner 'The Assumption of Anarchy in International Relations Theory', Review of international studies.Vol. 17, 1991, pp. 67-85.

Robert S. Ross, ‘Balance of Power Politics and the Rise of China: Accommodation and Balancing in East Asia’, Security Studies 15, no. 3 (2006): 355–395

John J. Mearsheimer. The False Promise of International Institutions. International Security, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Winter, 1994-1995), pp. 5-49.

John Ruggie, ‘The False Premise of Realism’, International Security, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Summer, 1995), pp. 62-70 (9 pages)


Further reading on neorealism

Joseph M. Grieco. “Anarchy and the Limits of Cooperation: A Realist Critique of the Newest Liberal Institutionalism” Neorealism and neoliberalism : the contemporary debate .

Waltz Theory of International Politics (McGraw Hill, 1979).

John J. Mearsheimer, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics (London: Norton, 2001).

Keohane, Robert, (1986), Neorealism and its critics . Columbia.

Kenneth Waltz, (2008), Realist Thought and Neorealist Theory, 1990, in Realism and international politics pp 197-229.

Waltz, Kenneth, (2008), Conflict in world politics, 1971,

Kenneth Waltz, Realism and international politics pp 67-82.

Waltz, Kenneth, (2008), Structural Realism after the Cold War, 2000, in International security. , volume 25, issue 1, pages 5-41

John J. Mearsheimer, "War with Iraq Is Not in America's National Interest," New York Times paid advertisement, September 26, 2002. Available on Mearsheimer’s hompage

Baldwin, David (ed), (1993), Neorealism and neoliberalism : the contemporary debate. Columbia University Press.

Halliday, F. and Rosenberg, J., (1998), Interview with Ken Waltz in Review of international studies. , vol 24 (3), pp. 371-386.

E. Brown,(ed) Offense, defense, and war (Cambridge, 2004)

Walt, The origins of alliances (Ithaca, 1987)

Van Evra, Causes of war : power and the roots of conflict, (Ithica, 1999).

Richard K. Ashley ‘The Poverty of neorealism’ International organization.38. 2. (1984), pp. 225-286.

Further reading on Neoclassical Realism

Charles L. Glaser, ‘The Necessary and Natural Evolution of Structural Realism’, in Realism and the balancing of power : a new debate (Upper Saddle River, NJ: 2003) 266-279.

Randall L. Schweller “The Logic and Illogic of Contemporary Realism,” International theory. , Vol. 2, Issue 3 (December 2010).

Randall L. Schweller Unanswered threats : political constraints on the balance of power (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006)

Randall L. Schweller "After Unipolarity: China’s Vision of International Order in an Era of U.S. Decline" International security. , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Summer 2011). Coauthored with Xiaoyu Pu.

Randall L. Schweller “Emerging Powers in the Age of Disorder.” Global governance : a review of multilateralism and international organizations., Vol. 17, No. 3 (2011).

Randall L. Schweller "Rational Theory for a Bygone Era" Security Studies , Vol. 20 (September 2011).

Randall L. Schweller “Unanswered Threats: A Neoclassical Realist Theory of Underbalancing ,” International security., Vol. 29, No. 2 (Fall 2004)

Jeffrey W. Taliaferro, Steven E. Lobell, and Norrin M Ripsman, Neoclassical realism, the state, and foreign policy(Cambridge: Cambrdige University Press), esp. Ch.1.

Thomas J. Christensen and Jack Synder, ‘Chain Gangs and Passed Buck: Predicting Alliance patterns in Mulipolarity’ ,International organization. , Vol. 44. No. 2. (199), 137-168.

Jonathan Simmons, ‘Realist climate ethics: Promoting climate ambition within the Classical Realist tradition’, Review of International Studies, Volume 45, Issue 1 January 2019 , pp. 141-160


Week 3: Liberalism[s]

Seminar questions to consider as you read the essential readings

  1. What do liberals and realists agree and disagree on?
  2. Drawing on last week's reading, do you find Ikenberry or Mearsheimer's depiction of international relations more realistic? 

Essential Reading

Scott Burchill ‘Liberalism’, in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of International Relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 57-87.

John Ikenberry, ‘The end of liberal international order? International Affairs, Volume 94, Issue 1, 1. January 2018, pp 7–23.


Further Reading:

Scott Burchill ‘Liberalism’, in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of International Relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 57-87. 

G. John Ikenberry, ‘The end of liberal international order? International Affairs, Volume 94, Issue 1, 1. January 2018, Pages 7–23, 

Robert O. Keohane and Lisa L. Martin , The Promise of Institutionalist Theory, International Security, (1995, pp. 39-51)

Paul Kennedy, The Parliament of Man , (Penguin, 2006) pp. 1-47.

Samina Yasmeen, ‘India and Pakistan: From zero-sum to shared security’, in Jean-Marc Coicaud and Nicholas J. Wheeler (ed) National interest and international solidarity : particular and universal ethics in international life (United Nations University Press, 2008) Ch 1

M. Doyle ‘Liberalism and World Politics’, in P.R.Viotti and M.Kauppi, International relations theory (Macmillan, New York, 1993)Doyle, Michael, (1986), Liberalism and World Politics, in American Science Review, vol 80 (4), pp 1151-1169. - Available Online:   

Ikenberry, J., (1999), Liberal Hegemony and the Future of American Post-War Order, in TV Paul and JA Hall, (eds),International Order and the Future of World Politics, pp.123-145. Cambridge

Kegley, Charles, T., The Neoliberal Challenge to Realist Theories of World Politics: An Introduction, in Charles T Kegley (ed), Controversies in international relations theory : realism and the neoliberal challenge . St Martins Press. (1995).

Griffths, M., Roach, S.C., Solomon, M.S. (2008), Michael Doyle, in Griffths, M., Roach, S.C., Solomon, M.S., Fifty key thinkers in international relations , [Article reference missing]

Kegley, Charles, T., The Neoliberal Challenge to Realist Theories of World Politics: An Introduction, in Charles T Kegley (ed), Controversies in international relations theory : realism and the neoliberal challenge . St Martins Press. (1995),

Richardson, J.L., (1997), Contending Liberalisms: Past and Present, in European journal of international relations.,vol 3(1), pp.5-33 .

Keohane and Buchanan ‘The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions’, Ethics and international affairs vol. 20, no. 4 (2006): 405-438

Keohane and Nye (1977), Power and interdependence : World Politics in Transition . Little Brown.

Ikenberry, J.,(2006), Liberal order and imperial ambition : essays on American power and world politics . Cambridge

F. Fukuyama The end of history and the last man (New York: Avon Books, 1993).

John Charvet and Elisa Kaczynska, The liberal project and human rights : the theory and practice of a new world order (Cambridge University Press, 2008), ch. Western Critiques of Liberal Human Rights, pp. 291-317.

Joseph Nye,‘Soft Power’, Foreign policy. , Vol. 80. (1990), pp. 153-171.

Joseph Nye ‘Work With China: Don’t Contain it’, International Herald Tribune , Jan 25 2013, _r=0

 Joseph S. Nye, Jr The rise and fall of American hegemony from Wilson to Trump, International Affairs, Volume 95, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 63–80.

Inderjeet Parmar, ‘The US-led liberal order: imperialism by another name?’, International Affairs, Volume 94, Issue 1, 1 January 2018, Pages 151–172.


Week 4: Cosmopolitanism

Seminar questions to consider as you read the essential readings

  1. What are the key concepts associated with Cosmopolitanism?
  2. What competing moral claims do ‘we’ face when addressing climate change?

Seminar questions to consider as you read the essential readings

Essential Reading:

Jeremy Waldron, What is a Cosmopolitan? Journal of Political Philosophy, 8, 2, 2000. 227 - 243.

Simon Caney, Climate Change and the duties of the advantaged.  Critical review of international social and political philosophy, 2010-03-25, Vol.13 (1), p.203-228


Further Reading

David Held and Garret Brown, The Cosmopolitanism Reader, Polity 2010. 

Mary Kaldor, ‘The Idea of Global Civil Society’, International Affairs, Volume 79, Issue 3, 1 May 2003, Pages 583–593,

Belloni, R. (2014), ‘Civil Society and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Society, 28(2), pp. 158–79.

Richard Beardsworth, ‘Cosmopolitanism and Realism: Towards a Theoretical Convergence?’ Millennium, 37, 1 2008, pp. 69-96


Held ‘Principles of Cosmopolitan Order’ in G. Brock and H. Brighouse, The political philosophy of cosmopolitanism(Cambridge: CUP, 2005).

Mary Kaldor, The Idea of Global Civil Society, International affairs., 79 (3), 203,583-593 .

Richard Beardsworth, ‘Our political moment: political responsibility and leadership in a globalized, fragmented age’, International Relations 32, 4, 2018. p. 391-40918

Lu “The One and Many Faces of Cosmopolitanism,” The journal of political philosophy.,Vol. 8, (2), June 2000.

Tan Justice without borders : cosmopolitanism, nationalism, and patriotism, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004). Introduction.

Held Cosmopolitanism : ideals and realities (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010).

Beardsworth Cosmopolitanism and international relations theory (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011). A very good cosmopolitan response to Marxism, Post-Structuralism and Realism.

Archibugi ‘Cosmopolitanism and the Central Importance of the United Nations’, in Archibugi’s The global commonwealth of citizens : toward cosmopolitan democracy (Princeton: 2008).

Hutchings Global Ethics(Cambridge: Polity Press, 2010). Chp. 1

Beitz “Cosmopolitan Liberalism and the State System,” C. Brown (ed.), Political restructuring in Europe : ethical perspectives, (London, Routledge, 1994).

G.W. Brown “Sovereignty, Federation and Kantian Cosmopolitanism,” European journal of international relations. , Vol. 11, (Dec. 2005).

Barry “International Society From a Cosmopolitan Perspective,” D. Mapel & T. Nardin (eds.) International society : diverse ethical perspectives(Princeton University Press, 1998).

Charvet “The Possibility of a Cosmopolitan Order Based on the Idea of Universal Human Rights,” Millennium., (1998).

Held “Cosmopolitanism: Globalization Tamed? ,” Review of international studies.,29, (2003): 465 480

Hayden Cosmopolitan global politics, (Burlington, Ashgate, 2005).

McGrew “Human Rights in a Global Age: Coming to Terms with Globalization,” in T. Evens (ed.), Human rights fifty years on : a reappraisal, (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1998): 188- 210

Jones Global justice : defending cosmopolitanism, (Oxford University Press, 1999).

Falk On humane governance : toward a new global politics : the world order models project report of the Global Civilization Initiative,(University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995).

Archibugi & D. Held Cosmopolitan Democracy: An Agenda For A New World Order (Cambridge, Polity Press, 1995)

Russett Grasping the democratic peace : principles for a post-Cold War world (Princeton University Press 1993).

David Miller, ‘Against Global Egalitarianism’, The journal of ethics., Vol 9. No. 5. 2005

Garrett W. Brown, ‘Bringing the State Back’, Political studies review.9 (1) 2011, 53–66.


Week 5: The English School

Seminar questions to consider as you read the essential readings

  1. What are the key concepts associated with the English School?
  2. How do the concepts of pluralism and solidarism help us understand international responses to the war on drugs in the Philippines?

Essential Reading: 

Andrew Linklater 'The English School' in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of International Relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 88 – 11

Adrian Gallagher, Euan Raffle, and Zain Maulana, "Failing to fulfil the Responsibility to Protect: The war on drugs as crimes against humanity in the Philippines", Pacific Review33, 2, 2020, pp 247-277.


Further Reading

Adrian Gallagher 2012. 'A Clash of Responsibilities: Engaging with Realist Critiques of the Responsibility to Protect', Global Responsibility to Protect. 4(2)

Adrian Gallagher, "Failing to fulfil the Responsibility to Protect: The war on drugs as crimes against humanity in the Philippines", Pacific Review (2019).

Nicholas J. Wheeler, Saving Strangers (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp; 21-54.

Gallagher 2016. Conceptualizing humanity in the English School. International Theory: a journal of international politics, law and philosophy. 8(2), pp. 341-364

Buzan. An introduction to the English school of international relations : the societal approach(Polity 2014).

Buzan,‘The English school: an underexploited resource in IR’, Review of international studies.(27, 3, 2001, 471-488).

Martha Finnemore ‘Exporting the English School’, Review of international studies., 2 3 2001 509-13.

Alex Bellamy (ed) International Society and its Critics (OUP, 2004).

Bull, H., The anarchical society : a study of order in world politics , third edition (London: Palgrave, 2002)

Dunne, T., Inventing international society : a history of the English school (New York: Palgrave, Macmillan, 1998)

Bull, H., The Grotian Conception of International Society’ in Butterfield H. and Wight, M., (eds.), Diplomatic investigations : essays in the theory of international politics. (London: Allen and Unwin, 1966). Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Buzan, B., From international to world society? : English school theory and the social structure of globalisation(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

Dunne, T., and Wheeler, N., ‘Hedley Bull’s Pluralism of the Intellect and Solidarism of the Will’, International affairs.(72, 1, 1996, 91-107).

Dunne, T. and Wheeler, N. J., ‘Blair’s retain: a force for good in the world? ’ in Smith K. E. and Light, M., (eds.), Ethics and foreign policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

Linklater, A., ‘Pacifying Europe: A Reply to Mearsheimer’, Leviathan (1, 2010, 31-8).

Linklater, A., The problem of harm in world politics : theoretical investigations (New York, OUP 2011).

Little, R., ‘The English School’s Contribution to the Study of International Relations’, European journal of international relations. (6, 3, 2000, 395-422).

Ralph JG. 2013. The liberal state in international society. Interpreting recent British foreign policy. International Relations Journal

Ralph J. 2017. The Responsibility to Protect and the rise of China: Lessons from Australia’s role as a ‘pragmatic’ norm entrepreneur. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific. 17(1), pp. 35-65

Ralph J, Gallagher A. 2015. Legitimacy faultlines in international society: The responsibility to protect and prosecute after Libya. Review of International Studies. 41(3), pp. 553-573

Ralph JG. 2013. America's War on Terror. The State of the 9/11 Exception from Bush to Obama. Oxford University Press

Vincent, R. J., ‘Racial Equality’, in Bull H., and Watson, A., (eds.), The expansion of international society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984). Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE

Vincent, R. J., Human Rights in International Relations (London: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

Wheeler, N. J., ‘Pluralist and Solidarist Conceptions of International Society: Bull and Vincent on Humanitarian Intervention’ Millennium . (21, 3, 1992, 463-87)


Week 6: Constructivism

Seminar questions to consider as you read the essential readings

  1. What key concepts do we associate with constructivism?
  2. What does Adler mean by seizing the middle ground?

Essential Reading

ØEmanuel Adler, ‘Seizing the Middle Ground: Constructivism in World Politics, 3, 3, 1997, European Journal of International Relations



Further Reading

Alexander Wendt, ‘Anarchy is What States Make of It’, International organization. , Vol. 46, No. 2 (Spring, 1992), pp. 391-425.

Chris Reus-Smit ‘Constructivism’ in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of International Relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 217 – 240.

Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, ‘International Norm Dynamics and Political Change’, International Organisation, 52, 4, 1998, 887 – 917

Martha Finnemore, ‘Norms, Culture, and World Politics: Insights from Sociology’s Institutionalism, International Organization , 50: 1996, 325-347.

M-L Krook and J. True. “Rethinking the Life Cycles of International Norms: The United Nations and the Global Promotion of Gender Equality.” European Journal of International Relations 18, 1: 100-124, 2012.

Charlotte Epstein (Ed), Against International Relations Norms, Postcolonial Perspectives. Routledge 2017.

Barnett, M., Social Constructivism, in The Globalization of World Politics , pp 251-270 . Oxford. (2005),

Griffths, M., Roach, S.C., Solomon, M.S, Alexander Wendt, in Griffths, M., Roach, S.C., Solomon, M.S., Fifty key thinkers in international relations Routledge . .(2008),

Ruggie, J., (1983), Continuity and Transformation in the World Polity: Towards a Neorealist Synthesis, in World politics. vol. 35, pp. 261-285 .

Reus-Smit, C., (2002), Imagining Society; Constructivism and the English School, in British journal of politics & international relations. , vol. 4 (3), pp. 487-509.

Suganami, H., (2001), Alexander Wendt and the English School, in the Journal of international relations and development , vol. 17 (3), pp. 403-423.

Suganami, H., (2002), On Wendt’s Philosophy, in Review of international studies., 28 (1), pp. 23-37

Biersteker, T. and Weber, C., (eds), (1996), Chapter one - State sovereignty as social construct . Cambridge.

A. Vasquez 'War endings: What Science and Constructivism Can Tell Us', Millennium.(Vol. 26, No 3, 1997), pp. 651-678.

Wendt 'Levels of analysis vs agents and structures: Part III', Review of international studies.Vol 18(2), 1992, pp. 181-186.

J Weldes, ‘Constructing National Interests’, European journal of international relations. , vol. 2, no. 3 1996. pp. 275-318.

Karlsrud, John. Responsibility to protect and theorising normative change in international organisations: from Weber to the sociology of professions. Global responsibility to protect. , Volume 5 (1). (2014) pp. 327.

Matthew J. Hoffmann “Is Constructivist Ethics an Oxymoron? ” International studies review. 11 (2): (2009) 231-252

Payne, R. ‘Persuasion, frames and norm construction’ European journal of international relations.7(1), (2001). 37-61.

Ø Kurt Mills and Alan Bloomfield, ‘African resistance to the International Criminal Court: Halting the advance of the anti-impunity norm’, Review of International Studies, Volume 44, Issue 1 2018, pp. 101-127

Holland J. 2012. Blair's War on Terror: Selling Intervention to Middle England. British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 14(1), pp. 74-95


Week 7: Critical Theory

Seminar questions based on the essential readings below:

  1. In what ways do critical theorists challenge mainstream IR approaches?
  2. Do you agree with Cox that theory always for someone and for some purpose?

Essential Reading: 

 Ø Introductory reading: Richard Devetak, ‘Critical Theory’, in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of international relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 162-186.This is an E-book

Ø Robert Cox ‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory‘, Millennium. Vol. 10 No. 2 (1981). pp.  126-155.


Further reading on Critical Theory

Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy ‘Critical Theory’, Available at,

C. Roach, Critical theory of international politics : complementarity, justice, and governance (London: Routledge, 2010)

David Held, Introduction to Critical Theory (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1980).

Wyn Jones Critical theory and world politics, (Boulder, 2001).

Brincat, S. (2012) On the Methods of Critical Theory: Advancing the Project of Emancipation beyond the Early Frankfurt School. International Relations (26) (2), 218–45.

Gramsci, A. Selections from the prison notebooks of Antonio Gramsci. Translated from Italian by Hoare, Q. and Nowell Smith, G. London: Lawrence and Wishart. (1971).

Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, B. Dialectic of Enlightenment 1997.

Rolf Wiggershaus The Frankfurt School : its history, theories, and political significance (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994)

Cox, Robert (1983), Gramsci, Hegemony and International Relations; an essay in method, Millennium, vol 12, pp 162-175.

Martin Jay, The Dialectical Imagination (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1973)

Gill American hegemony and the trilateral commission(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Gill (ed.), Gramsci, historical materialism and international relations(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993)

Gill. Gramsci, historical materialism and international relations(Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Craig Murphy, Global institutions, marginalization, and development (London: Routledge, 2005)

Kees Van Der Pijl, Transnational classes and international relations (London: Routledge, 1998).

Wallerstein, I., (1991), The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Future Analysis, in Richard Little and Michael Smith (eds), Perspectives on World Politics, pg 305 . Routledge.

Smith, H. , (1994), Marxism and International Relations Theory, AJR Groom and Margot Light (eds), Contemporary international relations : a guide to theory, pp. 142-155 . Pinter Pub.

Richard Devetak, Critical International Theory: An Intellectual History , Oxford University Press, 2 Aug 2018

William E Scheureman. Frankfurt School Perspectives on Globalization, Democracy, and the Law. London: Routledge. 2008.


Week 8: Feminism[s]

Seminar questions based on the essential readings below:

  1. In what ways does Feminism challenge traditional appraoches to International Relations? 
  2. What does gendering robots tell us about international relations? 

Essential Reading

Ø Jacqui True, ‘Feminism’ in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of international relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 241-265.This is an E-book

Ø Heather Roff, Gendering A Warbot, International Feminist Journal of Politics, Volume 18, 1, 20, pp. 1-18.


Further Reading

There are two Special Editions on Women Peace and Security. International Affairs. 92. 2. 2016. Also, International Political Science Review, vo. 37. 3. 2016.

Carol Cohn , Helen Kinsella & Sheri Gibbings, ‘Women, Peace and Security Resolution 1325’, International feminist journal of politics., 6:1 2004, pp. 130–140

Krook, M. and True, J. Rethinking the life cycles of international norms: The United Nations and the global promotion of gender equality. European journal of international relations ., 18(1), 2012. pp.103-127.

Cynthia H. Enloe Bananas, beaches & bases : making feminist sense of international politics (University of California Press1989) ch. 1.

Shepherd and Linda Åhäll Eds., Gender, agency and political violence (Basingstoke: Palgrave 2012), ch. 2 and ch. 11.

Charli Carpenter, ‘ Innocent women and children : gender, norms and the protection of civilians, (Ashgate, 2006), ch. 1, Introduction: Gender: Norms, and the Protection of Civilians.

Robert O. Keohane, ‘International Relations Theory: Contributions of a Feminist Standpoint’ , Millennium. Vol. 18, No.2, 1989 pp. 245-253

Jane L. Partpart and Marysia Zalewkski, Rethinking the man question : sex, gender and violence in international relations (Zed Books 2008), pp. 1-23.

Daniel Conway, ‘Contesting the Masculine State’ Jane L. Partpart and Marysia Zalewkski, Rethinking the man question : sex, gender and violence in international relations (Zed Books 2008), ch. 6.

Nadine Puechguirbal, ‘Discourses on Gender, Patriarchy and Resolution 1325: A Textual Analysis of UN Documents’ ,International peacekeeping. Vo. 17. No. 2. (2010) pp. 172-187

Pratt, Nicola Christine and Richter-Devroe, Sophie. (2011) Critically examining UNSCR 1325 on women, peace and security. International feminist journal of politics., Vol.13 (No.4). pp. 489-503.

Elshtain, J., (1981) Public man, private woman : women in social and political thought . Oxford

Elshtain, J., (1995), Women and War. Chicago.

Butler, J., (1993), Bodies that matter : on the discursive limits of "sex" . Routledge.

Butler, J., (1992), Feminists Theorize the Political . Routledge.

Butler, J., (1999), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity . Routledge.

Butler, J., (2004), The Judith Butler reader Blackwell.

Sylvester, C., (1994), Feminist theory and international relations in a postmodern era. Cambridge.

Hutchings, K, (2000) Towards a Feminist International Relations, in Review of international studies., vol 26, pp. 111-130.

Kimberly Hutchings ‘Feminist Philosophy and International Relations Theory: A Review’. Women’s Philosophy Review, 27 (2001), pp. 31–60 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 02/10/2019) 

Ann Tickner, Gendering world politics : issues and approaches in the post-Cold War era (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001).

Lucian Ashworth, “Feminism, War and the Prospects for International Government. International feminist journal of politics., March 2011, 13(1) 24-42.

Ø Jacqui True, ‘Feminism’ in Scott Burchill and Andrew Linklater (Eds), Theories of international relations, fifth edition (Palgrave: 2013), pp. 241-265.


Week 9: Assessment Preparation Week

There is a lecture on “Essay Preparation” but there are NO seminars this week in order to give you more time in order to write essay submissions. 

Office Hours run as normal


Week 10: Poststructuralism

Seminar questions based on the essential readings

  1. What is poststructuralism?
  2. How does poststructuralism help us make sense of real world occurrences such as the Islamic State? Discuss with reference to the concept of power

 Essential Readings

Ø David Campbell and Roland Bleiker, Poststructuralism in Dunne, Kurki and Smith (eds), International Relations Theories, fourth edition, pp, 196 – 218.  

Simone Molin Friis (2017) ‘Behead, burn, crucify, crush’: Theorizing the Islamic State’s public displays of violenceEuropean Journal of International Relations. Online first: 10.1177/1354066117714416 


Further Reading

Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Michael Foucault , available at

Hansen, L 'Poststructuralism and Security '. in R A. Denemark (ed.), The International Studies Encyclopedia : Volume IX. vol. IX, Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA, USA, pp. 5876-5892. 2010,

Beatrice Hanseen, Critique of violence : between poststructuralism and critical theory (Routledge 2000), ch. 2. And ch. 3.

Edkins, J. Poststructuralism and international relations : bringing the political back in , Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. (1999)

J.Edkins ‘Poststructuralism’, in M. Griffiths (ed.). International relations theory for the twenty-first century : an introduction . London: Routledge. (2007).

Campbell, D. And Shapiro, M.J. Moral spaces : rethinking ethics and world politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (1999).

Foucault, M. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings . London: Harvester Wheat-sheaf. (1980).

Foucault, Michel Society must be defended : lectures at the Collège de France, 1975-76 London: AllenLane. (2003).

Foucault, Michel Security, territory, population : lectures at the Collège de France, 1977-1978 . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan(2009 ).

Foucault, Michel The birth of biopolitics : lectures at the Collège de France, 1978-79 Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. (2010).

Hindess, B. Discourses of power : from Hobbes to Foucault . Oxford: Blackwell(1996).

Hansen, L Security as practice : discourse analysis and the Bosnian war . Routledge, London. 2006

Han, Béatrice, Foucault's critical project : between the transcendental and the historical , Stanford: Stanford University Press 2002

Hoy, David (ed.), Foucault : a critical reader , Oxford: Blackwell. 1986,

Koopman, Colin, Genealogy as critique : Foucault and the problems of modernity , Stanford University Press. 2013

Macey, David, The lives of Michel Foucault : a biography , New York: Pantheon. 1994,

May, Todd The philosophy of Foucault , Toronto: McGill-Queens University Press. , 2006,

McNay, Lois, Foucault : a critical introduction , Cambridge: Continuum. 1994,

Oksala, Johanna Foucault on freedom . Cambridge University Press. 2005,

Rajchman, John, 1985 Michel Foucault : the freedom of philosophy , New York: Columbia University Press.

David Campbell and Roland Bleiker, Poststructuralism in Dunne, Kurki and Smith (eds), International Relations Theories, fourth edition, pp, 196 – 218. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (IK 02/10/2019) 


Week 11: Race and International Relations Theory

Seminar questions based on the essential readings

  1. How does Race help us understand international relations?
  2. Do you think the discipline of IR still has a blind spot when it comes to Race?

Essential reading

Ø E. Henderson, 'Hidden in Plain Sight: Racism in IR Theory', Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26, 1, 2013, 71092. see P. 84.

Ø Sankaran Krishna, ‘Race, Amnesia, and the Education of International Relations’, Alternatives, 26, 2001, 401-424. Also available:

Further reading

Vineet Thakur and Peter Vale, 'The Empty Neighbourhood: Race and Disciplinaary Silence' in Jenny Edkins (eds) Routledge Handbook of Criticla International Studies, 2019, pp. 34-48 

W Chow — “The Bounds of 'Race' in International Relations.” In Culture in World Politics, edited by Dominique Jacquin-Berdal, Andrew Oros, and Marco. Verweij, 134–55.

Kelebogile Zvobgo and Meredith Loken, 'Why Race Matters in International Relations' Foreign Policy, JUNE 19, 2020

Kenaan Malik, 'Universalism and Difference in Discourses of Race', Review of International Studies. Vol 26. 5 2000. 155-177. 

John Hobson. The Eurocencentric Conception of World Politics. Western International Theory. 1760-2010. Cambridge University Press. 2012. 

This list was last updated on 14/09/2021