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Subtitling and Respeaking for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Audiences, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Carlo Eugeni
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Core reference


de Linde, Zoe & Kay, N. (1999), "Processing Subtitles and Film Images. Hearing Versus Deaf Viewers", inThe translator : studies in intercultural communication. , 5.1, Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing

de Linde, Z. & Kay, Neil (1999), The semiotics of subtitling , Manchester: St. Jerome

Díaz Cintas, J., Orero, P. & Remael, A. (Eds.) (2007), Media for all : subtitling for the deaf, audio description, and sign language Amsterdam/New York

Gerber-Morón, O., & Szarkowska, A. (2018). Line breaks in subtitling: An eye tracking study on viewer preferencesJournal of Eye Movement Research, 11 (3). doi:10.16910/jemr.11.3.2

Matamala, A. & Orero P. (eds). (2010), Listening to subtitles : subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing. Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, Wien: Peter Lang.

Neves, J. (2005) Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing, PhD thesis.

Neves, J. (2008) Training in subtitling for the d/Deaf and the hard-of-hearing, in Díaz-Cintas, J. (ed.) The Didactics of Audiovisual Translation, Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamns Publishing Company, pp.171-189

Remael, A., Orero, P. & Carroll, M. (Eds.) (2012), Media for all : audiovisual translation and media accessibility at crossroads Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi.



SDH for children

Bianchi, F., Eugeni, C., e and L. Grandioso (2020) Verbatim vs. Adapted Subtitling and Beyond - An Empirical Study with Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing ChildrenLingue e Linguaggi 36, pp. 7-29

Romero-Fresco, P. (ed.) (2015), The Reception of Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Europe. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. REQUEST FOR DIGITISATION IN PROGRESS

Tamayo, A. (2017) Subtitling for d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children: Past, Present and Future, CoMe II (1), 74-90



Eugeni, C. (2016) Respeaking at BBC, CoMe I (1), 97-107

Eugeni, C. & Mack, G. (eds.) (2006) Respeaking, inTRAlinea special issue (NB: English titles only)

Romero-Fresco, P. (2011), Subtitling through speech recognition : respeaking Respeaking, Manchester: St Jerome.

Eugeni, C. (2020) “Human-Computer Interaction in Diamesic Translation. Multilingual Live Subtitling”. In D. Dejica, C. Eugeni and A. Dejica-Cartis (eds.) Translation Studies and Information Technology - New Pathways for Researchers, Teachers and
Professionals, Timișoara: Editura Politehnica, Translation Studies Series, pp. 19-31, available at   



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General reference

Baker, R., Lambourne, A. & Rowston, G. (1984), Handbook for television subtitlers , Independent Broadcasting Authority, Crawley Court, Winchester, Hampshire, 61 p .  

Chmiel, A., Szarkowska, A., KORŽINEK, D., Lijewska, A., Dutka, Ł., Brocki, Ł., & Marasek, K. (2017). Ear–voice span and pauses in intra- and interlingual respeaking: An exploratory study into temporal aspects of the respeaking process. Applied Psycholinguistics. ISSN: 0142-7164.

Diaz-Cintas, J., Matamala, A. & Neves, J. (2010), New insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility : media for all 2 Amsterdam/New York: Rodopi (New developments introduction)

Dwyer, Tessa, Claire Perkins, Sean Redmond and Jodi Sita (eds) 2018. Seeing into screens [electronic resource] / eye tracking and the moving image ISBN: 9781501328992 (e-book); 9781501329029 (hbk.); 9781501329005 (ePub ebook) :; 9781501328992 (PDF ebook). London: Bloomsbury.

Luyckx B., Delbeke T., Van Waes L., Leijten M. & Remael A. (2010) Text Reduction in Live Subtitling with Speech Recognition Causes and Consequences of Text Reduction . Artesis VT Working papers in translation studies 2010-1.

Chen, Sheng-Jie. (2006) Real-time subtitling in Taiwan. In InTRAlinea New technologies in real time intralingual subtitling [electronic resource] : Proceedings of the First International Seminar on real-time intralingual subtitling, Forlì, 17 November 2006 .

Diaz Cintas, J., Anderman, G. (eds). (2009), Audiovisual translation : language transfer on screen . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Díaz Cintas, J., Matamala, A. & Neves, J. 2010. (eds.) New insights into audiovisual translation and media accessibility : media for all 2 . Amsterdam/New York.

Gottlieb, H. (1994), " Subtitling : diagonal translation ", Perspectives : studies in translatology. 2: 101-12. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Hay, J. (1994), Hearing loss : questions you have--answers you need Pennsylvania : People’s Medical Society  

Kothari, B. (2008). Let a Billion Readers Bloom: Same Language Subtitling (SLS) on Television for Mass Literacy. International review of education = Internationale Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft. 54. 773-780.

de Linde, Z. (1997), Linguistic and visual complexity of television subtitles , PhD thesis, Univ. of Bristol.  

Lambourne, A., Hewitt, J., Lyon, C., & Warren, S. (2004). Speech-based Real Time Subtitling Services.International journal of speech technology. 7. 269-279. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Incalcaterra McLoughlin, L., Biscio, M., Ní, M.& Máire, Á. (eds.). (2011), Audiovisual translation : subtitles and subtitling : theory and practice . Bern & Oxford: Peter Lang.

Jiménez Hurtado, Catalina and Silvia Martínez Martínez. (2018). Concept Selection and Translation Strategy: Subtitling for the Deaf based on Corpus Analysis, in Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Methods for the Study of Multimodality in Translation, Vol 17. Available online

Nadiani, G. & Heiss, C. (1996), "Repertorio bibliografico sulla traduzione multimediale per il cinema, la televisione e la scena" (Bibliography of multimedia translation for cinema, TV and theater) in Heiss & Bosinelli (eds.) 1996, Traduzione multimediale per il cinema, la televisione, e la scena : atti del Convegno internazionale Forli, 26-28 ottobre 1995 , Biblioteca della Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori Forlí, CLUEB, Bologna. pp. 417-482. Also available at via Bibliographie.   

Orero, P. (ed.). (2004), Topics in audiovisual translation , Amsterdam, Philadelphia, PA : John Benjamins.

Pedersen, J. (2011), Subtitling norms for television : an exploration focussing on extralinguistic cultural references . Amsterdam ; Philadelphia : John Benjamins

Perego, E. (2008), "Subtitles and line-breaks: Towards improved readability" in Between text and image : updating research in screen translation , Chiaro, Delia, Christine Heiss and Chiara Bucaria (eds.), 211–223 EBook available

Reid, H. (1991), "Linguistic Problems Associated with Subtitling", in Luyken, G.M., T.Herbst, J. Langham-Brown, H. Reid and H. Spinhof. Overcoming language barriers in television : dubbing and subtitling for the European audience , Manchester: The European Institute for the Media, 156-158. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva

Ribas, A. M., & Romero Fresco, P. (2008), A Practical Proposal for the Training of RespeakersJournal of Specialised Translation 10. 106-127.

Robson, G. (2004), The closed captioning handbook , Focal Press (Elsevier), Oxford, 375 p. (Captioning technology, a glossary, and a history of captioning.  

Schwieter, John W. and Aline Ferreira (eds). 2017.  The handbook of translation and cognition ISBN: 9781119241430 (cloth); 9781119241478 (epub). Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 265–289.

Szarkowska, A., Żbikowska, J. & Krejtz, I. (2014), "Strategies for rendering multilingualism in subtitling for the deaf and hard of hearing" in Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies, No 13. 

Szarkowska, A., Krejtz, K., Dutka, Ł., & Pilipczuk, O. (2018). Are interpreters better respeakers?The Interpreter and Translator Trainer. doi:10.1080/1750399X.2018.1465679

Szarkowska, A., Krejtz, K., Dutka, L., & Pilipczuk, O. (2016). Cognitive load in intralingual and interlingual respeaking-a preliminary studyPoznan Studies in Contemporary Linguistics, 52 (2), 209-233. doi:10.1515/psicl-2016-0008

Tveit, J-M. (2005), Translating for television : a handbook in screen translation , 2nd edition Bergen: JK Publishing.  


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More online readings

Caimi, A. (2006), "Audiovisual Translation and Language Learning: The Promotion of Intralingual Subtitles", in Journal of Specialised Translation , Issue 06, July 2006, pp. 85-98. Available at

Carroll, M., Gerzymisch-Arbogast, H. & Nauert, S. (eds.) (2006), Audiovisual translation scenarios [electronic resource] : proceedings of the Marie Curie Euroconferences MuTra: Audiovisual Translation Scenarios - Copenhagen 1-5 May 2006 . Copenhagen 1-5 May 2006, at 

EBU (online) The Future of Access to Television for Blind and Partially Sighted People in Europe . Paris: European Blind Union. 
Available online at:   

Intralingual Subtitling, First international seminar on new technologies in real time intralingual subtitling. Forlì, 17 November 2006. Available from:

Media Consulting Group (2007), Study on Dubbing and Subtitling Needs and Practices in the European Audiovisual Industry . Final Report, Media Consulting Group, Paris / Peacefulfish, London, 133 p. Available online:  

National Captioning Institute (2002), NCI's Glossary of Captioning terms , at  

Remael, A. & Neves, J. (eds.) (2007), " A tool for social integration ? [electronic resource] : audiovisual translation from different angles : introduction ", Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series, Vol. 6/2007

Wagner, S. (2005), "Intralingual speech-to-text-conversion in real-time: Challenges and Opportunities" in MuTra Conference Proceedings, 10 p., at

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Linguistica Antverpiensia.

Bulletin of the Institute of Translation & Interpreting..




JoSTrans - The Journal of Specialised Translation


The translator : studies in intercultural communication.

Translation Spaces


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Oxford English Dictionary Online [electronic resource].

Specialist dictionaries, such as slang, biographical, medical, technical etc. Examples might be:

Ayto, J, Simpson, J, The Oxford dictionary of modern slang Oxford University Press

Ehlich, E, Nil desperandum : a dictionary of Latin tags and useful phrases , Mackays Of Chatham  

Parry, M (editor) Chambers biographical dictionary , Chamber  


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Grammar Guides

Impeccable English and accurate use of grammar are of paramount importance, so please refer to a good grammar guide, for example:

Butcher's copy-editing : the Cambridge handbook for editors, copy-editors and proofreaders ISBN: 0521847133 (hardback); 9780521847131 (hardback). 2006. Butcher, Judith; Drake, Caroline; Leach, Maureen (Eds). Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press.

Greenbaum, S, Whitcut, J Longman guide to English usage , Longman  

Fowler, Henry, Winchester, Simon Fowler's modern English usage Oxford Language Classics  

Partridge, E, Whitcut, J, Usage and abusage : a guide to good English Penguin Reference Books  

Crystal, David Greenbaum, Sidney, An introduction to English grammar

Jarvie, G, Grammar guide , Bloomsbury  

Trask, R. L. The Penguin guide to punctuation , Penguin   


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ILSA project:

LTA project:  




This list was last updated on 23/09/2021