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Module Reading List

Introduction to Health Systems, 2021/22, Semester 2
Tim Ensor
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Sub-topics (key areas taught in the module)

1. Health systems, health reforms

2. Health systems frameworks

3. Health service delivery, district health system

4. Governance and stewardship

5. Health systems resources incluidng finance, information and workforce

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Essential Reading

DE SAVIGNY, D., BLANCHET K & ADAM, T.  (2017). Applied Systems thinking for health systems research: a methodological handbook. Croydon: Open University Press. 

ENSOR, T. 2017. Transition to Universal Coverage in Developing Countries, International Encyclopaedia of Public Health, Second Edition, Elsevier

GEREIN N., GREEN A., MIRZOEV T., PEARSON S. (2009) Health System Impacts on Maternal and Child Health in JE. Ehiri (ed) Maternal and child health : global challenges, programs, and policies. Springer Publishers, Washington DC.   

MILLS, A. & RANSON, K. (2006). The Design of Health Systems. In: MERSON, M. H., BLACK, R. E. & MILLS, A. J. (eds.) International Public Health. 2nd ed.: Jones and Bartlett.   

VAN OLMEN, J., MARCHAL, B., VAN DAMME, W., KEGELS, G. & HILL, P. (2012). Health systems frameworks in their political context: framing divergent agendas. BMC Public Health [electronic resource]., 12, 774.  

WHO. 2010. The World Health Report 2010 - Health Systems Financing: the path to universal coverage: [Online]. Geneva: World Health Organisation. [Accessed]. Available online

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ADAM, T. and D. de SAVIGNY (2012). "Systems thinking for strengthening health systems in LMICs: need for a paradigm shift." Health Policy and Planning 27(suppl 4): iv1-iv3.

AGYEPONG, I. A., KODUA, A., ADJEI, S. & ADAM, T. (2012). When ‘solutions of yesterday become problems of today’: crisis-ridden decision making in a complex adaptive system (CAS)—the Additional Duty Hours Allowance in Ghana. Health Policy and Planning, 27, iv20-iv31.

AGYEPONG, I., ARYEETEY, G., NONVIGNON, J., ASENSO-BOADI, F., DZIKUNU, H., ANTWI, E., ANKRAH, D., ADJEI-ACQUAH, C., ESENA, R., AIKINS, M. & ARHINFUL, D. (2014). Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: provider payment and service supply behaviour and incentives in the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme - a systems approach. Health research policy and systems [electronic resource]., 12, 35.

AGYAPONG, V. I. O., OSEI, A., MCLOUGHLIN, D. M. & MCAULIFFE, E. (2016). Task shifting—perception of stake holders about adequacy of training and supervision for community mental health workers in Ghana. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 31, 645-655.

AHUJA, S., MIRZOEV, T., LUND, C., OFORI-ATTA, A., SKEEN, S. & KUFUOR, A. (2016). Key influences in the design and implementation of mental health information systems in Ghana and South Africa. Global mental health ISSN: 2054-4251, 3, e11 (19 pages).

ALI, F. M. H., NIKOLOSKI, Z. & REKA, H. 2015. Satisfaction and responsiveness with health-care services in Qatar—evidence from a survey. Health policy. ISSN: 0168-8510, 119, 1499-1505.

ATUN, R., DE JONGH, T., SECCI, F., OHIRI, K. & ADEYI, O. (2010) Integration of targeted health interventions into health systems: a conceptual framework for analysis. Health policy and planning. , 25, 104-111.

BALOGUN J. (2006) Managing change: steering a course between intended strategies and unanticipated outcomes. Long Range Planning. ISSN: 0024-6301 39:29–49.

BALOGUN J. (2003). From blaming the middle to harnessing its potential: creating change intermediaries. British journal of management. ISSN: 1045-3172 14:69–83.

BARASA, E., MBAU, R. & GILSON, L. 2018. What Is Resilience and How Can It Be Nurtured? A Systematic Review of Empirical Literature on Organizational Resilience. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 7, 491-503.

BERLAN, D. & SHIFFMAN, J. (2012). Holding health providers in developing countries accountable to consumers: a synthesis of relevant scholarship. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 27, 271-280.

BERMAN, P. (1995) Health sector reform: making health development sustainable. Health Policy, 32 (1-3) , 13-28.

BERMAN, P. & BIR, A. (1995) Introduction. Health Policy, 32 (1-3) , 3-11.

BERTONE, M. P. & LAGARDE, M. (2016). Sources, determinants and utilization of health workers’ revenues: evidence from Sierra Leone. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 31, 1010-1019.

BLANCHET, K. (2013). How to facilitate social contagion? International journal of health policy and management, 1(3), pp.189–92 - Available online:

BODART, C., SERVAIS, G., MOHAMED, Y. L. & SCHMIDT-EHRY, B. (2001) The influence of health sector reform and external assistance in Burkina Faso. Health Policy and Planning, 16 (1) , 74-86.

BOSSERT, T. J. (2012). Health systems. Health Policy and Planning, 27, 8-10.

BRINKERHOFF D.W., BOSSERT T.J. (2008). “Health Governance: Concepts, Experience, and Programming Options.” Health Systems 20/20. Washington, DC: USAID. February. - Available online:

BRINKERHOFF D., BOSSERT T (2013) Health governance: principal–agent linkages and health system strengthening. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080 (2014) 29 (6): 685-693

BUSE, K. & HARMER, A. M. (2007) Seven habits of highly effective global public-private health partnerships: Practice and potential. Social Science & Medicine, 64 (2) , 259-271.

CALEY, L. M. (2004) Using geographic information systems to design population-based interventions. Public Health Nursing, 21 (6) , 547-554.

COLLINS, C. (1994) Management and Organisation of Developing Health Systems, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

COLLINS, C., GREEN, A. & HUNTER, D. (1999) Health sector reform and the interpretation of policy context. Health Policy, 47 (1) , 69-83.

DIALLO, K., ZUM, P., GUPTA, N. & DAL POZ, M. (2003) Monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health: an international perspective. Human Resources for Health, 1:3.

DOAN DTT, MIRZOEV T, HA BTT (2018) Utilization of Services Provided by Village-Based Ethnic Minority Midwives in Vietnam: Lessons From Implementation Research. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice ISSN: 1078-4659 24: S9-S18

EBENSO B., MBACHU C., ETIABA E., HUSS R., MANZANO A., ONWUJEKWE O., UZOCHUKWU B., EZUMAH N., ENSOR T., HICKS J. MIRZOEV T. (2020) Which mechanisms explain the motivation of primary health workers? Insights from the realist evaluation of a maternal and child health programme in Nigeria. BMJ Global Health 5(8): e002408

EDMONSTONE, J. & WESTERN, J. (2002) Leadership development in health care: what do we know? Journal of Management in Medicine, 16 (1) , 34-47.

ENSOR, T. & THOMPSON, R. (1999) Rationalizing rural hospital services in Kazakstan. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 14 (2) , 155-167.

ENSOR, T., VE-SEN, P., ALI, L., HOSSAIN, A., BEGUM, S. A. & MORAL, H. (2002) Do essential service packages benefit the poor? Preliminary evidence from Bangladesh. Health Policy and Planning, 17 (3) , 247-256.

ETIABA, E., MANZANO A., AGBAWODIKEIZU U., OGU U., EBENSO B., UZOCHUKWU B., ONWUJEKWE O., EZUMAH N. and MIRZOEV T. (2020). “If you are on duty, you may be afraid to come out to attend to a person”: fear of crime and security challenges in maternal acute care in Nigeria from a realist perspective. BMC Health Services Research 20(1): 903

FERROUSSIER, O., KUMAR, M. K. A., DEWAN, P. K., NAIR, P. K. J., SAHU, S., WARES, D. F., LASERSON, K., WELLS, C., GRANICH, R. & CHAUHAN, L. S. (2007) Cost and cost-effectiveness of a public-private mix project in Kannur District, Kerala, India, 2001-2002. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 11 (7) , 755-761.

FLOYD, K., ARORA, V. K., MURTHY, K. J., LONNROTH, K., SINGLA, N., AKBAR, Y., ZIGNOL, M. & UPLEKAR, M. (2006) Cost and cost-effectiveness of PPM-DOTS for tuberculosis control: evidence from India. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84 (6) , 437-445.

FRENK J. (1994) Dimensions of health system reform. Health policy. ISSN: 0168-8510 31;27(1):19-34

GEORGE, A et al. (2011). Community case management in Nicaragua: lessons in fostering adoption and expanding implementation. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080 26(4): 327-37

GEORGE, A. S., ERCHICK, D. J., ZUBAIRU, M. M., BARAU, I. Y. & WONODI, C. (2016). Sparking, supporting and steering change: grounding an accountability framework with viewpoints from Nigerian routine immunization and primary health care government officials. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 31, 1326-1332.

GILSON, L., BARASA, E., NXUMALO, N., CLEARY, S., GOUDGE, J., MOLYNEUX, S., TSOFA, B. & LEHMANN, U. 2017. Everyday resilience in district health systems: emerging insights from the front lines in Kenya and South Africa. BMJ Global Health, 2.

GILSON, L. et al. (2014). Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: South African examples of a leadership of sensemaking for primary health care. Health research policy and systems [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1478-4505 12: 30

GILSON, L. & MCINTYRE, D. (2005) Removing user fees for primary care in Africa: the need for careful action. British Medical Journal, 331 (7519) , 762-765.

GILSON, L. & MILLS, A. (1995) Health sector reforms in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons of the last 10 years. Health Policy, 32 (1-3) , 215-243.

GLADWIN, J., DIXON, R. A. & WILSON, T. D. (2003) Implementing a new health management information system in Uganda. Health Policy and Planning, 18 (2) , 214-224.

GONZALEZ BLOCK, M. & MILLS, A. (2003) Assessing capacity for health policy and systems research in low and middle income countries. Health Research Policy and Systems, 1 (1) , 1.

GONZÁLEZ BLOCK, M. A. (1997) Comparative research and analysis methods for shared learning from health system reforms. Health Policy, 42 (3) , 187-209.

GOTSADZE, G., ZOIDZE, A. & VASADZE, O. (2005) Reform strategies in Georgia and their impact on health care provision in rural areas: evidence from a household survey. Social Science & Medicine, 60 (4) , 809-821.

GREEN, A. (2007) An introduction to health planning for developing health systems, 3rd ed., Oxford University Press.

GREEN, A., ROSS, D. & MIRZOEV, T. (2007). Primary Health Care and England: The coming of age of Alma Ata? Health Policy, 80, 11-31.

GREEN, A. T. & MIRZOEV, T. N. (2008). Planning, for Public Health Policy. In: HEGGENHOUGEN, K. & QUAH, S. (eds.) International encyclopedia of public health ISBN: 9780122272257 (hbk.); 0122272250 (hbk.). San Diego: Academic Press. San Diego: Academic Press

GREEN, A., ALI, B., NAEEM, A. & ROSS, D. (2000) Resource allocation and budgetary mechanisms for decentralized health systems: experiences from Balochistan, Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78 (8) , 1024-1035.

GREEN, A., ALI, B., NAEEM, A. & VASSALL, A. (2001) Using costing as a district planning and management tool in Balochistan, Pakistan. Health Policy and Planning, 16 (2) , 180-186.

GREEN A, COLLINS C, & MIRZOEV T. (2012) Management and Planning for Public Health. In: Merson M, Black R, Mills A. (eds) Global health : diseases, programs, systems, and policies. Third Edition. pp. 653-706. Jones and Bartlett.

HA BTT, PHAM VAN T, MIRZOEV T. (2020) Implementation of Health Policy on Establishment of Provincial Center of Diseases Control (CDC) in Vietnam. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy. 2020;13:915-926

HA, B.T.T., NGOC QUANG, L., MIRZOEV, T., TAI, N.T., THAI, P.Q., & DINH, P.C. (2020). Combating the COVID-19 Epidemic: Experiences from Vietnam. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(9), 3125

HAMMER, J. S. & BERMAN, P. (1995) Ends and means in public health policy in developing countries. Health Policy, 32 (1-3) , 29-45.

HEALY, J. & MCKEE, M. (2002) Implementing hospital reform in central and eastern Europe. Health Policy, 61 (1) , 1-19.

HOFFMAN, S. J., RØTTINGEN, J.-A., BENNETT, S., LAVIS, J. N., EDGE, J. S. & FRENK, J. (2012). A Review of Conceptual Barriers and Opportunities facing Health Systems Research to inform a Strategy from the World Health Organization. Background paper commissioner by the Alliance for or Health Policy and Systems Research to develop the WHO Health Systems Research., Geneva, Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research. Available online:

HOGAN, D. R., BALTUSSEN, R., HAYASHI, C., LAUER, J. A. & SALOMON, J. A. (2005) Achieving the millennium development goals for health - Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat HIV/AIDS in developing countries. British Medical Journal, 331 (7530) , 1431-1435.

ISLAM, M. A., WAKAI, S., ISHIKAWA, N., CHOWDHURY, A. M. & VAUGHAN, J. P. (2002) Cost-effectiveness of community health workers in tuberculosis control in Bangladesh. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 80 (6) , 445-450.

JULIA, M. & KONDRAT, M. E. (2005) Health care in the social development context - Indigenous, participatory and empowering approaches. International Social Work, 48 (5) , 537-552.

KARKI, D., MIRZOEV, T., GREEN, A., NEWELL, J. & BARAL, S. (2007). Costs of a successful public-private partnership for TB control in an urban setting in Nepal. BMC Public Health, 7, 84.

KHAN, M. A., WALLEY, J. D., WITTER, S. N., IMRAN, A. & SAFDAR, N. (2002) Costs and cost-effectiveness of different DOT strategies for the treatment of tuberculosis in Pakistan. Health Policy and Planning, 17 (2) , 178-186.

KRUK, M. E., LING, E. J., BITTON, A., CAMMETT, M., CAVANAUGH, K., CHOPRA, M., EL-JARDALI, F., MACAULEY, R. J., MURAGURI, M. K., KONUMA, S., MARTEN, R., MARTINEAU, F., MYERS, M., RASANATHAN, K., RUELAS, E., SOUCAT, A., SUGIHANTONO, A. & WARNKEN, H. (2017). Building resilient health systems: a proposal for a resilience index. British medical journal. ISSN: 0959-8138; 1468-5833; 0959-8146; 0959-8154; 0959-535X; 1756-1833, 357.

KRUK M., FREEDMAN L (2008). Assessing health system performance in developing countries: a review of the literature Health Policy. 2008 Mar;85(3):263-76

LAFOND, A., BROWN, L. & MACINTYRE, K. (2002) Mapping capacity in the health sector: a conceptual framework. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 17 (1) , 3-22

LAKSHMINARAYANAN, R. (2003) Decentralisation and its Implications for Reproductive Health: The Philippines Experience. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21) , 96-107.

LEWIS, M. (2006) Governance and Corruption in Public Health Care Systems, Unpublished, Working Paper No 78, Center for Global Development.

LIU, X. & MILLS, A. (2002) Financing reforms of public health services in China: lessons for other nations. Social Science & Medicine, 54 (11) , 1691-1698.

LODENSTEIN, E., DIELEMAN, M., GERRETSEN, B. & BROERSE, J. E. W. (2016). Health provider responsiveness to social accountability initiatives in low- and middle-income countries: a realist review. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 32, 125-140

MACFARLANE, S., RACELIS, M. & MULI-MUSLIME, F. (2000) Public health in developing countries. The Lancet, 356 (9232) , 841-846.

MALHOTRA, C. & DO, Y. K. 2013. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 28, 197-205.

MALIK, A., WILLIS, C., HAMID, S., ULIKPAN, A. & HILL, P. (2014). Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: advice seeking behavior among primary health care physicians in Pakistan. Health research policy and systems [electronic resource]., 12, 43.

MCINTYRE, D. & KLUGMAN, B. (2003) The Human Face of Decentralisation and Integration of Health Services: Experience from South Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21) , 108-119.

MCKEE, M., FIGUERAS, J. & CHENET, L. (1998) Health sector reform in the former Soviet Republics of Central Asia. International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 13 (2) , 131-147.

MCPAKE, B. & BANDA, E. E. N. (1994) Contracting out of health services in developing countries. Health Policy and Planning, 9 (1) , 25-30.

MESFIN, M., NEWELL, J., MADELEY, R., MIRZOEV, T., TAREKE, I., KIFLE, Y., GESSESSEW, A. & WALLEY, J. (2010). Cost implications of delays to tuberculosis diagnosis among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 10, 173.

MERSON, M. H., BLACK, R. E. & MILLS, A. J. (2006) International Public Health: diseases, programs, systems, and policies, 2nd ed., Jones and Bartlett.

MEUWISSEN, L. E. (2002). Problems of cost recovery implementation in district health care: a case study from Niger. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080. Sept: 17(3): 304 – 13

MIKKELSEN-LOPEZ, I., WYSS, K. & DE SAVIGNY, D. (2011). An approach to addressing governance from a health system framework perspective. BMC International Health and Human Rights [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1472-698x, 11, 1-11.

MILLS, A. & RANSON, K. (2012) The Design of Health Systems. IN MERSON, M. H., BLACK, R. E. & MILLS, A. J. (Eds.) Global Health. Diseases, Programs, Systems and Policies. 3rd ed., Jones and Bartlett

MIR, G, KARLSEN S, MITULLAH W, BHOJANI U, UZOCHUKWU B, OKEKE C, MIRZOEV T, EBENSO B, DRACUP N, DYMSKI G, DUONG DTT, HA BTT, OUMA S, ONIBON F, OGWEZI J, ADRIS S, (2019) Achieving SDG 10: A Global Review of Public Service Inclusion Strategies for Ethnic and Religious Minorities. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), Occasional Paper 5 [peer-reviewed].

MIRZOEV T., ETIABA E., EBENSO B., UZOCHUKWU B., ENSOR T., ONWUJEKWE O., HUSS R., EZUMAH N., MANZANO A. (2020) Tracing theories in realist evaluations of large-scale health programmes in low- and middle-income countries: experience from Nigeria. Health Policy and Planning.

MIRZOEV T., POUDEL AKN., GISSING S., DOAN TTD, FERDOUS T., REGMI S., DUC DM., BARAL S., CHAND O., HUQUE R., MINH HV., ELSEY H. (2019). Is evidence-informed urban health planning a myth or reality? Lessons from a qualitative assessment in three Asian cities. Health Policy and Planning 34(10): 773-783

MIRZOEV T. and KANE S. (2017). What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework. BMJ Global Health 2(4).

MIRZOEV T., GREEN A, ORGILL M, (2019) Management and Planning for Global Health. In: Merson M, Black R, Mills A. (eds) Global Health: Diseases, Programmes, Systems, and Policies. Fourth Edition. Jones and Bartlett, pp. 679-729

MIRZOEV, T. N., GREEN, A. T. & NEWELL, J. N. (2007) Progress towards health reform in Tajikistan. Journal of Health Organisation and Management, 21, 495-505.

MIRZOEV, T., BARAL, S., KARKI, D., GREEN, A. & NEWELL, J. (2008). Community-based DOTS and family member DOTS for TB control in Nepal: costs and cost-effectiveness. Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, 6, 20.

MIRZOEV, T., GREEN, A. & NEWELL, J. (2010). Health SWAps and external aid—a case study from Tajikistan. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 25, 270-286.

MIRZOEV, T., OMAR, M., GREEN, A., BIRD, P., LUND, C., OFORI-ATTA, A. & DOKU, V. (2012). Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Health Research Policy and Systems, 10, 30.

MIRZOEV, T., LÊ, G., GREEN, A., ORGILL, M., KOMBA, A., ESENA, R. K., NYAPADA, L., UZOCHUKWU, B., AMDE, W. K., NXUMALO, N. & GILSON, L. (2014). Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project. Health Policy and Planning, 29(7): 831-841.

MIRZOEV, T. N., GREEN, A. & VAN KALLIECHARAN, R. (2015). Framework for assessing the capacity of a health ministry to conduct health policy processes—a case study from Tajikistan. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management , 30(2), 173-185

MIRZOEV T.N., and GREEN A.T. (2015) Planning, for Public Health Policy. In: Quah S. (ed) Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier. 08-July-15 doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.03128-7. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (srj 24/07/2017) 

MIRZOEV T. and KANE S. (2018). Key strategies to improve systems for managing patient complaints within health facilities - what can we learn from the existing literature? Global Health Action ISSN: 1654-9880, 11:1, 1458938.

MIRZOEV T., GREEN A, and ORGILL M, (2019) Management and Planning for Global Health. In: Merson M, Black R, Mills A. (eds) Global Health: Diseases, Programmes, Systems, and Policies. Fourth Edition. Jones and Bartlett, pp. 679-729

MOSSIALOS, E., ALLIN, S. & FIGUERAS, J. (2007). Health Systems in Transition: Template for Analysis, Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe on behalf of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. Available online:

MORGAN, R., GEORGE, A., SSALI, S., HAWKINS, K., MOLYNEUX, S. & THEOBALD, S. (2016). How to do (or not to do)… gender analysis in health systems research. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080, 31, 1069-1078.

MOUNIER-JACK, S. et al. (2014). Measuring the health systems impact of disease control programmes: a critical reflection on the WHO building blocks framework. BMC Public Health [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1471-2458, 14(1), p.278

MUMTAZ, Z. et al. (2003). Gender based barriers to health care provision in Pakistan: the experience of female providers. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080. 18(3): 261-269

MURRAY, C. J. L. (1995) Towards an analytical approach to health sector reform. Health Policy, 32 (1-3) , 93-109.

MURSALEENA, I. (2007) The Health Systems Assessment Approach: A How-To Manual, USAID, MSH, PHP, RPM Plus. [Online] available from: Last Accessed 24th July 2017

MUSHI, A. K., SCHELLENBERG, J. R. M. A., MPONDA, H. & LENGELER, C. (2003) Targeted subsidy for malaria control with treated nets using a discount voucher system in Tanzania. Health Policy Plan., 18 (2) , 163-171.

NEWELL, J. N., PANDE, S. B., BARAL, S. C., BAM, D. S. & MALLA, P. (2005) Leadership, management and technical lessons learnt from a successful public-private partnership for TB control in Nepal. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9 (9) , 1013-1017.

NGUYEN, M. P., MIRZOEV, T. & LE, T. M. (2016). Contribution of health workforce to health outcomes: empirical evidence from Vietnam. Human resources for health [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1478-4491, 14, 68.

NJERU, M. K., BLYSTAD, A., NYAMONGO, I. K. & FYLKESNES, K. 2009. A critical assessment of the WHO responsiveness tool: lessons from voluntary HIV testing and counselling services in Kenya. BMC Health Services Research [electronic resource]. ISSN: 1472-6963, 9, 1-11.

NOLTE, E., BAIN, C. & MCKEE, M. (2005) International benchmarking of health systems: from aggregate measures to tracer conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 15, 66-67.

OLIFF, M., MAYAUD, P., BRUGHA, R. & SEMAKAFU, A. M. (2003) Integrating Reproductive Health Services in a Reforming Health Sector: The Case of Tanzania. Reproductive Health Matters, 11 (21) , 37-48.

ONWUJEKWE, O., ENSOR, T., OGBOZOR, P., OKEKE, C., EZENWAKA, U., HICKS, J. P., ETIABA, E., UZOCHUKWU, B., EBENSO, B.,  MIRZOEV, T. (2020). Was the Maternal Health Cash Transfer Programme in Nigeria Sustainable and Cost-Effective? Frontiers in Public Health, 8(666). doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.582072

OYAYA, C. O. & RIFKIN, S. B. (2003) Health sector reforms in Kenya: an examination of district level planning. Health Policy, 64 (1) , 113-127.

PAINA, L. and D. H. PETERS (2012). "Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems." Health Policy and Planning 27(5): 365-373.

PAINA, L., BENNETT, S., SSENGOOBA, F. & PETERS, D. (2014). Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: exploring dual practice and its management in Kampala, Uganda. Health research policy and systems [electronic resource]., 12, 41.

PALMER, N., STRONG, L., WALI, A. & SONDORP, E. (2006) Contracting out health services in fragile states. BMJ, 332 (7543) , 718-721.

PENN-KEKANA, L. et al. (2004). ‘It makes me want to run away to Saudi Arabia.’: management and implementation challenges for public finance reforms from a maternity ward perspective. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080. 19 (suppl 1): i71-i77

PETERS, D. (2014). The application of systems thinking in health: why use systems thinking? Health research policy and systems [electronic resource]., 12, 51.

REICH, M. R. (1995) The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy. Health Policy, 32 (1-3) , 47-77.

ROBERTS, M., HSIAO, W., BERMAN, P. & REICH, M. (2004). Getting health reform right : a guide to improving performance and equity, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

ROBONE, S., RICE, N. & SMITH, P. C. 2011. Health Systems' Responsiveness and Its Characteristics: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis. Health services research. ISSN: 0017-9124, 46, 2079-2100.

RWASHANA, A. S., WILLIAMS, D. W. & NEEMA, S. (2009). System dynamics approach to immunization healthcare issues in developing countries: a case study of Uganda. Health Informatics Journal, 15, 95-107.

RWASHANA, A., NAKUBULWA, S., NAKAKEETO-KIJJAMBU, M. & ADAM, T. (2014). Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: understanding the dynamics of neonatal mortality in Uganda. Health research policy and systems [electronic resource].,12, 36.

SALTMAN, R. B. & FERROUSSIER-DAVIS, O. (2000) The concept of stewardship in health policy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization., 78, 732-739.

SAUERBORN, R. (2006) Using information to make decisions. IN LIPPEVELD, T., SAUERBORN, R. & BODART, C. (Eds.) Design and implementation of health information systems. Geneva, WHO. 

SAUERBORN, R., NITAYARUMPHONG, S. & GERHARDUS, A. (1999) Strategies to enhance the use of health systems research for health sector reform. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 4 (12) , 827-835.

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SCOTT, V. et al. (2012). Constraints to implementing an equity-promoting staff allocation policy: understanding mid-level managers’ and nurses’ perspectives affecting implementation in South Africa. Health policy and planning. ISSN: 0268-1080. 27(2): 138-146

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Useful websites

· WHO health systems section:

· Partners for Health Reform Plus

This list was last updated on 16/08/2021