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Module Reading List

Qualitative Research Methods, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Kahryn Hughes
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Useful introductions to qualitative research:

Silverman, D. 2007. London: Sage.  


Hesse-Biber, S. N. & Leavy, P. 2011. The Practice of Qualitative Research, Thousand Oaks, California, Sage. Chs 1 & 2.

Bryman, A. 2012. Social Research Methods. 5th ed. Ch 17.  

Mason, J. 2002. Qualitative Researching. London: Sage. 2nd ed. Especially Intro & Ch 3.

Denzin, N. and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.) 2018. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage. ‘Introduction: The Discipline and Practice of Qualitative Research.’    OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (afp 17/02/2020) 

Further reading

Acker, J., K. Barry and J. Esseveld. 1983. ‘Objectivity and Truth: Problems in Doing Feminist Research’ in Women’s Studies International Forum Vol 6 No 4, 423-235.

Becker, H. 1996. ‘The Epistemology of Qualitative Research’. In Jessor, R., A. Colby and R. Schweder (eds.). Essays on Ethnography and Human Development. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 53-71.

Blaikie, N. 1993. Approaches to Social Enquiry. Cambridge: Polity.

Denzin, N. and Y. S. Lincoln (eds). 2018. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage. 5th Ed. Ch 1.  

Denzin, N. and Y. S. Lincoln (eds). 2003. The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues. London: Sage. Ch 1.

Duelli Klein, R. 1983. ‘How To Do What We Want To Do: Thoughts About Feminist Methodology’ in Bowles, G. and R. D. Klein (eds). Theories of Women’s Studies. London: Routledge.

Flyvberg, B. 2001. Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Flick, U. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. London: Sage. 3rd Ed. Ch 1.

Flick, U., E. von Kardoff and I. Steinke. 2004. ‘What Is Qualitative Research? An Introduction to the Field’ in Flick, U. et al (eds). A Companion to Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Gergen, M. M and K. J. Gergen. 2000. ‘Qualitative Inquiry: Tensions and Transformations.’ In (eds.) Denzin, N. and Y. S. Lincoln. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research 2nd ed. 1025-1046.

Hammersley, M. 2008. Questioning Qualitative Inquiry. London: Sage. Intro; Chs 1 and 2.

Hammersley, M. 1995. The Politics of Social Research. London: Sage.

Hine, C. (ed). 2005. Virtual Methods: Issues in Social Research on the Internet. London: Berg.

Huberman, A. and M. Miles. 2002. The Qualitative Researcher’s Companion. London: Sage.

Kamberelis, G. 2003. ‘Ingestion, Elimination, Sex, and Song: Trickster as Premodern Avatar of Postmodern Research Practice.’ In Qualitative Inquiry, Vol. 9, No. 5. 673-704.

Lewis, J. and J. Ritchie (eds). 2003. Qualitative Research Practice : A Guide For Social Science Students And Researchers. London: Sage. Ch 1.

Maynard, M. and J. Purvis (eds). Researching Women’s Lives from a Feminist Perspective. London: Taylor and Francis. Introduction and Ch 1.

Merriam, S. P. (ed). 2002. Qualitative Research In Practice: Examples for Discussion and Analysis. Ch 1.

Patton, M. Q. 2001. Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. London: Sage. Ch 1. At: http://www.sagepub.upm-data/3298_Patton_Chapter_1.pdf .

Seale, C. 2004. ‘History of qualitative methods.’ In (ed.) Seale, C. Researching Society and Culture. London: Sage. 100-114.

Silverman, D. 2001. Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction. London: Sage. 2nd ed. Esp Ch 2.

Silverman, D. 2000. Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. London: Sage. Part 1.

Travers, M. 2001. Qualitative Research Through Case Studies. London: Sage. Introduction.


Week 2

Seminar Reading

Heintzelman, C. A.  (2003) The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and Its Implications for the 21st Century, The New Social Worker, Vol. 10, No. 4.  

Milgram, S (1974) From Obedience to Authority. Ch 1: The Dilemma of Obedience. Accessed via

Calvey, D., (2018) The Everyday World of Bouncers: a rehabilitated role for covert ethnography, Qualitative Research, 1-6.



Becker, J. G. (2005) Human subjects investigation: timeless lessons of Nuremberg and Tuskegee, Journal of the American College of Radiology, 2, 215-217.  

Brinkmann, S and Kvale, S. (2005) Confronting the Ethics of Qualitative Research. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 18:2, 157-181.

Daniel J. Power (2016) “Big Brother” can watch us, Journal of Decision Systems, 25: 1, 578-588,

Edwards, R, and Mauthner, M (2002) Ethics and Feminist Research: Theory and Practice, in Ethics in Qualitative Research (Eds.) Melanie Mauthner, Maxine Birch Julie Jessop and Tina Miller. SAGE Publications London

Guta, A., Nixon, S. A., and Wilson, M.G. (2013) Resisting the seduction of “ethics creep”: Using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review. Social Science & Medicine, 98, 301-310.

Hammersely, M., (2015). On ethical principles for social research.  International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(4) pp. 433–449.

Humphreys, L, (1970) Tearoom Trade. Duckworth.

Inckle, Kay (2015) Promises, Promises: Lessons in Research Ethics from the Belfast Project and ‘The Rape Tape’ Case. Sociological Research Online, 20, 1, 6.

International Journal of Communication 11(2017), 824-842 1932–8036/20170005


Milgram, S, (1963) The Milgram Experiments, Department of Psychology, Yale University.

Welsh, S & Hassiotis, Angela & O'Mahoney, G & Deahl, Martin. (2003). Big brother is watching you - The ethical implications of electronic surveillance measures in the elderly with dementia and in adults with learning difficulties. Aging & mental health. 7. 372-5. 10..

Zago,  L.F. and Holmes, D. (2015) The ethical tightrope: politics of intimacy and consensual method in sexuality research. Nursing Inquiry 2015; 22: 147–156.


Week 3


Baker SE & Edwards R 2012, How many qualitative interviews is enough NCRM, National Centre for Research Methods Review Paper.  

Charmaz K 2014, Constructing grounded theory 2nd Edition Sage, London.

Emmel N 2013, Sampling and choosing cases in qualitative research: a realist approach Sage, London.

March JG, Sproull LS, & Tamuz M 2003, "Learning from samples of one or fewer", Quality and Safety in Health Care, vol. 12, pp. 465-472.

Mason J 2018, Qualitative researching Sage, London.3rd Edition

Patton MQ 2002, Qualitative research and evaluation methods Third Edition Sage, London.

Uprichard E 2013, "Sampling: bridging probability and non-probability designs", International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1-11.

Seminar Reading

Fugard, J. and H. Potts. 2015. Supporting thinking on sample sizes for thematic analyses: a quantitative tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), pp.669-684.

Byrne, D. 2015. Response to Fugard and Potts: supporting thinking on sample sizes for thematic analyses: a quantitative tool. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), pp.689-691.

Emmel, N. 2015. Themes, variables, and the limits to calculating sample size: a response to Fugard and Potts. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), pp.685-686.

Hammersley, M. 2015. Sampling and thematic analysis: a response to Fugard and Potts. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), pp.687-688.

Fugard, A. J. B. and H. W. W. Potts. 2015. Response to comments. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 18(6), pp.693-694.


Week 4


Condry, I. 2004. ‘Cultures of music piracy: an ethnographic comparison of the US and Japan.’ International Journal of Cultural Studies 7(3): 343-363.

Constable, N. 2003. Romance on a Global Stage: pen pals, virtual ethnography, and "mail-order" marriages. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Fox, N. and C. Roberts,1999. ‘GPs in Cyberspace: The Sociology of a Virtual Community.’ Sociological Review 47: 643-71.

Gajjala, R. 2002. An interrupted postcolonial/ feminist cyberethnography: Complicity and resistance in the “Cyberfield.” Feminist Media Studies, 2(2), 177–193.

Gatson, S.N. and A. Zweerink. 2004. ‘Ethnography online: 'natives' practising and inscribing community.’ Qualitative Research 4(2): 179-200.

Hine, C. 2000. Virtual Ethnography. London: Sage. Esp Ch 4.

Hine, C. (Ed.) 2005. Virtual Methods. London: Berg. Chs 1-13.

McLelland, M. J. 2002. ‘Virtual ethnography: Using the internet to study gay culture in Japan.’ Sexualities 5(4): 387-406.

Markham, A. N. .1998. Life Online: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space. AltaMira Press.

Miller, D. and D. Slater. 2000. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.

Sharp, K. and Earle, S. 2003. 'Cyberpunters and cyberwhores: prostitution on the Internet' in Jewkes, Y. (ed.) Dot Cons Crime, deviance and identity on the Internet. Cullompton, Devon: Willan.

Ward, K. 1999. ‘The Cyber-Ethnographic (Re)Construction of Two Feminist Online Communities.’ Sociological Research Online 4(1). Online at:

Virtual methods

Baym, N. and Markham, A. 2008. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method. London: Sage. Esp: Intro; Chs 1 and 2.

Hine, C. 2008. ‘The internet and research methods.’ In (ed) Gilbert, N. Researching Social Life. London: Sage. 3rd ed.

Hine, C. (Ed.) 2005. Virtual Methods: Issues in Social Research on the Internet. London: Berg. Ch 1.

Hine, C. 2000. Virtual Ethnography. London: Sage.

Markham, A. N. 2005 ‘The Methods, Politics, and Ethics of Representation in Online Ethnography.’ In Denzin, N. and Y. S. Lincoln (eds) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage. 3rd Ed. Currently on the Sage website at:

Internet as tool/resource

Berry, D.M. 2004. ‘Internet Research: Privacy, Ethics and Alienation – An Open Source Approach.’ Studies in Social and Political Thought 9: 53-71.  

Coomber, R. 1997. 'Using the Internet for Survey Research'. Sociological Research Online 2.

Denzin, N. and Y. S. Lincoln. 2005. The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage. 3rd Ed. Chapter 31.


Lepper, G. 2000. Categories in Text and Talk: a practical introduction to categorization analysis. London: Sage.

Mann, C. and Stewart, R. 2000. Internet Communication and Qualitative Research. London: Sage.

Markham, A. N. 1998. Life Online: Researching Real Experience in Virtual Space. AltaMira Press.

Miller, D. and D. Slater. 2003. ‘Ethnography and the Extreme Internet.’ In Ed. Ericksen, T.H. Globalisation: studies in anthropology. London: Pluto Press. 39-57.

Ruhleder, K. 2000. ‘The Virtual Ethnographer: fieldwork in distributed electronic environments.’ Field Methods 12(1): 3-17.

Online resources on virtual ethnography

Virtual Methods Seminar Series, University of Surrey.

Ethnobase Web Resource for Virtual Ethnographers, LSE,


Week 5

Key Reading

Cairney, P. (2018) The UK government’s imaginative use of evidence to make policy. British Politics, 1-22. Available at:

Davies, H., Nutley, S. and Walter, I. (2005) Approaches to assessing the non-academic impact of social science research. Report of the ESRC symposium on assessing the non-academic impact of research, 12th/13th May 2005. Available at:


Further Suggested Reading

The Journal Evidence and Policy Available electronically via the University

Aldred, R. (2008) ‘Ethical and Political Issues in Contemporary Research Relationships’, Sociology, 42(5):887-903.

Alexander, C. (2004) ‘Writing race: ethnography and the imagination of The Asian Gang’, in (Eds) Bulmer, M. and Solomos, J. Researching Race and Racism, London: Routledge.

Ezzy, D. (2002) Qualitative Analysis: Practice and Innovation. London: Routledge. Ch 2.

Lauder, H., Brown, P and A.H. Halsey. (2004) ‘Sociology And Political Arithmetic: Some Principles Of A New Policy Science’ in The British Journal of Sociology 55 1, 3–22.

May, T. (1998) ‘Reflections and reflexivity’ in Eds. May, T. and Williams, M. Knowing the Social World, Buckingham: Open University Press.

Naughton, M. (2005) ‘ ‘Evidence-based policy’ and the government of the criminal justice system – only if the evidence fits!’, Critical Social Policy, Vol. 25, No. 1:47-69.

Pawson, R. (2006) Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Perspective, London: Sage. Chapter 8.

Pawson, R. and Tilley, N. (1997) Realistic Evaluation, London: Sage.

Pryke, M. (2004) Situated audiences, In (Eds) Pryke, M., Rose, G. and Whatmore, S. Using Social Theory: Thinking through Research, Buckingham: Open University Press.

SABRE (2001) ‘An Ethical Code for Researching ‘Race’, Racism & Anti- racism in Scotland’ available at <http//>

Silverman, D. (2004) ‘Research and social policy’ in (ed.) Seale, C. Researching Culture and Society. London: Sage. 59-69.

Vaughan, D. (2005) ‘On The Relevance Of Ethnography For The Production Of Public Sociology And Policy’ in The British Journal of Sociology 56:3, 411–416.

Wiles, P. (2004) ‘Policy and Sociology’ in The British Journal of Sociology 55 1, 31–34


Week 6

Key Reading

Bryman, A. (2012). ‘Interviewing in qualitative research’, in Bryman, A. Social Research Methods. (Fifth edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.465-499   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (afp 17/02/2020)  

Edwards, R. and Holland, J. (2013), ‘Chapter 2: How have qualitative interviews developed?’. in What is qualitative interviewing? London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp.11-26    OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (afp 17/02/2020) 

May, T. (2001). ‘Interviewing: Methods and Process’, in May, T. Social Research: issues. Issues, method and process. (Third Edition). Chapter 6. Maidenhead: Open University Press, pp.120-145     

Further Suggested Reading

Alvesson, M. (2010) Interpreting Interviews. London: Sage.

Barbour, R. (2014) Introducing Qualitative Research: A Student’s Guide, London: Sage, ‘Interviewing’, Chapter 5; p.111 -113.

Bjørnholt, M. and Farstad, G.R., (2012) “Am I rambling?” On the advantages of interviewing couples together’, Qualitative Research, 14 (1): 3–19.

Bornat, J. (2008) Biographical methods. In: Alasuutari, Pertti; Bickman, Leonard and Brannen, Julia (eds) The Sage Handbook of Social Research Methods. London: Sage, pp. 344–356.

Byrne, B. (2003) Reciting the Self: Narrative Representations of the Self in Qualitative Interviews, Feminist Theory, 4, 29-49.

Edwards, R. and Holland, J. (2013) What is qualitative interviewing? London, GB, Bloomsbury Academic.

Elwood, S. and Martin, D. (2000) “Placing” Interviews: Location and Scales of Power in Qualitative Research, The Professional Geographer, 52, 649-657.

Foddy, W. (1994) Constructing Questions for Interviews and Questionnaires: Theory and Practice in Social Research, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gabb, J. (2008) Researching Intimacy in Families, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, ‘Methodological Approaches and Family Research methods’, Section 3, p. 29-63.

Gatrell, C. (2006) Interviewing Fathers: Feminist Dilemmas in Fieldwork, Journal of Gender Studies, 15 (3): 237-251.

Grenier, A. (2007) Cross Age and Generational Boundaries: Methodological Questions of Intergenerational Research, Journal of Social Issues, 63: 713-728.

Gubrium, J.F. and Holstein, J. A (Eds) (2002) Handbook of Interview Research. Sage, London. Various Chapters (select those relevant to your interests)

Herod, A. (1999) Reflections on interviewing foreign elites: praxis, positionality, validity and the cult of the insider. Geoforum 30, 313-327.

Jacobsson, K. and Akerstrom, M. (2013) Interviewees with an agenda: learning from a ‘failed’ interview, Qualitative Research, 13 (6): 717-734.

Kvale, S. (1996) InterViews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage. Chapter 5, ‘Thematizing and Designing an Interview Study’, p81-108; chapter 6, ‘Ethical Issues in Interview Inquiries’, p109-103, chapter 7,’ The Interview Situation’, p124-143; chapter 8, ‘The Quality of the Interview’, p144-159.

Kvale, S. and Brinkmann, S. 2009: Interviews. Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. London: Sage.

Lundgren, A. S. (2012) Doing Age: Methodological reflections on Interviewing, Qualitative Research, 1-17.

Manderson, L., Bennett, S. and Andajani-Sutjahjo, S. (2006) The Social Dynamics of the Interview: Age, Class and Gender, Qualitative Health Research, 16 (10): 1317-1334.

Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative Researching. London: Sage

Mason, J. (2010) Creative Interviewing video:

Mullings, B. (1999) Insider or outsider, both or neither: some dilemmas of interviewing in a cross-cultural setting, Geoforum, 30: 337-350.

Peräkylä, A. (2005) Analyzing talk and text. In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y., editors, The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd edition), London: Sage, 869-886.

Schaeffer, N. C. and Presser, S. (2003) The science of asking questions. Annual Review of Sociology 29, 65-88.

Tarrant, A. (2014) Negotiating Multiple Positionalities in the Interview Setting: Researching across gender and generational boundaries, The Professional Geographer, 66 (3): 493-500.

Zinn, J. O (2004) Introduction to Biographical Research, Working Paper for the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk Network (SCARR), [available online].


Week 7

Essential Reading

Holliday, R. 2004 Reflecting the Self, in Caroline Knowles and Paul Sweetman (eds) Picturing the Social Landscape, London: Routledge.     

Haraway, D. 1988. Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Feminist studies. 14(3), pp.575-599. (available through the library website)     

Highly recommended reading

Banks, M. and Flick, U. 2007. Using visual data in qualitative research. London: Sage.

Hall, S. 2005 [1980]. Encoding/decoding. Culture, media, language: working papers in cultural studies, 1972-79.  London: Taylor and Francis e-Library, pp.117-127.

Rose, G. 2016. Visual methodologies: an introduction to researching with visual materials. 4th ed. London: Sage.

Further reading

Aiello, G. 2006. Theoretical advances in critical visual analysis: perception, ideology, mythologies, and social semiotics. Journal of Visual Literacy. 26(2), pp.89-102.

Aiello, G. 2007. The appearance of diversity: Visual design and the public communication of EU identity. In: Bain, J. and Holland, M. eds. European Union identity: Perceptions from Asia and Europe.   Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Mbh & Co., pp.147-181.

Aiello, G. 2012. The 'other' Europeans: the semiotic imperative of style in Euro Visions by Magnum Photos. Visual Communication. 11(1), pp.49-77.

Aiello, G. and Thurlow, C. 2006. Symbolic capitals: visual discourse and intercultural exchange in the European Capital of Culture scheme. Language and Intercultural Communication. 6(2), pp.148-162.

Appadurai, A. 1986. The Social life of things: commodities in cultural perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bahn, S. and Barratt-Pugh, L. 2013. Getting reticent young male participants to talk: Using artefact-mediated interviews to promote discursive interaction. Qualitative Social Work. 12(2), pp.186-199.

Barthes, R. 1977. Image, music, text. London: HarperCollins.

Barthes, R. 2009 [1957]. Mythologies. London: Vintage.

Bates, C. 2013. Video diaries: audio-visual research methods and the elusive body. Visual Studies. 28(1), pp.29-37.

Bignell, J. 2002. Media semiotics: an introduction. 2nd ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Collins, R.L. 2011. Content analysis of gender roles in media: Where are we now and where should we go? Sex Roles. 64(3-4), pp.290-298.

Cox, S., Guillemin, M., Drew, S., Howell, C., Warr, D. and Waycott, J. 2014. Picture this: guidelines for ethical visual research methods. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 13, pp.499-499.

Hill, R.L. 2014. Reconceptualising hard rock and metal fans as a group: imaginary community. International Journal of Community Music. 7(2), pp.173-188.  

Hill, R.L., Kennedy, H. and Gerrard, Y. 2016. Visualizing junk: big data visualisations and the need for feminist data studies. Journal of Communication Inquiry. 40(4), pp.331-350.

Holliday, R. 2000. We've been framed: visualising methodology. Sociological Review. 48(4), pp.503-521.

Holliday, R. 2004. Filming “the closet”: the role of video diaries in researching sexualities. American Behavioral Scientist. 47(12), pp.1597-1616.

Jewitt, C. 2012. An introduction to using video for research. NCRM Working Paper. [Online]. [Accessed 25/11/2014]. Available from:

Kennedy, H., Hill, R.L., Aiello, G. and Allen, W. 2016. The work that visualisation conventions do. Information, Communication & Society. 19(6), pp.715-735.

Knoblauch, H., Schnettler, B., Raab, J. and Soeffner, H.-G. eds. 2006. Video analysis: methodology and methods: qualitative audiovisual data analysis in sociology. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Knowles, J.G. and Cole, A.L. 2008. Handbook of the arts in qualitative research: perspectives, methodologies, examples, and issues. London: Sage Publications.

Kress, G. 1998. Visual and verbal modes of representation in electronically mediated. Page to screen: Taking literacy into the electronic era. p53.

Kress, G. 2000. Design and transformation: New theories of meaning. Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures. pp.153-161.

Kress, G. 2003. Literacy in the new media age.  Psychology Press.

Kress, G. 2009. Multimodality: a social semiotic approach to contemporary communication.  Routledge.

Kress, G. and Leeuwen, T.v. 2001. Multimodal discourse : the modes and media of contemporary communication. London: Arnold.

Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T. 2002. Colour as a semiotic mode: notes for a grammar of colour. Visual Communication. 1(3), pp.343-368.

Kress, G.R. and Van Leeuwen, T. 2006. Reading images: the grammar of visual design. 2nd ed. ed. London: Routledge.

Leeuwen, T.v. and Jewitt, C. 2000. The handbook of visual analysis. London: SAGE.

Margolis, E. and Pauwels, L.P. 2011. The SAGE handbook of visual research methods. Los Angeles, Calif;London;: SAGE.

Marion, J.S. and Crowder, J.W. 2013. Visual research: a concise introduction to thinking visually. London: Bloomsbury.

Messaris, P. 1994. Visual "literacy": image, mind, and reality.  Westview Press.

Messaris, P. 2012. Visual “literacy” in the digital age. Review of Communication. 12(2), pp.101-117.

Noyes, A. 2004. Video diary: a method for exploring learning dispositions. Cambridge Journal of Education. 34(2), pp.193-209.

Pink, S. 2012. Advances in visual methodology. London: Sage Publications.

Pink, S. and Pink, S. 2013. Doing visual ethnography. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Prosser, J. 1998. Image-based research: a sourcebook for qualitative researchers. London: Falmer Press.

Rose, G. 2014. On the relation between ‘visual research methods’ and contemporary visual culture. The Sociological Review. 62(1), pp.24-46.

Sontag, S. 2002. On photography. London: Penguin.

Stanczak, G.C. 2007. Visual research methods: image, society, and representation. Thousand Oaks, [Calif.]: Sage Publications.

Van Leeuwen, T. 2001. Semiotics and iconography. In: van Leeuwen, T. and Jewitt, C. eds. Handbook of visual analysis.   London, pp.92-118.

Van Leeuwen, T. 2005. Introducing social semiotics. London: Routledge.

Van Leeuwen, T. 2006. Towards a semiotics of typography. Information Design Journal (IDJ). 14(2).

Van Leeuwen, T., Djonov, E. and O'Halloran, K.L. 2013. “David Byrne really does love PowerPoint”: art as research on semiotics and semiotic technology. Social Semiotics. 23(3), pp.409-423.

Weber, S. 2008. Visual images in research. Handbook of the arts in qualitative research: perspectives, methodologies, examples, and issues.  London: Sage, pp.41-53.

Williams, A., Ylänne, V. and Wadleigh, P.M. 2007. Selling the ‘elixir of life’: images of the elderly in an Olivio advertising campaign. Journal of Aging Studies. 21(1), pp.1-21.

Williamson, J. 1978. Decoding advertisements : ideology and meaning in advertising. London: Boyars : Distributed by Calder and Boyars.

Zettl, H. 1998. Contextual media aesthetics as the basis for media literacy. Journal of Communication. 48(1), pp.81-95.

Ziemkiewicz, C. and Kosara, R. 2009. Preconceptions and individual differences in understanding visual metaphors. In: Computer Graphics Forum: Wiley Online Library, pp.911-918.


Week 8

Key Journal: Time and Society, available through online library.  

Neale, B. (2013) ‘Adding Time into the Mix: the ethics of Qualitative Longitudinal Reseach’ Methodological Innovations Online. Available on the following young fathers website (

Neale, B (2015) ‘Time and the Life course’ in Nancy Worth and Irene Hardill (eds) Researching the Life course. Policy Press.

Neale, B. and Davies. L (2015) Becoming a young breadwinner? Social Policy and Society, themed section on young fatherhood. Available on the following young fathers website (

Neale, B. and Flowerdew, J (2003) ‘Time, Texture and Childhood: the Contours of Qualitative Longitudinal Research’ in Journal of Social Research Methodology: , 6 (3): 189-199 special issue on qualitative longitudinal research.  

Neale B and Henwood K. (series eds) Timescapes Methods Guides Series. available at<

Bruner, J. (1987) ’Life as narrative’, Social Research, 54 (1): 11-52.

Catan, L. (2004) Becoming adult: changing youth transitions in the 21st century. A synthesis of findings from the ESRC research programme, Youth, Citizenship and Social Change 1998-2003.

Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and self identity: self and society in the late modern age, Cambridge: Polity.

Giele, J.Z. and Elder, G.H. (eds) (1998) Methods of life course research: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Heaphy, B. (2007). Late modernity and social change: reconstructing social and personal life. London: Routledge.

Henderson, S., Holland, J., McGrellis, S., Sharpe, S., Thomson, R. (2007) Inventing Adulthoods: A biographical approach to youth transitions, London: Sage.

McCleod J & Thomson, R.  (2009) Researching Social Change London: Sage

Plumridge, L. and Thomson, R. (2003) ‘Longitudinal qualitative studies and the reflexive self’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 6 (3): 213-222.

Saldana, J. (2003) Longitudinal Qualitative Research: Analyzing Change Through Time Altamira Press

Thomson, R. and Holland, J. (2003) ‘Hindsight, foresight and insight: The challenges of longitudinal qualitative research’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, Theory and Practice, 6 (3): 233-244.

Thomson, R., Plumridge, L. and Holland, J. (2003) (eds.) Longitudinal Qualitative Research: a Developing Methodology: International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 6 (3).  Special Issue.


Week 9



Barnes, C., & Mercer, G. (1997). Breaking the Mould? An introduction to doing disability research. In C. Barnes & G. Mercer (Eds.), Doing disability research (pp. 1-14). Leeds: The Disability Press. Online accessible at:   

Oliver, M. 1992. ‘Changing the Social Relations of Research Production’, Disability, Handicap and Society, 7 (2): 101-114     

Oliver, M. (1997). Emancipatory Research: Realistic goal of impossible dream? In C. Barnes & G. Mercer (Eds.), Doing disability research (pp. 15-31). Leeds: The Disability Press. Online accessible at:  

Zarb, G. 1992. ‘On the road to Damascus: first steps towards changing the relations of disability research production’, Disability, Handicap and Society, 7 (2): 125-38.  

Further reading

Atkinson, D., & Walmsley, J. (2010). History from the inside: towards an inclusive history of intellectual disability. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 12(4), 273-286.

Barnes, C. (2003). What a Difference a Decade Makes: reflections on doing 'emancipatory' disability research. Disability & Society, 18(1), 3 - 17.

Barton, L. (2005). Emancipatory research and disabled people: some observations and questions. Educational Review, 57(3), 317 - 327.

Beighton, C., Victor, C., Carey, I. M., Hosking, F., DeWilde, S., Cook, D. G., . . . Harris, T. (2017). ‘I’m sure we made it a better study…’: Experiences of adults with intellectual disabilities and parent carers of patient and public involvement in a health research study. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities. doi:1744629517723485

Chappell, A. L. (2000). The Emergence of Participatory Methodology in Learning Disability Research: Understanding the Context. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28(1), 38-43.

Groundwater-Smith, S., Dockett, S., & Bottrell, D. (2014). Participatory Research with Children and Young People. London: SAGE.

Hickman, L., MacGregor, D. (2017). Improving research about us, with us: a draft framework for inclusive autism research. Disability & Society, 32(5), 720-734.

Harrison, L., Johnson, K., Hiller, L., & Strong, R. (2001). “Nothing about us without us”: The ideals and realities of participatory action research with people with an intellectual disability. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 3(2).

Hollomotz, A. (2017). Successful interviews with people with intellectual disability. Qualitative Research, 1468794117713810.

Koenig, O. (2011). Any added value? Co-constructing life stories of and with people with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40(313-321).

Kramer-Roy, D. (2015). Using participatory and creative methods to facilitate emancipatory research with people facing multiple disadvantage: a role for health and care professionals. Disability & Society, 30(8), 1207-1224.

Nind, M. (2017). The practical wisdom of inclusive research. Qualitative Research, 17(3), 278-288.

Stone, E. and Priestley, M. 1996. ‘Parasites, pawns and partners: disability research and the role of non-disabled researchers’ British Journal of Sociology, 47 (4): 699-716.

Walmsley, J. (2004). Inclusive learning disability research: the (nondisabled) researcher's role. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32(2), 65-71.

Walmsley, J., Strnadová, I., & Johnson, K. (2017). The added value of inclusive research. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. doi:10.1111/jar.12431


Week 10

Key Reading

Gullion, J. S. (2015). ‘Section I: Writing Ethnographically’. In: Writing Ethnography: SensePublishers. (pages 3-45).     

Further Reading

Abu-Lughod, L. (1990) ‘Can There be a Feminist Ethnography?’, Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, 5(1), pp. 7–27.

Brah,'A.'(1999). ''The'scent'of'memory:'strangers,'our'own,'and'others'.'Feminist Review,'

Buch, E. D. and Staller, K. M. (2014) ‘What Is Feminist Ethnography?’, in Hesse- Biber, S. N. and Leavy, P. L. (eds) Feminist Research Practice: a primer. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Estalella, A., & Criado, Tomas Sanchez, editor. (2018). Experimental collaborations : Ethnography through fieldwork devices / edited by Adolfo Estalella and Tomas Sanchez Criado. (EASA series).

Fetterman, D, M (2010) Ethnography Step by Step Third Edition, London: Sage

Fielding, N. (1993) ‘Ethnography’ in Researching Social Life, London: Sage: 155-71  

Goodwin, D. Pope, C. Mort, M. Smith, A. (2003) Ethics and Ethnography: An Experimental Account, Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 13(4), 567 – 577

Hammersley, M. Atkinson, P. (2007) Ethnography: Principles in Practice Third Edition, New York: Taylor & Francis. Chapter 1.

Hines, C. (2008) ‘Virtual Ethnography’: Modes, Varieties, Affordances’ in Fielding, N, G. Lee, R, M. Blank, G (eds) The SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods, Sage: London. 257 – 270.

Keating, Elizabeth. (2001) ‘The Ethnography of Communication’ in Atkinson, P. Coffey, A. Delamont, S. Lofland, J. Lofland, L. (eds), Handbook of ethnography, London: Sage

Pachirat, T. (2017). Among wolves : Ethnography and the immersive study of power / Timothy Pachirat. (1st ed., Routledge series on interpretive methods).

Pink, S., etal (eds) (2015). Digital ethnography : Principles and practice. London: Sage

Reeves, S. Kuper, A. Hodges, B, D. (2008) ‘Qualitative research methodologies: ethnography’, BMJ, Vol 337, pp 512 – 514   

Reily, K, O. (2009) Key Concepts in Ethnography, London: Sage

Spradley, J. (1979) The ethnographic interview. New York: Holt.


Ethnography in ‘policy’ contexts

Dubois, V. (2009) ‘Towards a critical policy ethnography: lessons from fieldwork on welfare control in France’, Critical Policy Studies, 3:2, 221-239,

Birgit Prodinger PhD & Susan Marie Turner PhD (2013) Using Institutional Ethnography to Explore how Social Policies Infiltrate into Daily Life, Journal of Occupational Science, 20:4, 357-369

Examples of contemporary ethnographic research

Gottschalk, S. (2015) ‘Stuck Inside of Mobile: Ethnography in NonPlaces’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 44(1) 3–33

Barken, R. (2014) ‘Caregivers’ Interpretations of Time and Biography: The Experiences of Caring for a Spouse with Parkinson’s Disease’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, Vol. 43(6) 695–719

Murphy, D. (2008) Digital Ethnography: An Examination of the Use of New Technologies for Social Reserarch, Sociology, Vol. 42(5) 837 – 855 

Sharp, H. Dittrich, Y. Sousa, C, R, B. (2016) The Role of Ethnographic Studies in Empirical Software Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol 42(8) 786 – 804 


Week 11


Atkinson, P. and A. Coffey. 2004. ‘Analysing Documentary Realities’ in Silverman, D. (ed). Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice. London: Sage. 2nd ed.

Bryman, A. 2012. Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 5th ed. Ch 24.

Flick, U. 2006. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. London: Sage. 3rd ed. Ch 19.

Gidley, Ben. 2000. ‘Doing Historical and Archival Research.’ In (Ed) Seale, C. Researching Society and Culture. London: Sage. 2nd ed.

Potter, J. Representing Reality: Discourse, Rhetoric and Social Construction. London: Sage.

Potter, J. and M. Wetherell. 1987. Discursive Psychology. London: Sage.

Silverman, D. 2001. Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text and Interaction. London: Sage. 2nd Ed. Chs 5 and 6.

Silverman, D. 2005. ‘Analysing Talk and Text’ in Denzin, L. and Y.S. Lincoln (eds). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage. 3rd Ed.

Wetherell, M., S. Taylor and S. J. Yates (eds). 2001. Discourse as Data: A Guide for Analysis. London: Sage.





This list was last updated on 29/01/2020