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Module Reading List

Current Developments in Health Care Ethics (Online), 2021/22, Semester C04
Dr Sarah Carter-Walshaw
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Unit 1: Ethics Committees and Ethical Expertise

Essential Reading

J. D. Moreno, 'Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultants' in A companion to bioethics H. Kuhse and P. Singer (eds.) (Malden: Blackwell, 2009) (available online as an ebook through the library)  

D.W. Brock 'Truth or Consequences, the role of philosophers in policy making' Ethics, 97 (4):786-791 (1987)  

Janet E. Fleetwood, Robert M. Arnold and Richard J. Baron, ‘Giving Answers or Raising Questions? : The Problematic Role of Institutional Ethics Committees’, Journal of medical ethics., 15/3 (1989): 137-142.  

Further Readings

Varelius, Jukka 'Is ethical expertise possible?'. Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy,11, 127–132 (2008).

'Part XI: Ethicists and Ethical Committees', in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.) Bioethics: An Anthology, 2nd Edition (Blackwell: 2006).    

Fleetwood, J.E. at al. (1989). Giving Answers or Raising Questions? : The Problematic Role of Institutional Ethics Committees. Journal of medical ethics 15(3): 137-142.

Gillon, R. (1997). Clinical Ethics Committees - pros and cons. Journal of medical ethics 23: 203-04.

Mason, S. and Megone, C. (eds.) (2001). European neonatal research: consent, ethics committees and law. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Moreno, J. D. (2009). Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultants. In Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. (eds.) A companion to bioethics. Malden: Blackwell, 2009.

Thornton, J.G. and Lilford, R.J. (1995). Clinical Ethics Committee. British medical journal 311(7006): 667-669.

Clinial Ethics Committees Supplement. Journal of medical ethics. ISSN: 0306-6800; 1473-4257 27 supplement 1 (2001).

Watson, J.C. and Guidry-Grimes, L.K. (eds.) (2018) Moral Expertise: New Essays from Theoretical and Clinical Bioethics. Cham: Singer.    

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Unit 2: The duty to be a Research Subject

Essential Readings

Harris, J. (2005). Scientific research is a moral duty. Journal of Medical Ethics 31(4): 242-248.  

Sandra Shapshay and Kenneth Pimple, ‘Participation in biomedical research is an imperfect moral duty: a response to John Harris’, Journal of Medical Ethics., 33 (2007): 414-417.  

Further Readings

Arneson, R. (1982). The Principle of Fairness and Free-Rider Problems. Ethics 92(4): 616-633.

Brassington, I. (2007). John Harris' argument for a duty to research. Bioethics 21(3): 160-168.

Brazier, M. (2008). Exploitation and enrichment: the paradox of medical experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 34(3): 180-183.

Chan, S. and Harris, J. (2009). Free riders and pious sons — why science research remains obligatory. Bioethics 23(3): 161-171.

Cullity, G. (1995). Moral Free Riding. Philosophy and Public Affairs 24(1): 3-34.

Edwards, S. and Wilson, J. (2012). Hard paternalism, fairness and clinical research: why not? Bioethics 26(2): 68-75.

Hart, H.L.A. (1955). Are there any natural rights? . Philosophical Review 64(2): 175-191.

Helgesson, G. and Eriksson, S. (2008). Against the principle that the individual shall have priority over science. Journal of Medical Ethics 34(1): 54-56.

Jansen, L. and Wall, S. (2009). Paternalism and fairness in clinical research. Bioethics 23(3): 172-182.

Murphy, L. (1993). The Demands of Beneficence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 22(4): 267-292.

Noggle, R. (2009). Give till it Hurts? Beneficence, Imperfect Duties, and a Moderate Response to the Aid Question. Journal of Social Philosophy 40(1): 1-16.

Rawls, R. (1964). Legal Obligation and the Duty of Fair Play. In Freeman, S. (ed). John Rawls: Collected Papers. London: Harvard University Press, 1999 .
Available as an Online Course Reading.

Shapshay, S. and Pimple, K. (2007). Participation in biomedical research is an imperfect moral duty: a response to John Harris. Journal of Medical Ethics 33(7): 414–417.

Simmons, A.J. (1979). Moral Principles and Political Obligation. Princeton University press. See section on Principle of Fair Play, 101-138 .

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Unit 3: Use of Animals as Research Subjects

Essential Reading

TLS Sprigge, ‘Animal Experimentation in Biomedical Research: A Critique,’ in R. Gillon (ed.), Principles of health care ethics , (John Wiley & Sons, 1994), 1053-1065. This can be found in the 'Online Course Readings Folder' under 'Learning Resources' on the VLE.   

Bonnie Steinbeck, ‘Speciesism and the Idea of Equality,’ Philosophy., 53/204 (1978): 247-256.  

Further Readings

'Part VIII: Experimentation with Animals', in Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer (eds.), Bioethics: An Anthology , 2nd Edition, (Blackwell: 2006).

'Part XII: Experimentation with Animals' in A companion to bioethics, H. Kuhse and P. Singer (eds.) (Malden: Blackwell, 2009).


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Unit 4: Ethics and Disability

Essential Reading

Davis, L.T. (1999). Crips Strike Back: The Rise of Disability Studies. American literary history 11(3): 500-512  

Chadwick, R and Levitt, M. (1998). 'Genetic Technology: A Threat to Deafness' Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy ISSN: 1386-7423 1(3): 209–215. The original article is available online through the library. The article can also be found in chapter 13 of Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. (eds.) (2006). Bioethics: An Anthology, 2nd Edition. London: Blackwell.  

Barnes, E (2009). 'Disability, Minority and Difference' Journal of applied philosophy. ISSN: 0264-3758 26 (4): 337 - 355  

Further Readings

From Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. (eds.) (2006). Bioethics: An Anthology, 2nd Edition. London: Blackwell.

  • Chadwick, R and Levitt, M. ‘Genetic Technology: A Threat to Deafness’ (Chapter 13)
  • Campbell, N. ‘When Care Cannot Cure: Medical Problems in Seriously Ill Babies’ (Chapter 31)
  • Hare, R.M. ‘The Abnormal Child: Moral Dilemmas of Doctors and Patients’ (Chapter 33)
  • Davies, A. ‘Right to Life of Handicapped’ (Chapter 34)

Glover, J. (2006). Choosing children. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 5.

Parsons, J. (2006). Why the Handicapped Child Case is Hard. Philosophical studies 112(2): 147-162. Section I ONLY.

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Unit 5: Organ Transplants and Exploitation

Essential Reading

Lawlor, R. (2011). Organ sales needn’t be exploitative (but it matters if they are). Bioethics 25(5): 250-9.  

Liberto, H. (2013). Noxious Markets versus Noxious Gift Relationships. Social Theory and Practice 39(2): 265-287 . Available as an Online Course Reading  

Further Readings

Part IX: Organ Donations. In Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. (eds.) A companion to bioethics. Malden: Blackwell, 2009.

Brecher, B. (1990). The Kidney Trade: or, the customer is always wrong Journal of Medical Ethics 16: 120-123.
Note from Rob Lawlor: this paper should not be used uncritically. Perhaps I am not understanding it. As far as I can tell though, it is unclear, incoherent and inconsistent. As such, if you use it uncritically, just presenting the claims, assuming they are coherent, the danger is that your essay will be similarly flawed. See my "exploitative at any price" for more detailed response to this paper.
Further exchanges between Brecher and Buttle in Journal of Medical Ethics 17: 97-99.

Fabre, C. (2008). Whose body is it anyway? : justice and the integrity of the personISBN: 9780199532292 (pbk.) : £16.99; 019953229X (pbk.) : £16.99, Chapter 6: Organ sales. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Goyal, M. et al. (2002). Economic and Health Consequences of Selling a Kidney in India. Journal of the American Medical Association 288(13): 1589-93.
This isn't a philosophy paper, but is based on empirical research in India. However, you need to be very careful in drawing conclusions from this paper. On the face of it, you might think that it provides strong evidence for the claim that organ sales are an example of harmful exploitation. But does this conclusion generalise to all cases of organ sales, or are they specific to the context, given the particular conditions, etc., in India?
This includes a response to the Zutlevics paper listed below.

Harvey, J. (1990). Paying Organ Donors Journal of Medical Ethics 16: 117-119.

Lawlor, R. (2014). Organ Sales: exploitative at any price? Bioethics 28(4):194-202.

Radcliffe-Richards, J. et al. (1998). The Case For Allowing Kidney Sales Lancet 352: 1950-1952.

Scott, R. (1981). The body as property. London: Allen Lane.

Taylor, J.S. (2003). Autonomy, Constraining Options, and Organ Sales. Journal of applied philosophy 19(3): 273–285.
This includes a response to the Zutlevics paper listed below.

Walzer, M. (1995). Spheres of Justice, Chapter 4: Money and Commodities. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wertheimer, A. (1999). Exploitation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wertheimer, A. and Zwolinski, M. (2012). Exploitation. In Zalta, E.N. (ed.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Wilkinson, S. (2003). Bodies for Sale. London: Routledge.

Zutlevics, T.L. (2001). Markets and the needy: organ sales or aid? Journal of applied philosophy 18(3): 297–302.

The following readings do not focus on organ sales in particular, or even exploitation, but are very good on the general idea that some things should be valued in a way that isn't obviously compatible with treating them as commodities. 

Ben Rogers (ed.) Is Nothing Sacred? Routledge 2004. (Note: this is available online from the library.) (Note: I'd recommend starting with Ben Roger's short intro. This is very good at spelling out the general philosophical issue (of how we value different things). 

Michael Sandel, What Money Can't BuyPenguin 2013.

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Unit 6: Gene Therapies: Enhancement

Essential Reading

'Part VI: The New Genetics' in A companion to bioethics, H. Kuhse and P. Singer (eds.) (Malden: Blackwell, 2009). (available online as an ebook through the library)  

Further Readings

From Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. (eds.) (2006). Bioethics: An Anthology, 2nd Edition. London: Blackwell.

  • Glover, J. ‘Questions about some uses of genetic engineering’ (Chapter 18)
  • Lappe, M. ‘Ethical issues in manipulating the human germ line’ (Chapter 19)
  • Resnik, D.B. ‘The moral significance of the therapy-enhancement distinction in human genetics’ (Chapter 20)

Buchanan, A. (2011). Better than human. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Farrelly, C. (2004). Genes and Equality Journal of medical ethics 30(6): 587-592.

Harris, J. (1998). Clones, Genes and Immortality: Ethics and the Genetic Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harris, J. (1998). Is Gene Therapy a form of Eugenics? Bioethics 7(2-3): 178-187.

McGleenan, T. (1995). Human gene therapy and slippery slope arguments. Journal of medical ethics 21(6): 350-355.

Persson, I. and Savalescu, J. (2012). Unfit for the future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Prusak, B. (2005). Rethinking Liberal Eugenics. Hastings Center Report 35(6): 31-42.

Reindal, S.M. (2000). Disability, gene therapy and eugenics - a challenge to John Harris. Journal of medical ethics 26(2): 89-94.

Tang, W.W.C. et al (2015). A unique gene regulatory network resets the human germline epigenome for development. Cell 161: 1453-1467.


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Unit 7: Human Reproductive Cloning

Essential Reading

Strong, C. (1998). Cloning and infertility. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7(3): 279-293.  

Further Readings

Ahlberg, J. and Brighouse, H. (2010). An argument against cloning. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40(4): 539-566.

Buchanan, A. et. al. (2000). From chance to choice: genetics and justice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 'Cloning' pp. 196-202.

Chadwick, R. (1982). Cloning. Philosophy 57: 201-209.

Devolder, K. (2013). Cloning. In Zalta, E.N. (ed.) Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy [electronic resource].. Section 3 is the most relevant. There is a further list of references at the end of this article.

Harris, J. (1997). Goodbye Dolly? The ethics of human cloning Journal of medical ethics 23: 353-360.

Hayry, M. (2003). Philosophical arguments for and against human reproductive cloning. Bioethics 17(5-6): 447-459.

Holm, S. (1998). A life in the shadow. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7: 160-162.

Macklin, R. (2002). Cloning and Public Policy. In Burleym J. and Harris, J. (eds.) A companion to genethics Oxford: Blackwell.

Strong, C. (2008). Cloning and adoption: a reply to Levy and Lotz. Bioethics 22(2): 130-136.

Tooley, M. (2006). The moral status of the cloning of humans. In Kuhse, H. and Singer, P. (eds.) Bioethics: An Anthology, 2nd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Carter-Walshaw (2019) In vitro gametogenesis: The end of egg donation?. Bioethics 33(1): pp.60-67

Mertes, H., & Pennings, G. (2010). Ethical aspects of the use of stem cell derived gametes for reproduction. Health Care Analysis, 18, 267–278.

Suter, S. M. (2015). In vitro gametogenesis: Just another way to have a baby? Journal of Law & the Biosciences, 3, 87–119.

Notini, L., Gyngell, C. and Savulescu, J. (2020) Drawing the line on in vitro gametogenesis. Bioethics 34(1): pp. 123-134.

This list was last updated on 02/09/2021