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Module Reading List

The Making of the Modern City, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Asa Roast
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

The closest thing to a textbook for this module is:

Hall, P. 2014.  Cities of tomorrow:An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design Since 1880. John Wiley & Sons.

If you read along with this, you will never feel too lost from the main thrust of the module. However, you are also expected to read the compulsory readings for seminars, and dip into the full reading list as much as possible.

Other useful resources include

  • From Here To Modernity – an online collection of resources provided by the Open University
  • Meades Shrine – an archive of architectural documentaries by Jonathan Meades on youtube. The episodes ‘Get High’, ‘Jerry Building’, ‘Joe Building’, ‘Letchworth Garden City’ and ‘Remember The Future’ are the most relevant.

 Please note that particularly important or useful readings are marked with an asterisk.

14: The Problems of the City 

Allen, M.E., 2008. Cleansing the city: sanitary geographies in Victorian London. Ohio University Press. 

Breuilly, J. 2000. The revolutions of 1848. in Revolutions and the Revolutionary -Tradition in the West, 1560-1991. Parker, D. (ed), pp. 109-131. 

Buck-Morss, S., 1986. The flaneur, the sandwichman and the whore: the politics of loitering. New German Critique (39), pp.99-140. 

* Briggs, A., 1993. Victorian Cities. Univ of California Press. [Recommended Chapters: Introduction; 3 Manchester; 4 Leeds; 7 Melbourne; 8 London]  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Choi, T.Y., 2001. Writing the Victorian city: discourses of risk, connection, and inevitability. Victorian Studies, 43(4), pp.561-589. 

Engels, F. 2000 [1845]. The great towns. In R. LeGates and F. Stout, eds. The City Reader. London: Routledge. pp. 46-55.     

Hodges GR. Flaneurs, Prostitutes, and Historians: Sexual Commerce and Representation in the Nineteenth-Century Metropolis. Journal of Urban History. 1997 May;23(4):488-97. 

Lees, A. and Lees, L. 2007. Cities and the making of modern Europe, 1750-1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Chapter 5]

Meller, H. 2001. European Cities 1890-1930s: History, Culture and the Built Environment. [Introduction]

Mumford, Lewis. 1961. The City in History. London: Secker & Warburg [Chapter 15: Coketown]

Picker, John M. 1999. The soundproof study: Victorian professionals, work space, and urban noise. Victorian Studies 42, no. 3: 427-453. 

Schultz, S.K. and McShane, C., 1978. To engineer the metropolis: sewers, sanitation, and city planning in late-nineteenth-century America. The Journal of American History, 65(2), pp.389-411. 

Venkateswaran, M. 2010. “The Dust and Din and Steam Of Town”: London in Victorian Literature. The Victorian Web 

Ward, D., 1975. Victorian cities: how modern? Journal of historical geography, 1(2), pp.135-151. 

* Wilson, E., 1992. The sphinx in the city: Urban life, the control of disorder, and women. Univ of California Press. [Chapter 3 – Cesspool City: London] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

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15: The Planning of the City 

Cordua, Christian Hermansen, ed. 2010. Manifestoes and Transformations in the Early Modernist City. Ashgate. 

*Domhardt, K. 2012. The garden city idea in the CIAM discourse on urbanism: a path to comprehensive planning. Planning Perspectives 27: 2, 173-197. 

Douglas, C. 2007 Barricades and Boulevards. Material transformations of Paris, 1975-1871. Intertices. A journal of architecture and related arts. Vol. 8, 31-42. Available via this link 

Etlin, R. 1994. Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The Romantic Legacy. Manchester: Manchester University Press. BL W2 Archi B-3.51. 

Gold, John R. 1997. The Experience of Modernism: Modern Architects and the Future City, 1928-53. London: Spon. 

Gold, J. 2008. Modernity and Utopia. In T. Hall et al. eds. The Sage Companion to the City. London: Sage . Pp. 67-86. Available as e-book. 

Jencks, C. 2000. Le Corbusier and the Continual Revolution in Architecture. New York: Monacelli Press. BL W2 Architecture B-3.52 LEC/J. 

Le Corbusier. 2002 (1923). Towards a New Architecture. Oxford: Architectural Press. 

Le Corbusier. 1967. The Radiant City. New York: Grossmann, Orion Press. 

Le Corbusier, the ‘Pack-Donkey’s Way and Man’s Way’ (Le Chemin des ânes, le chemin des hommes) and ‘A Contemporary City’ (Une ville contemporaine) – Available: 

Mumford, E. 2000. The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928–1960. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 

Serratosa, A. 2010. The Eixample (Ensanche) of Barcelona (1859 and after): theoretical and practical paradigm. In C. Cordua, ed. Manifestoes and Transformations in the Early Modernist City. Ashgate. Pp. 211-228. Available as an ebook. 

Sutcliffe, A. 1981. Towards the planned city: Germany, Britain, the United States and France, 1780-1914. Oxford: Blackwell. [Chapter 5: France the Reluctant Planner] 

Wagenaar, M., 2000. Townscapes of power. GeoJournal, 51(1-2), pp.3-13. 

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16: The Colonial City 

Bigon, L., 2012. A history of urban planning and infectious diseases: Colonial Senegal in the early twentieth century. Urban Studies Research, 2012. 

Bigon, L., 2016. Bubonic plague, colonial ideologies, and urban planning policies: Dakar, Lagos, and Kumasi. Planning Perspectives, 31(2), pp.205-226. 

* Çelik, Z., 1992. Le Corbusier, Orientalism, Colonialism. Assemblage, (17), pp.59-77.

Çelik, Z., 1997. Urban forms and colonial confrontation: Algiers under French rule. [E-Book] 

* Çelik, Z. 2000. Colonialism, orientalism and the canon. Intersections : architectural histories and critical theories. 161-169.

Clark, P., ed. 2013. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ebook. Especially chapters on China, etc. 

* Drakakis-Smith, D. 2000. Third World Cities. London: Routledge. Ebook. Especially Chapter 2. 

Driver, F. and Gilbert, D., eds. 1999. Imperial cities: Landscape, Display and Identity. Manchester: Manchester University Press. EBL 8 12 9 Geog K-2.1. 

Fanon, F., 2001 [1961]. The Wretched of the Earth. London: Penguin.

Gilbert, D. and Driver, F., 2000. Capital and empire: geographies of imperial London. GeoJournal, 51(1-2), pp.23-32. 

Hazareesingh, S. 2001. Colonial modernism and the flawed paradigms of urban renewal: uneven development in Bombay, 1900–25. Urban History 28-2, pp. 235-55. 

King, A. 1991. Urbanism, Colonialism, and the World-Economy: Cultural and Spatial Foundations of the World Urban System. London: Routledge. 

Kipfer, S., 2007. Fanon and space: Colonization, urbanization, and liberation from the colonial to the global city. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 25(4), pp.701-726. 

Legg, Stephen. 2007. Spaces of Colonialism : Delhi's Urban Governmentalities. Malden, M: Blackwell 

* Nightingale, C.H., 2012. Segregation: A global history of divided cities. University of Chicago Press. [Especially Chapter 7 on India and Algiers; Chapters 8 and 9 on Johannesburg; Chapter 10 on Chicago]    

Njoh, A.J., 2009. Urban planning as a tool of power and social control in colonial Africa. Planning perspectives, 24(3), pp.301-317. 

Prashad, V., 2001. The technology of sanitation in colonial Delhi. Modern Asian Studies, 35(1), pp.113-155. 

Pratt, Mary. 1992. Imperial eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. London: Routledge. EBL 8 12 Geog G-0.03. 

Ryan, J. 1997. Picturing empire: photography and the visualisation of the British Empire. Chicago: U of Chicago Press. BL M4 EBL 13 9 HD Art R-0. 

Said, E. 1978. Orientalism. London: Kegan Paul. BL M3 EBL 9 13 Philo A-0.05. 

Schneer, J., 2001. London 1900: the Imperial Metropolis. Yale University Press. 

Seed, J., 2006, October. Limehouse blues: looking for Chinatown in the London docks, 1900–40. In History Workshop Journal  (Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 58-85). Oxford University Press. 

Sjoberg, Gideon. 1960. The Preindustrial City: Past and Present. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. BL W2 Sociology F-7 SJO. 

Wright, Gwendolyn. 1991. The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

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17: High Modernism 

Europe & North America 

Bullock, N., 2002. Building the post-war world: modern architecture and reconstruction in Britain. Psychology Press. 

Chabard, P. 2011. La Défense/Zone B (1953-91): Light and Shadows of the French Welfare State. Footprint5(2), 71-86. 

Clapson, M., 2003. Suburban century: Social change and urban growth in England and the USA. Berg. 

Clapson, M., 2004. A social history of Milton Keynes: middle England/edge city. Routledge. 

Domhardt, K. 2012. The garden city idea in the CIAM discourse on urbanism: a path to comprehensive planning. Planning Perspectives 27:2, 173-197.

Flonneau, M., 2006. City infrastructures and city dwellers: Accommodating the automobile in twentieth-century Paris. The Journal of Transport History, 27(1), pp.93-114. 

Fyfe, N.R., 1996. Contested visions of a modern city: planning and poetry in Postwar Glasgow. Environment and Planning A, 28(3), pp.387-403. 

Gilbert, D. and Driver, F., 2000. Capital and empire: geographies of imperial London. GeoJournal, 51(1-2), pp.23-32. 

Gold, J. 2007. The Practice of Modernism: Modern Architects and Urban Transformation, 1954-1972. London: Routledge. 

Gold, J. 1997. The Experience of Modernism : Modern Architects and The Future City, 1928-1953. London: E & FN Spon. 

*Hall, P. 2014. Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design Since 1880. John Wiley & Sons. ‘The City of Towers’ (Chapter 7) pp 253-275. 

Hardy, D. 2005. Utopian ideas and the planning of London. Planning Perspectives, 20(1), pp.35-49. 

Hollow, M., 2012. Utopian urges: visions for reconstruction in Britain, 1940–1950. Planning Perspectives, 27(4), pp.569-585. 

* Ley, D. 1989. Modernism, post-modernism and the struggle for place. In J. Agnew and J. Duncan, eds. The Power of Place: Bringing together Geographical and Sociological Imaginations. London: Unwin Hyman. 

Newsome, W.B. 2004. The Rise of the Grands Ensembles: Government, Business, and Housing in Postwar France, Historian, 66(4), 793–816. 

* Ortolano, G. 2011. Planning the Urban Future in 1960s Britain. The Historical Journal,54(2), 477-507. 

Park, Robert E., Ernest W. Burgess, Roderick D. McKenzie. 1967. The City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Pinder, D. 2005. Visions of the City: Utopianism, Power, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Urbanism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 

Robert, F. 2002. Bourgeois utopias: visions of suburbia. IN: Fainstein, Susan S, Readings in urban theory, 2nd ed. pp.21-31. Malden: Blackwell. 

Whyte, W., 2008. The modernist moment at the University of Leeds, 1957–1977. The Historical Journal, 51(1), pp.169-193. 

Whyte, W., 2009. The Englishness of English architecture: modernism and the making of a national international style, 1927–1957. Journal of British Studies, 48(2), pp.441-465. 

India & Africa 

Avermaete, T. 2012 ‘Neues Bauen in Afrika’: displaying East and West German architecture during the Cold War, The Journal of Architecture, 17:3, 387-405 

Chalana, M., & Sprague, T. S. 2013. Beyond Le Corbusier and the modernist city: reframing Chandigarh's ‘World Heritage’ Legacy. Planning Perspectives28(2), 199-222. 

Chalana, M., 2015. Chandigarh: city and periphery. Journal of Planning History, 14(1), pp.62-84. 

Immerwahr, D., 2007. The politics of architecture and urbanism in postcolonial Lagos, 1960–1986. Journal of African cultural studies, 19(2), pp.165-186. 

Perera, N. 2004. Contesting visions: hybridity, liminality and authorship of the Chandigarh plan. Planning Perspectives, 19(2), pp.175-199. 

Sarin, M. 1982. Urban Planning in the Third World. London: Routledge. 

Scott, D., 2003. 'Creative Destruction': Early Modernist Planning in the South Durban Industrial Zone, South Africa. Journal of Southern African Studies, 29(1), pp.235-259. 

Shaw, A., 2009. Town Planning in Postcolonial India, 1947-1965: Chandigarh Re-Examined1. Urban geography30(8), pp.857-878. 

Stanek, Ł., 2012. Introduction: the ‘Second World's’ architecture and planning in the ‘Third World’. The Journal of Architecture, 17(3), pp.299-307. 

Uduku, O., 2006. Modernist architecture and ‘the tropical’ in West Africa: The tropical architecture movement in West Africa, 1948–1970. Habitat International, 30(3), pp.396-411. 

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18: Socialism and the city 


Boughton, J., 2018. Municipal Dreams: the rise and fall of council housing. Verso books. 

Gerasimova, K., 2002. Public privacy in the Soviet communal apartment. In Crowley, D. and Reid, S.E. eds., 2002. Socialist spaces: Sites of everyday life in the Eastern Bloc. Oxford: Berg. Pp. 207-230. 

Glendinning, M, and S Muthesius. 1994. Tower Block: Modern Public Housing in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. New Have: Yale UP. 

Gray, N. 2010. The Housing Question Redux. Variant 39/40. Available: 

* Monclús, J. and Díez Medina, C., 2016. Modernist housing estates in European cities of the Western and Eastern Blocs. Planning Perspectives, 31(4), pp.533-562. 

* Urban, F., 2013.  Tower and slab: histories of global mass housing. Routledge.    

Socialist Cities 

* Altrock, U. 1998. The lost centre: Magnitogorsk revisited, Journal of Urban Design, 3:2, 201-224. 

*Andrusz, G., M. Harloe, I. Szelenyi, eds. 1996. Cities after Socialism. Oxford: Blackwell. [Especially chapters by Smith, Enyedi, Marcuse, Szelenyi.] 

Bater, J. 1984. The Soviet city: continuity and change in privilege and place. In J. Agnew, J. Mercer, D. Sopher. The City in Cultural Context London: Allen & Unwin. [On VLE]

Beyer, E. 2012. Competitive coexistence: Soviet town planning and housing projects in Kabul in the 1960s. The Journal of Architecture, 17:3, 309-332 

Crowley, D. and Reid, S.E. eds., 2002. Socialist spaces: Sites of everyday life in the Eastern Bloc. Oxford: Berg. 

DeHaan, H.D., 2013. Stalinist city planning: Professionals, performance, and power. University of Toronto Press.

Dmitrieva, M., 2006. Moscow architecture between Stalinism and Modernism. International Review of Sociology—Revue Internationale de Sociologie, 16(2), pp.427-450. 

French, R. A. 1995. Plans, pragmatism and people: the legacy of Soviet planning for today's cities. London: UCL Press. 

French, R. A., and Ian Hamilton, FE, eds. 1979. The Socialist City: Spatial Structure and Urban Policy. Chichester: Wiley 

Hatherley, O. 2015. Moscow's suburbs may look monolithic, but the stories they tell are not. Guardian 

Kim, M. and Jung, I., 2017. The planning of microdistricts in post-war North Korea: space, power, and everyday life. Planning Perspectives, 32(2), pp.199-223. 

Le Normand, B., 2014. Designing Tito's Capital: Urban Planning, Modernism, and Socialism in Belgrade. University of Pittsburgh Press. 

Murawski, M. 2017. The Palace Complex: a Stalinist social condenser in Warsaw, The Journal of Architecture, 22:3, 458-477 

Simmie, J., 1991. Housing and inequality under state socialism: an analysis of Yugoslavia. Housing Studies, 6(3), pp.172-181. 

Szelenyi, I., 1983. Urban inequalities under state socialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

Waley, P. 2011. From modernist to market urbanism: the transformation of New Belgrade. Planning Perspectives 26:2, 209-235. 

Zarecor, Kimberly. 2017. What was so socialist about the Socialist City? Second world urbanity in Europe. Journal of Urban History forthcoming. 

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20: Other Geographies of Modernity 


Denison, Edward, and Guang Yu Ren. 2008. Modernism in China: Architectural Visions and Revolutions. Wiley. Archi B-0.48 DEN. 

Dong, Madeleine Yue. 2004. Republican Beijing: The City and its Histories. Berkeley: University of California Press. BL M2 EBL 10 N-60.308. E-book. 

Elvin, M., and G.W. Skinner, eds. 1974. The Chinese City between Two Worlds. Stanford, Ca: Stanford University Press. BL M2 Modern History N-60.308 SKI. 

*Esherick, J, ed. 2000. Remaking the Chinese City: Modernity and National Identity, 1900-1950. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press. Especially Chapter 1 -- digitalised on VLE. 

*Lu, D., 2006. Remaking Chinese urban form: modernity, scarcity and space, 1949-2005. Routledge.    

Lu Hanchao. 1999. Beyond the Neon Lights: Everyday Shanghai in the Early Twentieth Century. Berkeley, Ca.: University of California Press. 

Stapleton, Kristin. China: 1900 to the present. In P. Clark, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch. 28. Ebook. 

Strand, David. 1989. Rickshaw Beijing: City People and Politics in the 1920s. Berkeley, Ca: University of California Press. 

Wasserstrom, Jeffrey. 2009. Global Shanghai, 1850-2010: A History in Fragments. London: Routledge. BL M2 Modern History N-60.408 SHA/W. 

Worswick, C, and J Spence. 1978. Imperial China: photographs 1850-1912. New York: Pennwick. BL M1 Mod Hist N-60.33. 

Xie, Y. and Costa, F.J., 1991. Urban design practice in socialist China. Third World Planning Review, 13(3), p.277. 

Latin America 

Almandoz, A. 2002 Planning Latin American capital cities, 1850-1950 Routledge. 

Holston, J. 1989. The Modernist City: An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 

Madaleno, I.M. 1996. Brasilia: the frontier capital, Cities, 13, 4, 273-280 

Williams, R. 2005. Modernist Civic Space and the Case of Brasília. Journal of Urban History 32:1, 120-137. 

Williams, R. J. 2007. Brasília after Brasília. Progress in Planning67(4), 301-366. 

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21: After modernism? 

* Berman, M., 1983. All that is solid melts into air: The experience of modernity. London: Verso. [Part Five, pp.287-328] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

pp287-312 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

pp312-329 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

* Dear, M., & Flusty, S. 1997. The iron lotus: Los Angeles and postmodern urbanism. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 151-163. 

Harvey, D., 1989. The condition of postmodernity (Vol. 14). Oxford: Blackwell. 

Jacobs, J. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The Failure of Town Planning. New York: Random House. 

Mellon, J. G. 2009. Visions of the Livable City: Reflections on the Jacobs–Mumford Debate. Ethics Place and Environment (Ethics, Place & Environment (Merged with Philosophy and Geography))12(1), 35-48. 

Scott, J. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve The Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Chapter 3 & 4] 

* Soja, E. 1992. Inside exopolis: scenes from Orange County. In M. Sorkin, Ed, Variations on a theme park: The new American city and the end of public space, pp. 94-122. 

* Soja, E., 2000. Taking Los Angeles apart: towards a postmodern geography. The City ReaderLondon and New York, Routledge, pp.180-192. 

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22: Methods for the Modern City 

Lynch, Kevin. (2007[1972]). The presence of the past. In Carmona, M., & Tiesdell, S. Urban design readerRoutledge. Available online through the library website. 

Knox, Paul and Ozolins, Peter. (2007[2000]). In Carmona, M., & Tiesdell, S. Urban design reader. Routledge. See above. 

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23: What was modernism? 

Beauregard, R.A., 1989. Between modernity and postmodernity: the ambiguous position of US planning. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 7(4), pp.381-395. 

Berman, M., 1983. All that is solid melts into air: The experience of modernity. London: Verso. [Part 5.3, ‘The 1970s: Bringing It All Back Home’, pp. 329] 

* Holston, J., 1999. The modernist city and the death of the street. Theorizing the city: The new urban anthropology reader, pp.245-276. 

Kaika, M. and Swyngedouw, E., 2000. Fetishizing the modern city: the phantasmagoria of urban technological networks. International journal of urban and regional research, 24(1), pp.120-138. 

Open University. 2000. From Here To Modernity 

* Pinder, D., 2002. In defence of utopian urbanism: imagining cities after the ‘end of utopia’. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 84(3‐4), pp.229-241. 

* Scott, J. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve The Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Chapter 3 & 4] 

This list was last updated on 03/12/2020