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Module Reading List

Health Systems in Low and Middle Income Countries, 2021/22, Semester D02
Tim Ensor
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue


Sub-topics (key areas taught in the module)

  1. Health systems, health reforms
  2. Medicines and technology
  3. Health service delivery, district health system
  4. Governance and stewardship including corruption
  5. Health systems resources including finance, information and workforce
  6. Role of the Private Sector

Key Reading

DE SAVIGNY, D., BLANCHET K & ADAM, T.  (2017). Applied Systems thinking for health systems research: a methodological handbook. Croydon: Open University Press.

ENSOR, T. 2017. Transition to Universal Coverage in Developing Countries, International Encyclopaedia of Public Health, Second Edition, Elsevier 

GEREIN N., GREEN A., MIRZOEV T., PEARSON S. (2009) Health System Impacts on Maternal and Child Health in JE. Ehiri (ed) Maternal and Child Health: Maternal and Child Health: Global Challenges, Programs, and Policies. Springer Publishers, Washington DC. 

MILLS, A. & RANSON, K. (2012) The Design of Health Systems. IN MERSON, M. H., BLACK, R. E. & MILLS, A. J. (Eds.) Global Health. Diseases, Programs, Systems and Policies. 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett.

VAN OLMEN, J., MARCHAL, B., VAN DAMME, W., KEGELS, G. & HILL, P. (2012). Health systems frameworks in their political context: framing divergent agendas. BMC Public Health, 12, 774.

WHO. 2010. The World Health Report 2010 - Health Systems Financing: the path to universal coverage: [Online]. Geneva: World Health Organisation. [Accessed]. Available online

Recommended reading

ADAM, T. and D. de SAVIGNY (2012). "Systems thinking for strengthening health systems in LMICs: need for a paradigm shift." Health Policy and Planning 27(suppl 4): iv1-iv3.

AGYEPONG, I. A., KODUA, A., ADJEI, S. & ADAM, T. (2012). When ‘solutions of yesterday become problems of today’: crisis-ridden decision making in a complex adaptive system (CAS)—the Additional Duty Hours Allowance in Ghana. Health Policy and Planning, 27, iv20-iv31.

ATUN, R., DE JONGH, T., SECCI, F., OHIRI, K. & ADEYI, O. (2010) Integration of targeted health interventions into health systems: a conceptual framework for analysis. Health policy and planning. , 25 , 104-111.

BERMAN, P. (1995) Health sector reform: making health development sustainable. Health Policy, 32 (1-3), 13-28.

BERMAN, P. & BIR, A. (1995) Introduction. Health Policy, 32 (1-3), 3-11.

BODART, C., SERVAIS, G., MOHAMED, Y. L. & SCHMIDT-EHRY, B. (2001) The influence of health sector reform and external assistance in Burkina Faso. Health Policy and Planning, 16 (1), 74-86.

BOSSERT, T. J. (2012). Health systems. Health Policy and Planning, 27, 8-10.

BUSE, K. & HARMER, A. M. (2007) Seven habits of highly effective global public-private health partnerships: Practice and potential. Social Science & Medicine, 64 (2), 259-271.

CALEY, L. M. (2004) Using geographic information systems to design population-based interventions. Public Health Nursing, 21 (6), 547-554.

COLLINS, C. (1994) Management and Organisation of Developing Health Systems, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

COLLINS, C., GREEN, A. & HUNTER, D. (1999) Health sector reform and the interpretation of policy context. Health Policy, 47 (1), 69-83.

DE SAVIGNY, D., and ADAM, T. (Eds.) (2009). Systems thinking for health systems strengthening. Geneva: Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, World Health Organization.

DIALLO, K., ZUM, P., GUPTA, N. & DAL POZ, M. (2003) Monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health: an international perspective. Human Resources for Health, 1:3.

DONG, W. 2006. Can health care financing policy be emulated? The Singaporean medical savings accounts model and its Shanghai replica. J Public Health (Oxf), 28, 209-14

EDMONSTONE, J. & WESTERN, J. (2002) Leadership development in health care: what do we know? Journal of Management in Medicine, 16 (1), 34-47.

ENSOR, T. & S. COOPER (2004). "Overcoming barriers to health service access: influencing the demand side." Health Policy Planning 19(2): 69-79.

ENSOR, T. & THOMPSON, R. (1999) Rationalizing rural hospital services in Kazakstan. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 14 (2), 155-167.

ENSOR, T., VE-SEN, P., ALI, L., HOSSAIN, A., BEGUM, S. A. & MORAL, H. (2002) Do essential service packages benefit the poor? Preliminary evidence from Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning, 17 (3), 247-256.

FERROUSSIER, O., KUMAR, M. K. A., DEWAN, P. K., NAIR, P. K. J., SAHU, S., WARES, D. F., LASERSON, K., WELLS, C., GRANICH, R. & CHAUHAN, L. S. (2007) Cost and cost-effectiveness of a public-private mix project in Kannur District, Kerala, India, 2001-2002. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 11 (7), 755-761.

FLOYD, K., ARORA, V. K., MURTHY, K. J., LONNROTH, K., SINGLA, N., AKBAR, Y., ZIGNOL, M. & UPLEKAR, M. (2006) Cost and cost-effectiveness of PPM-DOTS for tuberculosis control: evidence from India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84 (6), 437-445.

GILSON, L. & MCINTYRE, D. (2005) Removing user fees for primary care in Africa: the need for careful action. British Medical Journal, 331 (7519), 762-765.

GILSON, L. & MILLS, A. (1995) Health sector reforms in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons of the last 10 years. Health Policy, 32 (1-3), 215-243.

GLADWIN, J., DIXON, R. A. & WILSON, T. D. (2003) Implementing a new health management information system in Uganda. Health Policy and Planning, 18 (2), 214-224.

GONZALEZ BLOCK, M. & MILLS, A. (2003) Assessing capacity for health policy and systems research in low and middle income countries. Health Research Policy and Systems, 1 (1), 1.

GONZÁLEZ BLOCK, M. A. (1997) Comparative research and analysis methods for shared learning from health system reforms. Health Policy, 42 (3), 187-209.

GOTSADZE, G., ZOIDZE, A. & VASADZE, O. (2005) Reform strategies in Georgia and their impact on health care provision in rural areas: evidence from a household survey. Social Science & Medicine, 60 (4), 809-821.

GREEN, A. (2007) An Introduction to Health Planning for Developing Health Systems, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press.

GREEN, A., ROSS, D. & MIRZOEV, T. (2007). Primary Health Care and England: The coming of age of Alma Ata? Health Policy, 80, 11-31.

GREEN, A. T. & MIRZOEV, T. N. (2008). Planning, for Public Health Policy. In: HEGGENHOUGEN, K. & QUAH, S. (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Public Health. San Diego: Academic Press.

GREEN, A., ALI, B., NAEEM, A. & ROSS, D. (2000) Resource allocation and budgetary mechanisms for decentralized health systems: experiences from Balochistan, Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78 (8), 1024-1035.

GREEN, A., ALI, B., NAEEM, A. & VASSALL, A. (2001) Using costing as a district planning and management tool in Balochistan, Pakistan. Health Policy and Planning, 16 (2), 180-186.

HAMMER, J. S. & BERMAN, P. (1995) Ends and means in public health policy in developing countries. Health Policy, 32 (1-3), 29-45.

HARRISON, M. I. and J. CALLTHORP (2000). "The reorientation of market-oriented reforms in Swedish health-care." Health Policy 50(3): 219-240.

HEALY, J. & MCKEE, M. (2002) Implementing hospital reform in central and eastern Europe. Health Policy, 61 (1), 1-19.

HOFFMAN, S. J., RØTTINGEN, J.-A., BENNETT, S., LAVIS, J. N., EDGE, J. S. & FRENK, J. (2012). A Review of Conceptual Barriers and Opportunities facing Health Systems Research to inform a Strategy from the World Health Organization. Background paper commissioner by the Alliance for or Health Policy and Systems Research to develop the WHO Health Systems Research., Geneva, Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. Available online

HOGAN, D. R., BALTUSSEN, R., HAYASHI, C., LAUER, J. A. & SALOMON, J. A. (2005) Achieving the millennium development goals for health - Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat HIV/AIDS in developing countries. British Medical Journal, 331 (7530), 1431-1435.

ISLAM, M. A., WAKAI, S., ISHIKAWA, N., CHOWDHURY, A. M. & VAUGHAN, J. P. (2002) Cost-effectiveness of community health workers in tuberculosis control in Bangladesh. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80 (6), 445-450.

JAMES, C. D., HANSON, K., MCPAKE, B., BALABANOVA, D., GWATKIN, D., HOPWOOD, I., KIRUNGA, C., KNIPPENBERG, R., MEESSEN, B., MORRIS, S. S., PREKER, A., SOUTEYRAND, Y., TIBOUTI, A., VILLENEUVE, P. & XU, K. 2006. To retain or remove user fees?: reflections on the current debate in low- and middle-income countries. Appl Health Econ Health Policy, 5, 137-53.

 JULIA, M. & KONDRAT, M. E. (2005) Health care in the social development context - Indigenous, participatory and empowering approaches. International Social Work, 48 (5), 537-552.

LAFOND, A., BROWN, L. & MACINTYRE, K. (2002) Mapping capacity in the health sector: a conceptual framework. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 17 (1), 3-22

KARKI, D., MIRZOEV, T., GREEN, A., NEWELL, J. & BARAL, S. (2007). Costs of a successful public-private partnership for TB control in an urban setting in Nepal. BMC Public Health, 7, 84.

KHAN, M. A., WALLEY, J. D., WITTER, S. N., IMRAN, A. & SAFDAR, N. (2002) Costs and cost-effectiveness of different DOT strategies for the treatment of tuberculosis in Pakistan. Health Policy and Planning, 17 (2), 178-186.

KUTZIN, J. 2001. A descriptive framework for country-level analysis of health care financing arrangements. Health Policy, 56, 171-204.

 LAKSHMINARAYANAN, R. (2003) Decentralisation and its Implications for Reproductive Health: The Philippines Experience. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21), 96-107.

LAKSHMINARAYANAN, R. (2003) Decentralisation and its Implications for Reproductive Health: The Philippines Experience. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21), 96-107.

LEWIS, M. (2006) Governance and Corruption in Public Health Care Systems, Unpublished, Working Paper No 78, Center for Global Development. Available online

LIU, X. & MILLS, A. (2002) Financing reforms of public health services in China: lessons for other nations. Social Science & Medicine, 54 (11), 1691-1698.

MACFARLANE, S., RACELIS, M. & MULI-MUSLIME, F. (2000) Public health in developing countries. The Lancet, 356 (9232), 841-846.

MACKINTOSH, M., CHANNON, A., KARAN, A., SELVARAJ, S., CAVAGNERO, E. & ZHAO, H. 2016. What is the private sector? Understanding private provision in the health systems of low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet, 388, 596-605.

 MAYNARD, A. (1993). "Competition in the UK National Health Service: mission impossible?" Health Policy 23(3): 193-204.

MCINTYRE, D. & KLUGMAN, B. (2003) The Human Face of Decentralisation and Integration of Health Services: Experience from South Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21), 108-119.

MCKEE, M., FIGUERAS, J. & CHENET, L. (1998) Health sector reform in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 13 (2), 131-147.

MCPAKE, B. & BANDA, E. E. N. (1994) Contracting out of health services in developing countries. Health Policy and Planning, 9 (1), 25-30.

MCPAKE, B. & HANSON, K. 2016. Managing the public-private mix to achieve universal health coverage. Lancet, 388, 622-30.

 MESFIN, M., NEWELL, J., MADELEY, R., MIRZOEV, T., TAREKE, I., KIFLE, Y., GESSESSEW, A. & WALLEY, J. (2010). Cost implications of delays to tuberculosis diagnosis among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 10, 173.

MERSON, M. H., BLACK, R. E. & MILLS, A. J. (2006) International Public Health: diseases, programs, systems, and policies, 2nd ed., Jones and Bartlett.

MIKKEKSEN-LOPEZ, I., K. WYSS and D. DE SAVIGNY (2011). "An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective." BMC Int Health Hum Rights 11: 13.

MILLS, A. & RANSON, K. (2012) The Design of Health Systems. IN MERSON, M. H., BLACK, R. E. & MILLS, A. J. (Eds.) Global Health. Diseases, Programs, Systems and Policies. 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett

MIRZOEV, T., BARAL, S., KARKI, D., GREEN, A. & NEWELL, J. (2008). Community-based DOTS and family member DOTS for TB control in Nepal: costs and cost-effectiveness. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 6, 20.

MIRZOEV, T. N., GREEN, A. T. & NEWELL, J. N. (2007) Progress towards health reform in Tajikistan. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 21, 495-505.

MIRZOEV, T., GREEN, A. & NEWELL, J. (2010). Health SWAps and external aid—a case study from Tajikistan. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 25, 270-286.

MIRZOEV, T., LÊ, G., GREEN, A., ORGILL, M., KOMBA, A., ESENA, R. K., NYAPADA, L., UZOCHUKWU, B., AMDE, W. K., NXUMALO, N. & GILSON, L. (2013). Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project. Health Policy and Planning, doi: 10.1093/heapol/czt065.

MIRZOEV, T., OMAR, M., GREEN, A., BIRD, P., LUND, C., OFORI-ATTA, A. & DOKU, V. (2012). Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Health Research Policy and Systems, 10, 30.

MIRZOEV, T. N., GREEN, A. & VAN KALLIECHARAN, R. (2013). Framework for assessing the capacity of a health ministry to conduct health policy processes—a case study from Tajikistan. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management,

MONTAGU, D., GOODMAN, C., BERMAN, P., PENN, A. & VISCONTI, A. 2016. Recent trends in working with the private sector to improve basic healthcare: a review of evidence and interventions. Health Policy Plan, 31, 1117-32.

MORENO-SERRA, R. & SMITH, P. C. 2012. Does progress towards universal health coverage improve population health? Lancet, 380, 917-23.

 MORGAN, R., ENSOR, T. & WATERS, H. 2016. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage. Lancet, 388, 606-12.

MOSSIALOS, E., ALLIN, S. & FIGUERAS, J. (2007). Health Systems in Transition: Template for Analysis, Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Available online

MURRAY, C. J. L. (1995) Towards an analytical approach to health sector reform. Health Policy, 32 (1-3), 93-109.

MURSALEENA, I. (2007) The Health Systems Assessment Approach: A How-To Manual, USAID, MSH, PHP, RPM Plus. [Online] available from: last accessed 09 June 2008

MUSHI, A. K., SCHELLENBERG, J. R. M. A., MPONDA, H. & LENGELER, C. (2003) Targeted subsidy for malaria control with treated nets using a discount voucher system in Tanzania. Health Policy Plan., 18 (2), 163-171.

NEWELL, J. N., PANDE, S. B., BARAL, S. C., BAM, D. S. & MALLA, P. (2005) Leadership, management and technical lessons learnt from a successful public-private partnership for TB control in Nepal. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9 (9), 1013-1017.

NOLTE, E., BAIN, C. & MCKEE, M. (2005) International benchmarking of health systems: from aggregate measures to tracer conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 15, 66-67.

OLIFF, M., MAYAUD, P., BRUGHA, R. & SEMAKAFU, A. M. (2003) Integrating Reproductive Health Services in a Reforming Health Sector: The Case of Tanzania. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21), 37-48.

OYAYA, C. O. & RIFKIN, S. B. (2003) Health sector reforms in Kenya: an examination of district level planning. Health Policy, 64 (1), 113-127.

PALMER, N., STRONG, L., WALI, A. & SONDORP, E. (2006) Contracting out health services in fragile states. BMJ, 332 (7543), 718-721.

REICH, M. R. (1995) The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy. Health Policy, 32 (1-3), 47-77.

ROBERTS, M., HSIAO, W., BERMAN, P. & REICH, M. (2004). Getting Health Reform Right: A guide to improving performance and equity, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

RWASHANA, A. S., WILLIAMS, D. W. & NEEMA, S. (2009). System dynamics approach to immunization healthcare issues in developing countries: a case study of Uganda. Health Informatics Journal, 15, 95-107.

RUSSO, G., GONCALVES, L., CRAVEIRO, I. & DUSSAULT, G. 2015. Feminization of the medical workforce in low-income settings; findings from surveys in three African capital cities. Hum Resour Health, 13, 64.

SACHS, J. 2001. Macroeconomics and Health: investing in health for economic development. Geneva: World Health Organisation.

 SALTMAN, R. B. & FERROUSSIER-DAVIS, O. (2000) The concept of stewardship in health policy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78, 732-739.

SAUERBORN, R. (2006) Using information to make decisions. IN LIPPEVELD, T., SAUERBORN, R. & BODART, C. (Eds.) Design and implementation of health information systems. Geneva, WHO.

SAUERBORN, R., NITAYARUMPHONG, S. & GERHARDUS, A. (1999) Strategies to enhance the use of health systems research for health sector reform. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 4 (12), 827-835.

SCOTT, D., CURTIS, B. & TWUMASI, F. O. (2002) Towards the creation of a health information system for cancer in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Health & Place, 8 (4), 237-249.

SINANOVIC, E. & KUMARANAYAKE, L. (2006) Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 4, 11.

SPAAN, E., MATHIJSSEN, J., TROMP, N., MCBAIN, F., TEN HAVE, A. & BALTUSSEN, R. 2012. The impact of health insurance in Africa and Asia: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ, 90, 685-92.

 STREET, A. & HAYCOCK, J. (1999) The economic consequences of reorganizing hospital services in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Health Economics, 8 (1), 53-64.

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION (2007) The Global Challenge of Health Systems - Summary of Pocantico Discussions, The Rockefeller Foundation. [Online] available from: last accessed 09 June 2008

THOMPSON, R. & WITTER, S. (2000) Informal payments in transitional economies: Implications for health sector reform. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 15 (3), 169-187.

UPLEKAR, M. (2003) Involving private health care providers in delivery of TB care: global strategy. Tuberculosis.(Edinb.), 83 (1-3), 156-164.

UPLEKAR, M., PATHANIA, V. & RAVIGLIONE, M. (2001) Private practitioners and public health: weak links in tuberculosis control. Lancet, 358 (9285), 912-916.

VEENEMA, T. G. (2000) Health Systems and Maternal and Child Survival in Central Asian Republics. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 32 (3), 301-306.

VICTORA, C. G., M. L. BARRETO, M. DO CARMO Leal, C. A. MONTEIRO, M. I. SCHMIDT, J. PAIM, F. I. BASTOS, C. ALMEIDA, L. BAHIA, C. TRAVASSOS, M. REICHMENHEIM, F. C. BARROS and G. Lancet Brazil Series Working (2011). "Health conditions and health-policy innovations in Brazil: the way forward." Lancet 377(9782): 2042-2053.

 WAGSTAFF, A. 2007. Social Health Insurance Re-examined. Washington: World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4111. Available online

 WHO (2000) The World Health Report 2000. Health Systems: Improving Performance, Geneva, World Health Organization Available online

WHO (1999) Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Mapping for epidemiological surveillance. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 74 (34), 281-285.

WHO (2001) Involving private practitioners in tuberculosis control: issues, interventions and emerging policy framework. Geneva, World Health Organisation.

WHO (2007) Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes : WHO’s framework for action, Geneva, World Health Organization Available online

WHO. 2010. The World Health Report 2010 - Health Systems Financing: the path to universal coverage: [Online]. Geneva: World Health Organisation. [Accessed]. Available online

WONG, E. L., YEOH, E. K., CHAU, P. Y., YAM, C. H., CHEUNG, A. W. & FUNG, H. 2015. How shall we examine and learn about public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector? Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong. Soc Sci Med, 147, 261-9.

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This list was last updated on 16/08/2021