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HIST3732
Module Reading List

Men and Masculinity in Britain, c.1860-1960: War, Work and Home, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Claire Martin
c.p.martin@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Introduction (Week 1)

There is no core reading for this week - instead I'll circulate some questions for you to prepare for discussion. Below is additional reading for the seminar. This is a wide-ranging list from history and other disciplines, which starts to give you a flavour of some of the topics and ideas we'll be focusing on.

Additional reading - a general list which you can use throughout the module:

Abrams, Lynn, and Ewan, Elizabeth (eds), Nine Centuries of Man: Man and Manhood in Scottish History (Edinburgh, 2017) 

Arnold, John H., and Brady, Sean (eds), What is masculinity?: historical dynamics from antiquity to the contemporary world (Basingstoke, 2011)

Baron, Ava, ‘Masculinity, the embodied male worker and the historian’s gaze’, International labor and working class history, 69 (2006), pp.143-160.

Benyon, John, Masculinities and culture (Open University, 2001)

Bourke, Joanna, An intimate history of killing : face-to-face killing in twentieth century warfare (Granta, 1999)

Boydston, Jeanne, ‘Gender as a Question of Historical Analysis’, Gender & history. 20:3 (2008), pp.558-583

Brod, Harry, and Kauffman, Michael (eds), Theorizing masculinities (Sage, 1994)

Butler, Judith, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York and London, 1990)

Collins, Marcus, ‘The fall of the English gentleman: the national character in decline, 1918-1970’, Historical research. 75 (2002), pp.90-111

Connell, R.W., Masculinities (2nd edn, Cambridge, 2005)

Connell, R.W., ‘The Big Picture: Masculinities in Recent World History', Theory and society., 22:5, Special Issue: Masculinities (1993), 597-623

Crenshaw, Kimberlé, 'Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics', University of Chicago Legal Forum 1 (1989), 139-167

Davidoff, Leonore, ‘Gender and the "Great Divide": Public and Private in British Gender History’, Journal of women's history. 15:1 (2003), 11-27

Delap, Lucy, ‘Thus does man prove his fitness to be the master of things: shipwrecks, chivalry and masculinities in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Britain’, Cultural and social history. 3:1 (2006), pp.45-74

Delap, Lucy, and Morgan, Sue (eds), Men, masculinities and religious change in twentieth-century Britain (Basingstoke, 2013)

Deslandes, Paul, ‘The Male Body, Beauty and Aesthetics in Modern British Culture’, History compass 8:10 (2010), pp.1191-1208

Dudink, Stefan, Hagemann, Karen, and Tosh, John (eds), Masculinities in politics and war : gendering modern history (Manchester, 2004)

Francis, Martin, ‘The Domestication of the Male? Recent research on Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century British Masculinity’, The historical journal 45:3 (2002), pp.637-52

Gillis, John R. ‘Bringing up father: British paternal identities, 1700 to present’, Masculinities 45:3 (2002), pp.1-27

Griffin, Ben, 'Hegemonic Masculinity as a Historical Problem', Gender and History 30:2 (2018), pp.1-24

Griswold, Robert L. ‘Introduction to the Special Issue on Fatherhood’, Journal of Family History., 24:3 (1999), pp.251-254

Harvey, Karen and Shepard, Alexandra, ‘What Have Historians Done with Masculinity? Reflections on Five Centuries of British History, circa 1500–1950’, The journal of British studies. 44 (2005), pp.274-80

Lorde, Audrey, 'Age, Race, Class and Sex: Women redifining difference', in Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (1984) or via Colorado University: https://www.colorado.edu/odece/sites/default/files/attached-files/rba09-sb4converted_8.pdf 

Mosse, George L., The image of man : the creation of modern masculinity (Oxford and New York, 1996)

McCormack, Matthew, ‘Men, ‘the Public’ and Political History’ in M. McCormack, Public men : masculinity and politics in modern Britain (Palgrave, 2007)

Roper, Michael, and Tosh, John (eds), Manful assertions : masculinities in Britain since 1800 (London, 1991)

Roper, Michael, and Tosh, John, ‘Introduction: Historians and the Politics of Masculinity’, in M. Roper and J. Tosh (eds), Manful assertions : masculinities in Britain since 1800 (London, 1991), pp.1-24

Roper, Michael, ‘Slipping Out of View: Subjectivity and Emotion in Gender History’, History workshop journal. 59:1 (2005), pp.57-72

Scott, Judith W., ‘Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis’, The American historical review. 91:5 (1986), pp.1053-75

Segal, Lynne, Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men (3rd edn, Basingstoke, 2007)

Shields, Stephanie A. ‘Passionate men, emotional women: psychology constructs gender differences in the late 19th century’ History of psychology. 10:2 (2007), pp.92-110

Spicer, Andrew, Typical men : the representation of masculinity in popular British cinema (New edn, London, 2003)

Tilly, Louise A., ‘Gender, Women's History, and Social History’, Social Science History 13:4 (1989), 439-462

Tosh, John, ‘The History of Masculinity: An Outdated Concept?’, in J.H. Arnold and S. Brady (eds), What is masculinity? [electronic resource] : historical dynamics from antiquity to the contemporary world (Basingstoke, 2011), pp.17-34

Tosh, John, Manliness and masculinities in nineteenth-century Britain : essays on gender, family and empire (Harlow, 2005)

Tosh, John, ‘Hegemonic Masculinity and the History of Gender’, in S. Dudink, K. Hagemann and J. Tosh (eds), Masculinities in politics and war : gendering modern history (Manchester, 2004), pp.41-58

Tosh, John, ‘What Should Historians do with Masculinity? Reflections on Nineteenth Century Britain’, History workshop journal. 38 (1994), pp.179-202

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Nineteenth-century metropolitan masculinities (Week 2)

Class questions:

What types of metropolitan masculinities existed and how were they defined? What role did work play in defining masculine identities? Were men involved in home life?

Core Reading:

*Heathorn, Stephen, ‘How stiff were their upper lips? Research on late-Victorian and Edwardian masculinity’, History compass. 2 (2004)

*Tosh, John, ‘Home and Away: The Flight from Domesticity in Late-Nineteenth-Century England Re-visited’, Gender & history. 27:3 (2015), pp.561-75 (from a special issue on Men at Home – other articles of relevance too)

*Strange, Julie-Marie, Fatherhood and the British working class, 1865-1914 (Cambridge, 2015) - available online. Read the introduction, or a chapter of your choice.

Additional Reading:

Blom, Ida, Hagemann, Karen and Hall, Catherine, Gendered nations : nationalisms and gender order in the nineteenth century (Berg, 2000)

Boddice, Rob, ‘In loco parentis: public-school authority, cricket and manly character, 1855-1862, Gender and education. 21:2 (2009), pp.159-172

Brady, Sean, Masculinity and male homosexuality in Britain, 1861-1913 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)

Broughton, Trev L., and Rogers, Helen (eds), Gender and fatherhood in the nineteenth century (Basingstoke, 2007)

Cheadle, Tanya, ‘Music Hall, “Mashers” and the “Unco Guid”: Competing Masculinities in Victorian Glasgow’ in L. Abrams, and E. Ewan (eds.), Nine centuries of man: manhood and masculinity in Scottish history ISBN: 9781474403894 (hardback); 1474403891 (hardback); 9781474403900; 9781474403917 (Edinburgh, 2017)  

Christie, Nancy, ‘On the threshold of manhood: working class religion and domesticity in Victorian Britain and Canada’, Social history., 37:71 (2003), pp.145-174

Crone, Rosalind, ‘Mr and Mrs Punch in nineteenth-century England’, The historical journal. 49:4 (2006), pp.1055-1082

Davies, Andrew, ‘Youth gangs, masculinity and violence in late Victorian Manchester and Salford’, Journal of Social History. (1998)

Deslandes, Paul R., ‘Competitive examinations and the culture of masculinity in Oxbridge undergraduate life, 1850-1920’, History of education quarterly. 42:4 (2002), p.544-578

Doolittle, Megan, ‘Time, Space and Memories: The Father’s Chair and Grandfather Clocks in Victorian Working Class Domestic Lives’, Home cultures. 8:3 (2011), pp.245-54

French, Henry, and Rother, Mark, Man's estate : landed gentry masculinities, c.1660-c.1900 (Oxford, 2012)

Gill, Sean, ‘How muscular was Victorian Christianity? Thomas Hughes and the cult of Christian manliness reconsidered’, Studies in church history., 34 (2008), pp.421-430 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Gordon, Eleanor, and Nair, Gwyneth, ‘Domestic fathers and the Victorian parental role’, Women's history review. 15:4 (2006), pp.551-559

Hall, Catherine, McClelland, Keith, and Rendall, Jane, Defining the Victorian nation : class, race, gender and the Reform Act of 1867 (Cambridge University Press, 2000), Chapter 2.

Hall, Catherine, White, male and middle-class: explorations in feminism and history (Cambridge: Polity, 1995)

Hall, Donald E., Muscular Christianity : embodying the Victorian Age (Cambridge University Press, 1994)

Hamlett, Jane, '"Rotten Effeminate Stuff": Patriarchy, Domesticity, and Home in Victorian and Edwardian English Public Schools', Journal of British Studies  58:1 (2019), 79-108

Hammerton, A.J., ‘Men as well as clerks: normative masculinity in the English middle-class, 1870-1920’, Meridian. 15:2 (1996)

Hill, Kate,''A Rather Undefined Social Position and Public Recognition': Professionalisation, Status and Masculinity in Provincial Museums, c.1870-1930'Gender and History (early view, 2021)

Johnes, Martin, ‘Pigeon racing and working-class culture in Britain, c.1870-1950’, Cultural and social history., 4:3 (2007), pp.361-383

Manion, Jen, Female Husbands: A Trans History (Cambridge University Press, 2020)

McClelland, Keith, ‘Masculinity and the 'representative artisan' in Britain, 1850-80’, in M. Roper, and J. Tosh, (eds), Manful assertions : masculinities in Britain since 1800 (London, 1991)

Oldstone-Moore, Christopher, ‘The beard movement in Victorian Britain’, Victorian studies. (2005), pp.7-34

Shannon Brent, ‘ReFashioning Men: fashion, masculinity and the cultivation of the male consumer in Britain’, Victorian studies. 46:4 (2004), pp.597-630.

Sinfeld, Alan, The Wilde Century: Effeminacy, Oscar Wilde, and the Queer Moment (London: Cassell, 1994)

Spurr, Geoffrey, ‘The London YMCA: a haven of self-improvement and socialization for the late Victorian and Edwardian clerk’, Canadian journal of history = Annales canadiennes d'histoire. 37:2 (2002), pp.135-152. - Available online: http://www.utpjournals.press/doi/pdf/10.3138/cjh.37.2.275

Strange, Julie-Marie, ‘Fathers at Home: Life Writing and Late-Victorian and Edwardian Plebeian Domestic Masculinities’, Gender & History, 27:3 (2015), 703-717

Tebbutt, Melanie, ‘Rambling and manly identity in Derbyshire’s Dark Peak, 1880s-1920s’, The historical journal. 49:4 (2006), pp.1125-1153

Tosh, John, A man's place : masculinity and the middle-class home in Victorian England (New Haven, Connecticut, and London, 1999)

Walker, Pamela J. ‘'I live but not yet I for Christ liveth in me' : men and masculinity in the Salvation Army, 1865-90’ in M. Roper, and J. Tosh, (eds), Manful assertions : masculinities in Britain since 1800 (London, 1991)

Wiener, Martin J. Men of blood : violence, manliness and criminal justice in Victorian England (Cambridge University Press, 2004)

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Nineteenth-century imperial masculinities (Week 3)

Class questions:

How central was the British empire to the construction of masculinities? How did race and class intersect with such constructions? How did representations of empire influence understandings of masculinity?

Core Reading:

*Sinha, Mrinalini, Colonial masculinity : the 'manly Englishman' and the 'effeminate Bengali' in the late nineteenth century (Manchester University Press, 1995) - Introduction available in Online Course Readings folder

*Sinha, Mrinalini, ‘Giving Masculinity a History: Some Contributions from the Historiography of Colonial India’, Gender & history. 11:3 (1999), 445–460

*Streets, Heather, Martial races : the military, race, and masculinity in British imperial culture, 1857-1914 (MUP, 2004) - Introduction available in Online Course Readings folder 

Additional Reading:

For a very accessible and easy way in to thinking about the how the structures of the empire have had a lasting impact on British society, have a listen to Kim Wagner on the History Workshop podcast: https://www.historyworkshop.org.uk/the-violence-of-empire/

Alderson, David, Mansex fine : religion, manliness and imperialism in nineteenth-century British culture (Manchester University Press, 1998)

Ashplant, T.G., 'Dis/Connecting Whiteness: Biographical Perspectives on Race, Class, Masculinity and Sexuality in Britain, c.1850-1930', L'Homme 16:2 (2005), 68-85 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Boyd, Kelly, Manliness and the boys' story paper in Britain : a cultural history, 1855-1940 (Palgrave, 2002)

Brown, Michael, ‘Like a devoted army: medicine, heroic masculinity and the military paradigm in Victorian Britain’, The journal of British studies. 49:3 (2010), pp.592-622

Brown, Michael, 'Cold Steel, Weak Flesh: Mechanism, Masculinity and the Anxieties of Late Victorian Empire', Cultural and Social History 14:2 (2017), 155-181

Cleall, Esme, ‘Missionaries, masculinities and war: the London Missionary Society in Southern Africa, c.1860-1899’, South African historical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse historiese joernaal. 61:2 (2009), pp.232-253

Dawson, Graham, ‘The blond bedouin: Lawrence of Arabia, imperial adventure and the imagining of English-British masculinity’ in M. Roper, and J. Tosh, (eds), Manful assertions : masculinities in Britain since 1800 (London, 1991)

Dawson, Graham, Soldier heroes : British adventure, empire, and the imagining of masculinities (London and New York, 1994)

Downes, Aviston, 'From Boys to Men: Colonial Education, Cricket and Masculinity in the Caribbean, 1870-1920', International Journal of the History of Sport 22:1 (2005), pp.3-21

Downes, Aviston, ‘Boys of the Empire: Elite Education and the Socio-Cultural Construction of Hegemonic Masculinity in Barbados, 1875-1920’, in Rhoda Reddock (ed.) Interrogating Caribbean Masculinities (Kingston, Jamaica: UWI Press, 2004),105-136.

Jones, Max, The last great quest : Captain Scott's Antarctic sacrifice (Oxford, 2003)

Jones, Max, ‘What should historians do with heroes? Reflections on nineteenth- and twentieth-century Britain’, History compass. 5:1 (2007), pp.439-54

Levett, Geoffrey, 'Degenerate days: Colonial sports tours and British manliness 1900-1910', Sport in History 38:1 (2018), pp.46-74

Lowrie, Claire, 'White 'men' and their Chinese 'boys': Sexuality, masculinity and colonial power in Singapore and Darwin, 1880s-1930s', History Australia 10:1 (2013), 35-57

Monhamran, Radhika, Imperial White: Race, Diaspora and the British Empire (University of Minnesota Press, 2007)

Semple, Rhonda A. ‘Missionary manhood: professionalism, belief and masculinity in the nineteenth-century British imperial field’, The journal of imperial and commonwealth history. 36:3 (2008), pp.397-415

Saha, Jonathan, 'Whiteness, Masculinity and the Ambivalent Embodiment of 'British Justice' in Colonial Burma', Cultural and Social History 14:4 (2017), 527-542

Singha, Radhika, 'Nationalism, Colonialism and the Politics of Masculinity', Studies in History 14:1 (1998), 127-145

Sramek, Joseph, ‘Face him like a Briton: tiger hunting, imperialism and British masculinity in colonial India, 1800-1875’, Victorian studies (2006)

Todpar, Sudipa, 'The Corporeal Empire: Physical Education and Politicising Children's Bodies in Late Colonial Bengal', Gender and History 29:1 (2017), 176-197

Wu, Jialin Christina, ''A Life of Make-Believe': Being Boy Scouts and Playing Indian in British Malaya (1910-1942)', 26:3 (2014), 589-619

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The First World War (Week 4)

Class questions: 

What was the impact of industrialized warfare on understandings of men as soldiers? How did total war affect gender relations and the relationships between combatants and non-combatants? What impact did the First World War have on men and masculinity beyond the years of the conflict?

Core Reading:

*Higonnet, Margaret R., and Higonnet, Patrice L.R., ‘The Double Helix’, in M.R. Higonnet, J. Jenson, S. Michel and M. Collins (eds), Behind the lines : gender and the two world wars (New Haven, Connecticut, and London, 1987), pp.31-47 - Introduction available in Online Course Readings folder

*Meyer, Jessica, Men of war: masculinity and the First World War in Britain (Basingstoke, 2009) – start with introduction, and have a look at another chapter of interest. Available online

*Roper, Michael, The secret battle: emotional survival in the Great War (Manchester, 2009) - Introduction available in Online Course Readings folder Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Additional Reading:

Bibbings, Lois, Telling tales about men : conceptions of conscientious objectors to military service during the First World War (MUP, 2011)

Bibbings, Lois, ‘Image of Manliness: The Portrayal of Soldiers and Conscientious Objectors in the Great War’, Social & legal studies. 12:3 (2003), pp.335-58

Bourke, Joanna, Dismembering the male : men's bodies, Britain and the Great War (London, 1996)

Bourke, Joanna, 'Love and Limblessness: Male Heterosexuality, Disability and the Great War', Journal of War and Culture Studies 9:1 (2016), 3-19

Bourke, Joanna, 'Fragmentation, fetishization and men’s bodies in Britain, 1890-1939', Women : a cultural review. 55:1 (2003),pp.111-133

Bourke, Joanna, ‘Effeminacy, Ethnicity and the End of Trauma: The Sufferings of ‘Shell-Shocked’ Men in Great Britain and Ireland, 1914-39’, Journal of contemporary history. 35:1 (2000), pp.57-69

Bruley, Sue, ‘The love of an unknown soldier: a story of mystery, myth and masculinity in World War 1’, Contemporary British history. 19:4 (2005), pp.459-479

Carden-Coyne, Ana, (ed.), Gender and conflict since 1914 : historical and interdisciplinary perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)

Carden-Coyne, Ana, ‘Men in Pain: Silence, Stories and Soldiers' Bodies in WW1’, in N. Saunders and P. Cornish (eds), Bodies in conflict : corporeality, materiality, and transformation. (Abingdon, 2014), pp. 53-64

Cohen, Deborah, The war come home : disabled veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939 (University of California Press, 2001)

Davenport, Paul, ‘Remaking the Fighting Man: Martial Masculinity and the British Army’s Command Depots, 1915-18’, Contemporary British history. 30:3 (2016), pp.349-67

Fantauzzo, Julian, and Nelson, Robert L., 'A most unmanly war: British military masculinity in Macedonia, Mesopotamia, and Palestine, 1914-18', Gender and History  28:3 (2016), 583-603

Fletcher, Antony, ‘Patriotism, identity and commemoration: new light on the Great War from the papers of Major Reggie Chenevix Trench’, History. 19:1 (2005), pp.163-185

Frost, Ginger, '"Such a Poor Finish": Illegitimacy, Murder, and War Veterans in England, 1918-23', Historical Reflections 42:3 (2016), 91-111

Johnson, Bethan, 'Sexual Disfunction in the 'Eden of Love': Psychosocial Responses to Impotence in British First World War Veterans', Twentieth Century British History 31:1 (2020), 27-50

Koureas, Gabriel, Memory, masculinity, and national identity in British visual culture, 1914-1930 : a study of 'unconquerable manhood' (Ashgate, 2007)

Koven, Seth, ‘Remembering and Dismemberment: crippled children, wounded soldiers and the Great War in Britain’, The American historical review. 99:4 (1994), pp.1167-1202

Leed, Eric, No man's land : combat and identity in World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979)

Levsen, Sonja, ‘Constructing Elite Identities: University Students, Military Masculinity and the Consequences of the Great War in Britain and Germany’, Past & present. 198 (2008), pp.147-83

Makepeace, Claire, ‘Male Heterosexuality and Prostitution during the Great War: British Soldiers' Encounters with Maisons Tolérées’, Cultural and social history. 9:1 (2012), pp.65-83

Paris, Matthew, ‘Boys, books and the Great War’, History today. 50:11 (2000), p.44 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Roper, Mike, ‘Re-remembering the soldier hero: the psychic and social construction of memory in personal narratives of the Great War’, History workshop journal. 50 (2000), pp.181-204

Roper, Mike, 'Between the Psyche and the Social: masculinity, subjectivity and the First World War Veteran', Journal of Men's Studies 15:3 (2007), pp.251-270 - Available online: http://men.sagepub.com/content/15/3/251.full.pdf

Roper, Mike, 'Between manliness and masculinity: the 'war generation' and the psychology of fear in Britain, 1914-1970', The journal of British studies. 44:2 (2005), pp.343-363

Showalter, Elaine, The female malady : women, madness and English culture 1830-1980 (London, 1987)

Siblon, John, ‘‘Race’, Rank, and the Politics of Inter-war Commemoration of African and Caribbean Servicemen in Britain’, in Hakim Adi (ed.), Black British History: New Perspectives (London: Zed Books, 2019), pp.52-71

Smith, Richard, Jamaican volunteers in the First World War : race, masculinity and the development of national consciousness (MUP, 2004)

Smith, Richard, 'The black male body and the white imagination during the First World War', in P. Cornish and N.J. Saunders (eds), Bodies in Conflict: Corporeality, Materiality and Transformation (Routledge, 2014)

Tynan, Jane, ‘Military Dress and Men’s Outdoor Leisurewear: Burberry’s Trench Coat in First World War Britain’, Journal of design history. 24:2 (2011), pp.139-56

Ugolini, Laura, Civvies : middle-class men on the English home front, 1914-18 (Manchester, 2013)

Ugoloni, Laura, 'Middle-class fathers, sons and military service in England, 1914-1918', Cultural and Social History 13:3 (2016), 357-375

Ugolini, Laura, 'The 'recruiting muddle': married men, conscription and masculinity in First World War England', First World War Studies 9:1 (2018), 73-92

Upton, Robert E., ''It gives us a power and a strength that we do not possess': Martiality, manliness and India's Great War enlistment drive', Modern Asian Studies 52:6 (2018), 1977-2012

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Changing home life in interwar Britain (Week 5)

Class questions: 

How important was the home and family life in configurations of masculinity in interwar Britain? Did these identities differ in terms of social class background? How did men spend their leisure time at home? Were many fathers involving themselves in family life?

Core Reading:

*Bingham, Adrian, ‘An Era of Domesticity'? Histories of Women and Gender in Interwar Britain’, Cultural and social history. 1:2 (2004), pp.225-233

*Fisher, Tim, ‘Fatherhood and the British Fathercraft Movement, 1919-1939’, Gender & history. 17:2 (2005), pp.441-62

Also see the following, but please be warned this piece includes extremely strong racially offensive language, discussion of racial discrimination and racial violence, and mention of sexual violence, suicide and paedophilia. Please discuss this with your tutor before reading if you have any concerns.

*Bland, Lucy, ‘White Women and Men of Colour: Miscegenation fears in Britain after the Great War’, Gender & history. 17:1 (2005), pp.29-61

Additional Reading:

Abrams, Lynn, ‘“There was Nobody like my Daddy”: Fathers, the Family and the Marginalisation of Men in Modern Scotland’, The Scottish historical review. 78:2 (1999), pp.219-42

Bingham, Adrian, Gender, modernity, and the popular press in inter-war Britain (Oxford, 2004)

Bourke, Joanna, Working class cultures in Britain, 1890-1960 : gender, class, and ethnicity (London, 1994)

Caballero, Chamion, ‘Interraciality in Early Twentieth Century Britain: Challenging Traditional Conceptualisations through Accounts of ‘Ordinariness’’, Genealogy, 3:21 (2019), 1-24

Cohen, Deborah, The war come home : disabled veterans in Britain and Germany, 1914-1939 (University of California Press, 2001)

Delap, Lucy, Griffin, Ben, and Wills, Abigail, The politics of domestic authority in Britain since 1800 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009)

Grant, Julia, ‘A “real boy” and not a sissy: gender, childhood and masculinity, 1890-1940’, Journal of Social History 37:4 (2004), pp.829-851

Hammerton, A.J., ‘The English Weakness? Gender, Satire and Moral Manliness in the Lower Middle Class, 1870-1920’, in A. Kidd and D. Nicholls (eds.), Gender, civic culture and consumerism : middle-class identity in Britain, 1800-1940 (Manchester, 1999), pp.164-82

Houlbrook, Matt, Queer London : perils and pleasures in the sexual metropolis, 1918-1957 (Chicago, 2006)

Houlbrook, Matt, ‘‘The Man with the Powder Puff’ in Interwar London’, The Historical Journal, 50 (2007), 145-71 

Kent, Susan Kingsley, Making Peace: The Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar Britain (Princeton, New Jersey, 1993)

Kidd, Andrew, and Nicholls, David (eds.), Gender, civic culture and consumerism : middle-class identity in Britain, 1800-1940 (Manchester, 1999)

King, Laura, Family men : fatherhood and masculinity in Britain, 1914-1960 (Oxford, 2015)

Light, Alison, Forever England : femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars (Routledge, 1991), Introduction.

McKibbin, R., Classes and cultures : England 1918-1951 (Oxford, 1998)

Paris, Matthew, ‘The youth of our nation in symbol: making and remaking the masculine ideal in the era of the two world wars’ in Brocklehurst, H. and Phillips, R. (eds), History, nationhood and the question of Britain (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)

Roberts, Elizabeth, A woman's place : an oral history of working-class women 1890-1940 (Oxford, 1984)

Roper, Mike, ‘Between manliness and masculinity: the ‘war generation’ and the psychology of fear in Britain, 1914-1970’, The journal of British studies. 44:2 (2004)

Tate, Trudy, ‘King Baby: Infant care into the peace’ in Tate, T. and Kennedy, K. The silent morning : culture and memory after the Armistice (Manchester, 2013), pp.104-130

Tebbutt, Melanie, Being Boys: Youth, Leisure and Identity in the Inter-War Years (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2014)

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Working and unemployed men in interwar Britain (Week 6)

Class questions:

How did work figure within men's identities? Did this differ according to different types of jobs or different levels of status within the workplace? What was the impact of mass unemployment, on individual men and on cultural constructions of masculinity?

Core Reading:

*Honeyman, Katrina, ‘Following suit: men, masculinity and gendered practices in the clothing trade in Leeds, England,1890-1940’, Gender & history 14:3 (2002), pp.426-446

*Levine-Clark, Marjorie, ‘The Politics of Preference: Masculinity, Marital Status and Unemployment Relief in Post-First World War Britain’, Cultural and social history. 7:2 (2010), pp.233-52

*Penlington, Neil, ‘Masculinity and Domesticity in 1930s South Wales: Did Unemployment Change the Domestic Division of Labour?’, 20th century British history. 21:3 (2010), pp.281-99

Additional Reading:

Alexander, Sally, ‘Men’s Fears and Women’s Work: Responses to Unemployment in London between the Wars’, Gender & history. 12:2 (2000), pp.401-25

Bakke, E.W., The unemployed man : a social study (London, 1933)

Beale, H.L., and Lambert, R.S. (eds), Memoirs of the unemployed (originally published 1934)

Bingham, Aadiran, Gender, modernity, and the popular press in inter-war Britain (Oxford, 2004)

Burnett, John, Idle hands : the experience of unemployment, 1790-1990 (London, 1994)

French, Michael, and Popp, Andrew, ‘Ambassadors of commerce: the commercial traveller in British culture, 1800-1930’, Business history review. 82 (2008), pp.789-814

Greenfield, Jill, O’Connell, Sean, and Reid, Chris, ‘Fashioning Masculinity: Men Only, Consumption and the Development of Marketing in the 1930s’, Twentieth Century British history 10:4 (1999), pp.457-76

Greenwood, Walter, Love on the Dole (originally published 1933). Also see the film of 1941. Available on Box of Broadcasts (BoB)

Hayes, Nick, ‘Did Manual Workers Want Industrial Welfare? Canteens, Latrines and Masculinity on British Building Sites 1918–1970’, Journal of Social History 35:3 (2002), pp.637-658

Levine-Clark, Marjorie, Unemployment, Welfare, and Masculine Citizenship: 'So Much Honest Poverty' in Britain, 1870-1930 (London, 2015).

McBrinn, Joseph, 'The work of masculine fingers': the Disabled Soldiers' Embroidery Industry, 1918-1955', Journal of Design History 31:1 (2018), 1-23 

McKibbin, Ross, The Ideologies of Class: Social Relations in Britain 1980-1950 (Oxford, 1990)

McKibbin, Ross, Classes and cultures : England 1918-1951 (Oxford, 1998)

Pattinson, Juliette, ''Shirkers', 'Scrimjacks' and 'Scrimshanks'? British Civilian Masculinity and Reserved Occupations, 1914-1945', Gender and History  28:3 (2016), 709-727

Pilgrim Trust, Men Without Work: A Report made to the Pilgrim Trust (Cambridge, 1938)

Smith, Helen, Masculinity, class and same-sex desire in industrial England, 1895-1957 (Basingstoke, 2015)

Todd, Selina, ‘Flappers and Factory Lads: Youth and Youth Culture in Interwar Britain’, History compass. 4:4 (2006), pp.715-30

Ward, Stephanie, Unemployment and the state in Britain : the means test and protest in 1930s south Wales and north-east England (Manchester, 2013)

 

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The Second World War (Week 7)

Class questions: 

How did models of masculinity in the Second World War compare to those in the First? Were men’s experiences of warfare different to previous conflicts, both at home and when serving abroad? How did men experience changing gender relations in the light of women’s contribution to the war effort?

Core Reading:

Content warning - please note that Lucy Noakes' piece contains discussion of deaths during air raids and other circumstances during the Second World War, so might be upsetting.

*Noakes, Lucy, ‘Gender, Grief, and Bereavement in Second World War Britain’, Journal of war and culture studies. 8:1 (2015), pp.72-85

*Robb, Lindsey, Men at work : the working man in British culture, 1939-1945 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015) Introduction or a chapter of your choice. Available online.

*Rose, Sonya O. ‘Temperate Heroes: Concepts of Masculinity in Second World War Britain’, in S. Dudink, K. Hagemann and J. Tosh (eds), Masculinities in politics and war : gendering modern history (Manchester, 2004), pp.177-97 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva . Also available in Sonya O. Rose, Which people's war? : national identity and citizenship in Britain 1939-1945 (Oxford, 2003) - available in Online Course Readings folder

Additional Reading:

Abrams, Lynn, 'A wartime family romance: narratives of masculinity and intimacy during World War Two', in L. Abrams and E. Ewan (eds), Nine Centuries of Man: Man and Manhood in Scottish History (Edinburgh, 2017) 

Bland, Lucy, 'Interracial Relationships and the "Brown Baby Question": Black GIs, White British Women and their Mixed Race Offspring in World War II', Journal of the History of Sexuality, 26:3 (2017), 424-453

Carden-Coyne, Ana (ed.), Gender and conflict since 1914 : historical and interdisciplinary perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)

Chand, Alison, ‘Conflicting Masculinities? Men in Reserved Occupations in Clydeside 1939-45’, Journal of Scottish historical studies. 34:2 (2014), pp.218-36

Davenport, Paul, ‘Dangerous, courageous, invisible: non-white seafarers in the Merchant Navy of the 1940s and 1950s’, Journal of War and Cultural Studies, 4:1 (2011), 51-64

Francis, Martin, The flyer : British culture and the Royal Air Force, 1939-1945 (Oxford and New York, 2008)

Francis, Martin, ‘A Flight from Commitment? Domesticity, Adventure and the Masculine Imaginary in Britain after the Second World War’, Gender & history. 19:1 (2007), pp.163-85

Hammett, Jessica, ''It's in the blood, isn't it?' The contested status of First World War veterans in Second World War civil defence', Cultural and Social History 14:3 (2017), 343-361

Noakes, Lucy, War and the British : gender, memory and national identity (London, 1998)

Pattinson, Juliette, McIvor, Arthur, and Robb, Linsey, Men in Reserve: British Civilian Masculinities in the Second World War (Manchester, 2017)

Pattinson, Juliette, Noakes, Lucy and Ugolini, Wendy, ‘Incarcerated Masculinities: Male POWs and the Second World War’, Journal of war and culture studies. 7 (2014), pp.179-190

Pattinson, Juliette, ‘The thing that made me hesitate …’: re-examining gendered intersubjectivities in interviews with British secret war veterans’, Women's history review. 20:2 (2011), pp.245-263

Peniston-Bird, Corinna, ‘Classifying the Body in the Second World War: British Men In and Out of Uniform’, Body & society. 9:4 (2003), pp.31-48

Robb, Linsey, and Peniston-Bird, Corinna (eds), Men, Masculinities and Male Culture in the Second World War (Palgrave, 2018)

Robb, Linsey, 'The "Conchie Corps": Conflict, Compromise and Conscientious Objection in the British Army, 1940-45', Twentieth Century British History 29:3 (2018), 411-434

Robb, Linsey, “His own weapons to his own battlefront”: cultural representations of the working man in British culture, 1939 - 1945’ in W. Ugolini and J. Pattinson (eds), Fighting for Britain? : negotiating identities in Britain during the Second World War (Peter Lang, 2015)

Robb, Lindsey, ‘‘The Front Line’: Firefighting in British Culture, 1939–1945’, Contemporary British history. 29:2 (2015), pp.179-198

Rose, Sonya O., Which people's war? : national identity and citizenship in Britain 1939-1945 (Oxford, 2003)

Rose, Sonya O., ‘Sex, Citizenship, and the Nation in World War II Britain’, The American historical review. 103:4 (1998), pp.1147-76

Schaffer, Gavin, ‘Unmasking the ‘muscle Jew’: the Jewish soldier in British War Service, 1899-1945’, Patterns of prejudice. 46:3/4 (2012), pp.375-96

Schaffer, Gavin, ‘Fighting Racism: Black Soldiers and Workers in Britain during the Second World War’, Immigrants and Minorities, 28:2-3 (2010), 246-265

Sprecher, Danielle, 'Demob suits: One Uniform for Another? Burtons and the Leeds Multiple Tailors' Production of Demobilization Tailoring after the Second World War', Costume 54:1 (2020), pp.108-130

Summerfield, Penny, ‘Divisions at Sea: Class, Gender, Race, and Nation in Maritime Films of the Second World War, 1939–60’, 20th century British history. 22:3 (2011), pp.330-353

Summerfield, Penny, & Peniston-Bird, Corinna, Contesting home defence : men, women and the Home Guard in the Second World War (Manchester, 2007)

Twells, Alison, 'Sex, Gender and Romantic Intimacy in Servicemen's Letters Home During the Second World War', Historical Journal 67:3 (2020), 732-753

Vickers, Emma, Queen and Country: Same-Sex Desire in the British Armed Forces 1939-45 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013)

Vickers, Emma, and Jackson, Emma, 'Sanctuary or sissy? Male to female cross dressing as entertainment in the British Armed Forces, 1939-1945', in E. Vickers and C. Peniston-Bird (eds), Lessons of War: Gender History and the Second World War (Palgrave, 2016) Available here.

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Home and family in the 1940s and 1950s (Week 8)

Class questions:

Did the post-war period see a new dominance of family-orientated masculinity? How was home and family life changing in this period? Were the experiences of men in this period significantly different to previous decades?

Core Reading:

Be aware that Matt Cook's piece does include discussion of the persecution of and discrimination against homosexuality. 

*Cook, Matt, 'Families of choice? George Ives, Queer Lives and the Family' Gender and History 22:1 (2010), 1-20

*Francis, Martin, ‘A Flight from Commitment? Domesticity, Adventure and the Masculine Imaginary in Britain after the Second World War’, Gender & history. 19:1 (2007), pp.163-85

*King, Laura, ‘‘Now you see a great many men pushing their pram proudly’: Family-orientated masculinity represented and experienced in mid-twentieth-century Britain’, Cultural and social history. 10:4 (2013), pp.599-617

Additional Reading:

Abrams, Lynn, ‘“There was Nobody like my Daddy”: Fathers, the Family and the Marginalisation of Men in Modern Scotland’, The Scottish historical review. 78:2 (1999), pp.219-42 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Allport, Alan, Demobbed : coming home after World War Two (New Haven and London, 2009)

Anderson, Julie, '"Homes away from home" and "happy prisoners": Disabled Veterans, Space, and Masculinity in Britain, 1944-50', Journal of Social History 53:3 (2020), 698-715

Bourke, Joanna, Working class cultures in Britain, 1890-1960 : gender, class, and ethnicity (London, 1994)

Collins, Marcus, ‘Pride and Prejudice: West Indian Men in Mid-Twentieth-Century Britain’, The journal of British studies. 40:3 (2001), pp.391-418

Cook, Matt, Queer Domesticities: Homosexuality and Home Life in Twentieth-Century London (Palgrave, 2014)

Davis, Angela, and King, Laura, 'Gendered Perspectives on Men's Changing Familial Roles in Postwar England, c.1950-1990', Gender and History 30:1 (2018), 70-92

Dennis, Norman, Henriques, Fernando, and Slaughter, Clifford [1956], Coal is our Life: An Analysis of a Yorkshire Mining Community (London, 1969)

Finch, Janet, and Summerfield, Penny, ‘Social Reconstruction and the Emergence of Companionate Marriage, 1945-59’, in D. Clark (ed.), Marriage, domestic life and social change : writings for Jacqueline Burgoyne (1944-88) (London, 1991), pp.7-32

Francis, Martin, ‘The Domestication of the Male? Recent research on Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century British Masculinity’, The historical journal. 45:3 (2002), pp.637-52

Harris, Alana, ‘“A Paradise on Earth, a Foretaste of Heaven”: English Catholic Understandings of Domesticity and Marriage, 1945-1965’, in L. Delap, B. Griffin and A. Wills (eds), The politics of domestic authority in Britain since 1800 (Basingstoke, 2009), pp.155-81

Hart, Nicky, ‘Gender and the Rise and Fall of Class Politics’, New left review. 175 (1989), pp.19-47

Guyan, Kevin, 'Masculinities, Planning Knowledge and Domestic Space in Britain, c.1941-1961', PhD Thesis (UCL, 2016) Available: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1516998/

King, Laura, 'Hidden Fathers? The Significance of Fatherhood in Mid-Twentieth-Century Britain', Contemporary British history., 26:1 (2012), pp.25-46

King, Laura, Family men : fatherhood and masculinity in Britain, 1914-1960 (Oxford, 2015)

Langhamer, Claire, ‘Love, Selfhood and Authenticity in Post-War Britain’, Cultural and social history. 9(2) (2012), pp.277-97

Mort, Frank, 'Social and Symbolic Fathers and Sons in Postwar Britain', The journal of British studies. 38:3 (1999), pp.353-84

Webster, Wendy, Imagining home : gender, "race" and national identity, 1945-64 (1998)

Young, Michael, and Willmott, Peter [1957], Family and Kinship in East London (Harmondsworth, 1967)

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Work, class and affluence in the 1940s and 1950s (Week 9)

Class questions: 

How did class and gender identities intersect in the post-war decades? What was the impact of affluence on models of masculinity? Did this period witness a feminisation of the affluent worker?

Core Reading:

*Ayers, Pat, 'Work, Culture and Gender: The Making of Masculinities in Post-War Liverpool', Labour History Review 69:2 (2004), 153-167

*Brooke, Stephen, ‘Gender and Working Class Identity in Britain during the 1950s’, Journal of Social History. 34:4 (2001), pp.773-95

*Lawrence, Jon, ‘Class, ‘Affluence’ and the Study of Everyday Life in Britain, c.1930-64’, Cultural and social history. 10:2 (2013), pp.273-99

Additional Reading:

Goldthorpe, J.H., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, D., and Platt, J. [1968], The Affluent worker in the class structure (Cambridge, 1969)

Hall, Richard, 'Being a Man, Being a Member: Masculinity and Community in British Working Men's Clubs, 1945-60', Cultural and Social History  14:1 (2017), 73-88 

Jobling, Paul, Advertising menswear : masculinity and fashion in the British media since 1945 (Bloomsbury, 2014)

Langhamer, Claire, ‘The Meanings of Home in Postwar Britain’, Journal of contemporary history. 40:2 (2005), pp.341-62

Mogey, J.M., ‘Changes in Family Life Experienced by English Workers Moving from Slums to Housing Estates’, Marriage and Family Living 17:2 (1955), pp.123-8

Mort, Frank, and Thompson, Paul, ‘Retailing, Commercial Culture and Masculinity in 1950s Britain: The case of Montague Burton, the ‘Tailor of Taste’’, History workshop journal. 38 (1994), pp.106-127

Roper, Mike,, Masculinity and the British organization man since 1945 (Oxford, 1994)

Savage, Mike, Identities and social change in Britain since 1940 : the politics of method (Oxford, 2010)

Smith-Wilson, Dolly, ‘A New Look at the Affluent Worker: The Good Working Mother in Post-War Britain’, 20th century British history. 17:2 (2006), pp.206-29

Todd, Selina, ‘Breadwinners and Dependants: Working-Class Young People in England, 1918-1955’, International review of social history. 52 (2007), pp.57-87

Todd, Selina, ‘Affluence, Class and Crown Street: Reinvestigating the Post-War Working Class’, Contemporary British history. 50:1 (2008), pp.501-18

Todd, Selina The people : the rise and fall of the working class, 1910-2010 (London, 2014)

Wallace, Rachel, '"She's Punch Drunk!" Humor, Domestic Violence and the British Working Class in Andy Capp cartoons, 1957-65', Journal of Popular Culture 51:1 (2018), 129-151

Willmott, Peter, and Young, Michael, Family and class in a London suburb (London, 1960)

Wills, Abigail, ‘Delinquency, Masculinity and Citizenship in England 1950-1970’, Past & present 187 (2005), pp.157-85

Zweig, Ferdynand, The worker in an affluent society : family life and industry. (London, 1961)

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Changing sexualities 1860-1960 (Week 10)

Class questions: 

How important is (hetero)sexuality to male identities? Did this vary along class lines or in different parts of the country? Does this century represent a period of change or continuity in male sexual identities?

Core Reading:

Sean Brady and Helen Smith’s books discuss the maltreatment of homosexual men in the past, with some mention of sexual violence and child abuse (mostly around the legal confusion between categories of consensual sex, rape and child abuse rather than discussion of any particular incidents). There is occasional mention of rape, sexual violence, child abuse and miscarriage/stillbirth in Kate Fisher and Simon Szreter’s book. Please email me with any concerns and guidance on what to read if you need help.

*Brady, Sean, Masculinity and male homosexuality in Britain, 1861-1913 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), especially ch.1. Available online

*Smith, Helen, Masculinity, class and same-sex desire in industrial England, 1895-1957 (Basingstoke, 2015), especially chs 1 and 5 - available online

*Szreter, Simon, and Fisher, Kate, Sex before the sexual revolution : intimate life in England 1918-1963 (Cambridge, 2010), especially chs 2,3 and 8 - available online

Additional Reading:

Bengry, Justin, ‘Courting the Pink Pound: Men Only and the Queer Consumer, 1935-39’ History workshop journal. 68:1 (2009), pp.122-48

Bengry, Justin, 'Peacock Revolution: Mainstreaming Queer Styles in Postwar Britain, 1945-1987', Socialist History 36 (2010), 55-68 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 10/12/2020) 

Bingham, Adrian, Family newspapers? : sex, private life, and the British popular press 1918-1978 (Oxford, 2009)

Buettner, Elizabeth, ‘Would you let your daughter marry a Negro?’: Race and Sex in 1950s Britain’ in Philippa Levine and Susan R. Grayzel (eds.), Gender, Labour, War and Empire: Essays on Modern Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), pp.219-38

Chandra, Shefail, The Sexual Life of the English: Languages of Caste and Desire in Colonial India (Durham, NC, 2012)

Cocks, Harry, Nameless Offences: Homosexual Desire in the 19th Century (London: I.B. Tauris, 2003)

Collins, Marcus, ‘The Pornography of Permissiveness: Men’s Sexuality and Women’s Emancipation in Mid-Twentieth Century Britain’, History workshop journal. 47 (1999), pp.99-120

Cook, Matt, London and the culture of homosexuality, 1885-1914 (Cambridge University Press, 2003)

Das, Santanu, ‘’Kiss me, Hardy’: intimacy, gender and gesture in First World War trench literature’, Modernism/modernity. 9:1 (2002), pp.51-74

Fisher, Kate, ‘“She was quite satisfied with the arrangements I made”: Gender and Birth Control in Britain 1920-1950’, Past & present. 169 (2000), pp.161-93

Hall, Lesley A., Sex, Gender and Social Change in Britain since 1880 (Basingstoke, 2000)

Hall, Lesley A., Hidden anxieties : male sexuality, 1900-1950 (Cambridge, 1991)

Hinchy, Jessica, 'Obscenity, Moral Contagion and Masculinity: Hijras in Public Space in Colonial North India',  Asian Studies Review38:2 (2014), 274-294 

Houlbrook, Matt, Queer London : perils and pleasures in the sexual metropolis, 1918-1957 (University of Chicago Press, 2005)

Imy, Kate, 'Queering the Martial Races: Masculinity, Sex and Circumcision in the Twentieth Century British Indian Army', Gender and History 27:2 (2015), 374-396

Jones, Tim, ‘Moral Welfare and Social Well-Being: The Church of England and the Emergence of Modern Homosexuality’, in Delap, L., and Morgan, S. (eds), Men, masculinities and religious change in twentieth-century Britain (Basingstoke, 2013), pp.197-217

Lowrie, Claire, 'White 'men' and their Chinese 'boys': Sexuality, Masculinity and Colonial Power in Singapore and Darwin, 1880s-1930s', History Australia 10:1 (2013), 35-57

Meek, Jeffrey, ‘”That Class of Men”: Effeminacy, Sodomy and Failed Masculinities in Inter- and Post-War Scotland’, in L. Abrams, and E. Ewan (eds.), Nine centuries of man : manhood and masculinity in Scottish history ISBN: 9781474403894 (hardback); 1474403891 (hardback); 9781474403900; 9781474403917 (Edinburgh, 2017)

Mort, Frank, Capital affairs : London and the making of the permissive society (New Haven and London, 2010)

Nelson, Claudia, ‘Sex and the single boy: ideals of manliness and sexuality in Victorian literature for boys’, Victorian studies 32:4 (1989), 525-550

Smith, Helen, 'Love, Sex, Work and Friendship: Northern Working-Class Men and Sexuality in the First Half of the Twentieth Century' in A. Harris and Timothy W. Jones (eds), Love and Romance in Britain, 1918-1970 (Basingstoke, 2015), 61-80

Smith, Helen, 'Working-class ideas and experiences of sexuality in twentieth-century Britain: regionalism as a category of analysis', Twentieth Century British History 29:1 (2018), 58-78

Waters, Chris, ‘The Homosexual as a Social Being in Britain, 1945–1968’, Journal of British Studies, 51, 3 (2012), pp. 685–710

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Conceptualising the history of masculinity (Week 11)

Class questions:

What is the relationship between constructions of masculinity in public discourses and the behaviour of men within everyday life? What theoretical models have been helpful for increasing our understanding of men and masculinity? What do historians gain from studying gender?

Reading:

*Boydston, J., ‘Gender as a Question of Historical Analysis’, Gender & history. 20:3 (2008), pp.558-583

*Griffin, Ben, 'Hegemonic Masculinity as a Historical Problem', Gender and History 30:2 (2018), pp.1-24

*Scott, J.W., ‘Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis’, American historical review. 91:5 (1986), pp.1053-75

This list was last updated on 02/02/2022