Skip to main content

PIED3504
Module Reading List

Critically Analysing The Responsibility to Protect, 2021/22, Semester 2
Professor Jason Ralph
J.G.Ralph@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

The key book is available as e-books on-line via the library homepage:

Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne, The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

 

Other key texts are:

 

 

Key Journal

Global Responsibility to Protect. You have free access to all articles since it started in 2009

 

Websites

International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/

Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (GR2P) http://www.globalr2p.org/

Asia-Pacific Centre for RtoP https://r2pasiapacific.org/

European Centre for RtoP https://ecr2p.leeds.ac.uk/

Office of the Special Advisor on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect http://www.un.org/en/preventgenocide/adviser/responsibility.shtml

 

Syllabus (lecture topics)

 

  1. What is RtoP? History and Origins (week commencing 24 January)
  2. What is RtoP? Theoretical understandings and conceptual developments (w/c 31 January)
  3. Coercive and Non-coercive measures: Côte d'Ivoire and Libya (w/c 7 February)
  4. Is RtoP a ‘hollow’ norm? (w/c 14 February)
  5. The Death of RtoP? Cases of inaction Darfur, Sri Lanka, Syria (w/c 21 February)
  6. RtoP tools. Assistance and Prevention: (w/c 28 February) Myanmar case
  7. RtoP tools. Prosecution: ICC case study 1 (w/c 7 March)
  8. RtoP tools. Prosecution: ICC case study 2 (w/c 14 March)
  9. RtoP, Decolonization and the Changing International Order (w/c 21 March)
  • Current and Future Challenges (w/c 25 April)
  • What role advocacy and civil society? Revision and Essay Planning (w/c 2 May)

 

 

 

 

Syllabus (seminar topics and readings)

Week 1: What is RtoP? The historical problem and the origins of the concept (week commencing 24 January)

Seminar questions

  1. Why is humanitarian intervention so controversial?
  2. How did “R2P” attempt to resolve the dilemma?

Seminar Readings

  • Wheeler, Nicholas J (1992) Pluralist or Solidarist Conceptions of International Society: Bull and Vincent on Humanitarian Intervention Millennium, 21 (3) 463-487.
  • Wheeler, Nicholas J. (1996) ‘Guardian Angel or Global Gangster: a Review of the Ethical Claims of International Society’, Political Studies 4, 1, (1996) 123 – 135. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva
  • Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, The Responsibility to Protect, 2001, esp. pp. 1-19. http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf   
  • World Summit Outcome Document paragraphs 138-139.

 

Week 2. What is RtoP? Theoretical understandings and conceptual developments (w/c 31 January)

The lecture provides a more in-depth analysis of the RtoP including its developments since its endorsement in 2005, as well as theoretical interpretations. Each group presents to the class for 5 minutes. Name the author(s) and article(s) and explain 3- 5 key points to the class from each reading.

Essential Reading

Group A. What does it mean to call R2P a ‘norm’ and what does R2P mean?  How and why is it contested?

Welsh, J. 'Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect', Global Responsibility to Protect. 5 (4) (2013) 365–396 

Group B.  What does it mean to call R2P a norm? How has R2P been ‘localized’?

Kai Michael Kenkel and Felippe De Rosa,’ Localization and Subsidiarity in Brazil’s Engagement with the Responsibility to Protect’ Global responsibility to protect. 2 (4) 2015, 325–349.

Group C. Where exactly does the responsibility to protect rest in international society? What is a ‘special’ responsibility?

Jason Ralph and James Souter, 'A special responsibility to protect: the UK, Australia and the rise of Islamic State', International Affairs., 91, 4, 2015, 709-723

Further Reading

Brosig, M., & Zähringer, N. (2015). Norm Evolution a Matter of Conformity and Contestedness: South Africa and the Responsibility to Protect, Global Responsibility to Protect, 7(3-4), 350-375

Capie, David (2012) ‘The Responsibility to Protect Norm in Southeast Asia: Framing, Resistance and the Localization Myth’, The Pacific Review, 25 (1):75-93.

Gregor P. Hofmann and Lisbeth Zimmermann (eds) Special Issue: Norm Contestation and its Effects: Challenges to the Responsibility to Protect and the Responsibility to Prosecute Global Responsibility to Protect 11 (2) 2019

Brian Job and Anastasia Shesterinina (2014) China as a Global Norm Shaper. Institutionalization and Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect In Implementation and World Politics. How International Norms Change Practice ed. Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard. Oxford University Press.

Jason Ralph ‘What should be done? Pragmatic constructivist ethics and the Responsibility to Protect’, International Organization, 72 (1) 2018 173-203.

Docherty, B, Mathieu, X and Ralph, J (2020) ‘R2P and the Arab Spring. Norm Localisation and the US response to the early Syria crisis’, Global Responsibility to Protect. ISSN 1875-9858

Cristina G. Stefan On non-Western norm shapers: Brazil and the Responsibility while Protecting, European Journal of International Security 2 (1) 2017 88-110

Negrón-Gonzales, Melinda and Michael Contarino, (2014) ‘Local Norms Matter: Understanding National Responses to the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 20 (2) 255-276.

Prantl, J. and Nakano, R. (2011) Global Norm Diffusion in East Asia: How China and Japan Implement the Responsibility to Protect. International Relations, 25, 204-223.

Williams, Paul D. (2009). ‘The ‘Responsibility to Protect’, Norm Localisation, and African International Society’, Global Responsibility to Protect, (1) 3: 392-416.

 

On Special Responsibilities and Dual Responsibilities of P5

Mlada Bukovansky, Ian Clark, Robyn Eckersley, Richard Price, Christian Reus-Smit and Nicholas J. Wheeler, Special responsibilities: global problems and American power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)

Tim Dunne, ‘Distributing duties and counting costs’, Global Responsibility to Protect 5: 4, 2013, pp. 443–65

David Miller, (2001) ‘Distributing responsibilities’, Journal of Political Philosophy 9: 3 453–471.

 

David Miller, (2009) ‘The responsibility to protect human rights’, in Lukas H. Meyer, ed., Legitimacy, justice and public international law Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 232–51.

Morris Justin and Wheeler, Nicholas J. (2016) The Responsibility not to Veto: A Responsibility too Far? In:

Justin Morris, ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Great Powers: The Tensions of Dual Responsibility’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, 2-4, 2015, 398–421.

Vilmer J-BJ. (2018) ‘The Responsibility not to Veto: A Genealogy’. Global Governance 24: 331-349.

Essawy, R. M. (2020). The Responsibility Not to Veto Revisited under the Theory of ‘Consequential Jus Cogens’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 12(3), 299-335.

 

Week 3. Coercive and Non-Coercive Measures: Libya (w/c 7 February).

Essential reading

Group A. Why was it said that R2P ‘came of age’ in 2011?

Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, The new politics of protection? Côte d’Ivoire, Libya and the responsibility to protect. International Affairs 87 (4) 2011 825–850.

Group B. What was the diplomatic fallout from the Libya intervention?

Jason Ralph and Adrian Gallagher “Legitimacy Faultlines in International Society. The Responsibility to Protect and Prosecute after Libya”, Review of International Studies 41 (3) 2015, 553-573.

Group C.  What was the diplomatic fallout from the Libya intervention?

Jason Ralph and Jess Gifkins ‘The purpose of Security Council Practice. Contesting competence claims in the normative context created by the Responsibility to Protect’ European Journal of International Relations 23 (3) 2017 630–653.

 

Further Reading: 

Frank O. Okyere African experiences of R2P implementation In Cecilia Jacob, Martin Mennecke (ed.) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect A Future Agenda. Routledge.

Aning K and Edu-Afful F (2016) African agency in R2P: Interventions by African Union and ECOWAS in Mali, Cote d’Ivoire, and Libya. International Studies Review 18(1): 120–133.

Fung C (2016) Global South solidarity? China, regional organizations and intervention in the Libyan and Syrian civil wars. Third World Quarterly 37(1): 33–50.

Sarah Brockmeier, Oliver Stuenkel & Marcos Tourinho (2016) The Impact of the Libya Intervention Debates on Norms of Protection, Global Society, 30:1, 113-133.

Simon Chesterman, ‘Leading from behind’: The Responsibility to Protect, the Obama Doctrine, and Humanitarian Intervention after Libya’, Ethics and international affairs Vol. 25. No. 3 (2011) pp. 279–285

Luke Glanville, ‘Gaddafi and Grotius: Some Historical Roots of the Libya Intervention’, Global responsibility to protect. 5 (3) 2013, 342-361.

Marie-Eve Loiselle , ‘ The Normative Status of the Responsibility to Protect After Libya’ , Global responsibility to protect. 5 (3). 2013, 317-341.

Williams, P. and Bellamy, A. ‘Principles, Politics, and Prudence: Libya, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Use of Military Force’, Global governance : a review of multilateralism and international organizations. 18 (2012), 273–297

Ian Hall, ‘Tilting at Windmills? The Indian Debate over The Responsibility to Protect after UNSC Resolution 1973’, Global responsibility to protect., 5 (1) 2013, 84-108.

Bajoria, J. (2011) Libya and the Responsibility to Protect. Council on Foreign Relations. Available online [Accessed: 14 May 2012].

Hallams, E. and Schreer, B. (2012) Towards a „post-American‟ alliance? NATO burden-sharing after Libya. International affairs. 88(2), pp. 313-327.

Weiss, T. (2011) RtoP Alive and Well after Libya. Ethics and international affairs 25(3), pp. 287-292.

A Cubuckcu, , A. The responsibility to protect: Libya and the problem of transnational solidarity. Journal of human rights 12, 1 (2013), pp. 40–58.

Jason W Davidson (2013) France, Britain and the intervention in Libya: an integrated analysis, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26:2, 310-329

Tim Dunne & Jess Gifkins (2011) Libya and the state of intervention, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 65:5, 515-529.

Anastasia Shesterinina (2016) Evolving norms of protection: China, Libya and the problem of intervention in armed conflict, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29:3, 812-830

 

Week 4: Is R2P a ‘hollow’ norm? (w/c 14 February)

Essential Reading

All: Aidan Hehir (2018) Hollow Norms and the Responsibility to Protect Palgrave Macmillan.

Group A.  What is Hehir’s view of UN Resolution 1973 on Libya?

Aidan Hehir, ‘Libya and The Responsibility to Protect: Resolution 1973 as Consistent with the Security Council’s Record of Inconsistency’, International Security., 38 (1) 2013 137-15

Group B.  Summarize the counter-arguments of Dunne and Gelber.

Tim Dunne and Katherine Gelber ‘Arguing Matters’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 6(3), 2014.  326-349.

Aidan Hehir, ‘The Dog That Didn’t Bark? : A Response to Dunne and Gelber’s Analysis of RtoP’s Influence on the Intervention in Libya’, Global responsibility to protect., 7 (2) 2015 211–224

Tim Dunne and Katherine Gelber, 'Text and Context in the Responsibility to Protect: A Reply to Hehir’, Global responsibility to protect. 7 (2) 2015 225-233

Group CWhat are the main points of those defending R2P?

Alex Bellamy, The responsibility to protect : a defense (Oxford University Press, 2015) ch.6 ‘Much Ado About Nothing?’

AND/OR

Luke Glanvile “Does R2P Matter? Interpreting the Impact of a Norm.” Cooperation and Conflict 51 (2) 2016 184–99.

 

Further reading

More sceptical arguments

Aidan Hehir, (2010) The Responsibility to Protect: 'sound and fury signifying nothing'? International Relations 24 (2), pp. 218-239.

Aidan Hehir, Assessing the influence of the Responsibility to Protect on the UN Security Council during the Arab Spring Cooperation and conflict 51 (2) 2016, 166-183 

Hehir, Aidan. The responsibility to protect : rhetoric, reality and the future of humanitarian intervention (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 2012).

Robert A. Pape, ‘When Duty Calls: A Pragmatic Standard for Humanitarian Intervention’, International security. Vo. 37. No. 1. (Summer 2012), pp. 41-80.

Robert W. Murray ‘Humanitarianism, Responsibility or Rationality? Evaluating Intervention as State Strategy pp. 15-34, in Hehir and Murray (ed) Libya, the responsibility to protect and the future of humanitarian intervention

Robert Murray, The Challenges that Face R2P Implementation in W. Andy Knight and Frazer Egerton, Routledge handbook of the responsibility to protect (Oxford University Press, 2012) chapter 5.

Theresa Reinold, ‘The Responsibility to Protect-Much ado about Nothing? Review of international studies. (32, S1, 2010, 55-78), 55.

Valentino, B. (2006) The Perils of Limited Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the 1990s. Wisconsin International Law Journal 24(3), pp. 723-740.

Cunliffe, P. 'The doctrine of the 'responsibility to protect' as a practice of political exceptionalism'. European journal of international relations. ISSN: 1354-0661, 23(2), 2017. pp. 446- 486.

Phillip Cunliffe, (ed) Critical perspectives on the responsibilty to protect : interrogating theory and practice, Routledge, 2011

Kuperman AJ (2008) The moral hazard of humanitarian intervention: Lessons from the Balkans. International studies quarterly. 52(1): 49–80.

Kuperman AJ (2003) Transnational causes of genocide, or how the West exacerbates ethnic conflict. in: Thomas RGC (ed.) Yugoslavia unraveled : sovereignty, self-determination, intervention. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 55–85.

Kuperman AJ (2004a) Humanitarian hazard: Revisiting doctrines of intervention. Harvard international review 26(1): 64–68.

Kuperman AJ (2004b) Provoking genocide: A revised history of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Journal of genocide research. 6(1): 61–84.

Kuperman AJ (2009a) Rethinking the responsibility to protect. Whitehead journal of diplomacy and international relations Winter/Spring: 33–43.

Kuperman AJ (2009b) Darfur: Strategic victimhood strikes again? Genocide Studies and Prevention 4(3): 281–303.

Rauchhaus RW (2005) Conflict management and the misapplication of moral hazard theory. Ethnopolitics.ISSN: 1744-9057; 1744-9065 4(2): 215–224.

David Chandler, The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the Liberal Peace‘. International peacekeeping. 11(1), (2004) pp. 59-81.

David Chandler (2009) ‘Unravelling the Paradox of ‘The Responsibility to Protect’’ Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. 20 (2009), 27–39.

Tara McCormack (2010) The Responsibility to Protect and the End of the Western Century, Journal of intervention and statebuildingISSN: 1750-2977, volume 4, issue 1, pp 69 – 82.

 

More defence of R2P as a valuable norm that has, can and should have influence.

Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, ‘On the Limits of Moral Hazard Theory: The Responsibility to Protect, Armed Conflict, and Mass Atrocities’, European journal of international relations., Vol. 18, No. 3., 2011, pp. 539-571.

Gareth Evans and Ramesh Thakur, Robert A. Pape, ‘Correspondence: Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect’, International security. Vol. 37. No. 4 (Spring 2013), pp. 199-214, 199-200.

  1. M. Welsh, ‘Taking Consequences Seriously: Objections to Humanitarian Intervention’, in J. M. Welsh (ed.), Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006),
  2. Welsh, ‘Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 4. 2013, pp. 365 – 396.

Welsh, J.M. (2019) ‘Norm Robustness and the Responsibility to Protect,’ Journal of Global Security Studies, 4 (1), 53–72.

Tim Dunne, Distributing Duties and Counting Costs, Global responsibility to protect. vol. 5, No. 4, 2013, pp. 443-465

Alex Bellamy, ‘A Responsibility to Protect or a Trojan Horse?  The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq’, Ethics and international affairs, 19 (2) 2005.

Cristina Badescu and Thomas Weiss, “Misrepresenting R2P and Advancing Norms: An Alternative Spiral? ” International studies perspectives., Vol. 11, Issue 4, 2010.

Cristina Badescu and Linnea Bergholm. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Conflict in Darfur: The Big Let-down,” Security dialogue., Vol. 40, Issue 3, 2009.

Ramesh Thakur, ‘In Defence of the Responsibility to Protect’, International journal of human rights. vol. 7. No. 3. 2003. Pp. 160-178.

 

Week 5. The Death of RtoP? Syria (w/c 21 February)

Essential Reading

Group A. What explains Russia’s position at the Security Council?

Derek Averre, Lance Davies, ‘Russia, humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: the case of Syria’ International affairs.ISSN: 0020-5850, 91 (1) 2015, 813-834

Group B. What explains the US / Western position at the Security Council?

Jason Ralph Benedict Docherty, Xavier Mathieu, ‘R2P and the Arab Spring. Norm Localisation and the US response to the early Syria crisis’, Global Responsibility to Protect 12 (3) 246-270.

Group C: What challenges for the R2P principle were exposed by international society’s response to the Arab Spring?

Welsh, Jennifer. 2016. The Responsibility to Protect after Libya & Syria. Daedalus 145 (4), 75-87. https://www.amacad.org/sites/default/files/publication/downloads/Fa16_Daedalus_07_Welsh.pdf

 

Further Reading:

Robert Murray, (ed) ‘RtoP, Syria and Humanitarianism in Crisis’, E-International Relations, January 2014, E-book with contributions from world leading RtoP scholars. http://www.e-ir.info/2014/01/20/edited-collection-r2p-syria-and-humanitarianism-in-crisis/

Jess Gifkins, ‘The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis’, Global responsibility to protect. Vol. 4. No. 3. (2012) pp. 377-393, 391.

Micael D. Swaine, ‘Chinese views of the Syrian Conflict’, China Leadership Monitor, No. 39. http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM39MS.pdf Accessed 01.01.2013.

Nesam McMillan and David Mickler, ‘From Sudan to Syria: Locating ‘Regime Change’ in R2P and ICC, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 3., 2013. Pp. 283-316.

Zifcack Spencer, ‘Is the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine Dead? ’ The Doctrine’s Standing in the Wake of Syrian Massacre’, in Vasila Sancin and Masa Kovic Dine Responsibility to protect in theory and practice : papers presented at the Responsibility to Protect in Theory and Practice Conference, Ljubljana, April 11-12, 2013 (GV Zalozba, 2013), 253-290

Raymond Hinnebusch, ‘Syria: From Authoritarian Upgrading to Revolution’, International affairs. Vol. 88. No. 1 (2012) pp. 95-113, 95.

Samuel Charap, ‘Russia, Syria and the Doctrine of Intervention’, Survival : global politics and strategy. Vol. 55. No. 1. (2013) pp. 35-41.

  1. Morris, ‘Libya and Syria: the spectre of the swinging pendulum’, International affairs. , 2013, 89(5), 1265-1283.

Robert G. Rabil, Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006).

Richard Dicker, ‘Holding The Security Council to Account on Syria’, The Progressive (29 January 2013) https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/01/29/holding-security-council-account-syria Accessed 18 February 2013.

Paul Rogers, ‘Syria: The Evolving Problem of Competing Militias’ Oxford Research Group (February 2013) https://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/syria-the-evolving-problem-of-competing-militias Accessed 15 March 2013

Volkan Şeyşane and Çiğdem Çelik ‘R2P and Turkish Foreign Policy: Libya and Syria in Perspective Authors’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, 2-4, 2015, 376–397 (22)

Tocci, Nathalie, On Power and Norms: Libya, Syria and the Responsibility to Protect, Global responsibility to protect.  8 (1) 2016, pp. 51-75

Ramesh Thakur (2013) R2P after Libya and Syria: Engaging Emerging Powers, The Washington Quarterly, 36:2, 61-76.

 

Week 6. R2P tools: Prevention (w/c 28 February)

Essential Reading

All: Report of the UN Secretary-General, Responsibility to protect: State responsibility and prevention, 2013, pp. 1-17 http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/UNSG%20Report%20on%20RtoP%20and%20State%20Responsibility%20and%20Prevention(1).pdf   

All: United Nations, A Framework for Analysis of Atrocity Crimes . A tool for Prevention https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/about-us/Doc.3_Framework%20of%20Analysis%20for%20Atrocity%20Crimes_EN.pdf

Group A: a sceptic’s view

Aidan Hehir. ‘The Responsibility to Prevent: The Last Refuge of the Unimaginative?’, in Hehir, The responsibility to protect : rhetoric, reality and the future of humanitarian intervention 2012, pp.87-118.

Group B:  a pacifist’s view

Jeremy Moses, ‘A pacifist ethos for the Responsibility to Protect: detaching prevention from intervention’, International Politics, 56 (2) 2019 pp 228–242

Group C: Why did prevention strategies fail in Myanmar?

Eglantine Staunton and Jason Ralph, ‘The Responsibility to Protect norm cluster and the challenge of atrocity prevention. An analysis of the European Union’s strategy in Myanmar’, European Journal of International Relations 26 (3) 660-686.  For further discussion see special issue of Global Responsibility to Protect, 13(2-3)

 

Further reading

Bellamy, A. J., & Šimonović, I. (2021). Introduction. Towards Evidence Based Atrocity Prevention’, Journal of International Peacekeeping, 24(3-4), 285-304.  See other articles in the special issue on atrocity prevention.

Cecilia Jacob (2019) R2P as an atrocity-prevention framework Concepts and institutionalization at the global level. In Cecilia Jacob, Martin Mennecke (ed.) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect A Future Agenda. Routledge.

Sara E. Davies (2019) Atrocity prevention in practice. Studying the role of Southeast Asian women in atrocity prevention. In Cecilia Jacob, Martin Mennecke (ed.) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect A Future Agenda. Routledge.

Stephen Pomper (2019) Atrocity prevention under the Obama administration In Cecilia Jacob, Martin Mennecke (ed.) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect A Future Agenda. Routledge.

Beth Van Schaack 2020. “Atrocity Prevention and Response: A Good Governance Blueprint.” https://ssrn.com/abstract=3751095.

Noel M. Morada (2019) ASEAN regionalism and capacity-building for atrocities prevention Challenges and prospects In Cecilia Jacob, Martin Mennecke (ed.) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect A Future Agenda. Routledge.

Stephen McLoughlin (2019) Atrocity prevention, national resilience, and implementation In Cecilia Jacob, Martin Mennecke (ed.) Implementing the Responsibility to Protect A Future Agenda. Routledge.

Bohm, A., & Brown, G. W. (2020). R2P and Prevention: The International Community and Its Role in the Determinants of Mass Atrocity, Global Responsibility to Protect, 13(1), 60-95.

Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Eds) The Responsibility to Prevent. Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention OUP 280 – 303.

Naomi Kikoler, (2016) ‘Guinea: An Overlooked Case of the Responsibility to Prevent in Practice’, in in Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Eds) The Responsibility to Prevent. Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention OUP 304 – 323.

Serena K Sharma, (2016) ‘The 2007-2008 Post Election Crisis in Kenya: A Case of Escalation Prevention’, in Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Eds) The Responsibility to Prevent. Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention OUP 280 – 303.

Sharma, S. K. (2017). The 2017 General Election in Kenya: Re-evaluating r2p’s First Test Case 10 Years On, Global Responsibility to Protect, 9(4), 345-365.

EN Koç (2022) Kenya and Guinea: Preventive Strategies in R2P’ in The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On

Gallagher, Adrian (2015) ‘The promise of pillar II: analysing international assistance under the Responsibility to Protect’ International Affairs 91, 6, 1259-1275.

Aidan Hehir, ‘The Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide: Adding Value to the UN’s Mechanisms for Preventing Intra-State Crises?’ Journal of genocide research. ISSN: 1462-3528 (13, 3. 2011, 271 – 286).

Morris, Justin ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Use of Force: Remaking the Procrustean Bed?’ Cooperation and Conflict 51:2, 200-215.

Witold Mucha ‘The Next Spring is Certain to Come – and Certain to be Missed’ Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. Pp. 382-406.

Stephen McLoughlin, ‘Rethinking the Structural Prevention of Mass Atrocities’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. , pp. 407-429

Bridget Conly-Zilkic, ‘Who is the subject of Atrocities Prevention?’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. 430-452

Manus I. Midlarsky, ‘International Affinity and the Prevention of Genocide’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, Vol. 6. No. 4, pp. 453-482.

Deborah Mayersen, ‘Rethinking approaches to Prevention under the Responsibility to protect’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4., pp. 483-507.

Welsh, J. The Responsibility to Prevent: Assessing the Gap between Rhetoric and Reality’, Cooperation and conflict ISSN: 0010-8367, Vol. 51, No. 2 (2016), pp. 216-232

 

Week 7. R2P tools. Prosecution. Case study 1 ICC Origins (w/c 7 March)

Essential Reading

 

Group A. How might the prosecution of perpetrators help prevent atrocity crimes?

 

Dan Saxon ‘The International Criminal Court and the Prevention of Crimes’ K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed):  The Responsibility to Prevent (OUP, 2016)

 

Group B. How might the prosecution perpetrators help prevent atrocity crimes ?

Jo, H., & Simmons, B. (2016). Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity? International Organization, 70(3), 443-475

 

Group C. What explains US opposition to the ICC?

Ralph, Jason (2005) ‘International Society, The International Criminal Court, and American Foreign Policy’, Review of International Studies, 31 (1) 27-44.  

 

All: Can the ICC Prosecutor exercise jurisdiction in the following cases?

  • - a British soldier accused of war crimes in Iraq
  • - an Ethiopian soldier accused of war crimes in Somalia
  • - a Russian soldier accused of war crimes in Ukraine
  • - an Australian soldier accused of war crimes in Afghanistan
  • - an American solider accused of war crimes in Bosnia
  • - a French soldier accused of war crimes in Mali
  • - a Chinese soldier accused of war crimes in India

 

Further Reading

On criminal justice as a tool of atrocity prevention

Bensouda, F. (2020). The Progress and Convergence of the icc and R2P Norms in a Rules-Based Global Order, Global Responsibility to Protect, 12(4), 372-375

 

Khan, M. Z. I. (2019). Pathways to Justice for ‘Atrocity Crimes’ in Myanmar: Is There Political Will?, Global Responsibility to Protect, 11(1), 3-41

 

Contarino, Michael and Selena Lucent. (2009) “Stopping the Killing: The International Criminal Court and Juridical Determination of the Responsibility to Protect”, Global responsibility to protect. 1, pp. 560-583.

 

Contarino, Michael and Melinda Negron-Gonzales. (2013). “The International Criminal Court” (Chapter 18) in Gentian Zyberi (ed.) An institutional approach to the responsibility to protect . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 411-436.

 

Contarino, Michael, Melinda Negron-Gonzales and Kevin T. Mason. (2012) “The International Criminal Court and Consolidation of the Responsibility to Protect as an International Norm”. Global responsibility to protect. 4, pp. 275-308.

Holvoet, Mathias and Medlir Mema. (2014). “The International Criminal Court and the Responsibility to Protect” (Chapter 2) in Daniel Fiott and Joachim Koops (eds.) The responsibility to protect and the third pillar: legitimacy and operationalization

Jason Ralph (ed.) ‘Symposium: International Criminal Justice and the Responsibility to Protect’ special issue of Criminal Law Forum 26 (1) 2015 Jason Ralph ‘The International Criminal Court’ Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

 

Creation and operation of ICC

VT Kapucu (2022) ‘The Rohingya of Myanmar: R2P, International Justice and Accountability’, in Ercan (ed.) The Responsibility to Protect Twenty Years On Palgrave Macmillan.

Bosco, David. Rough justice: the International Criminal Court in a world of power politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Bass, G. (2000) Stay the hand of vengeance: the politics of war crimes tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bassiouni, M.C. (1997) ‘From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court’, Harvard human rights journal. 10, pp.11-62.

Birdsall, A. (2007) 'Creating a more 'just' order - the Ad Hoc International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia' Cooperation and conflict , vol. 42, No. 4 pp. 397-418

Broomhall, B. (2003) International justice and the International Criminal Court : between sovereignty and the rule of law . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cassese, A. (2002), ‘From Nuremberg to Rome: International Military Tribunals to the International Criminal Court’ in Antonio Paolo Cassese, Paolo Gaeta and J.R.W.D. Jones (eds.) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. A Commentary Vol.I and II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Edgar, A.D. (2002) ‘Peace, Justice and Politics: The International Criminal Court, “New Diplomacy” and the UN system’, in A.F. Cooper, J. English, and R. Thackur (eds.) Enhancing global governance : towards a new diplomacy? United Nations University Press.

Kerr. R. (2004) The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: an exercise in law, politics, and diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lee, R.S. (eds.) (1999) The International Criminal Court : the making of the Rome Statute--issues, negotiations, results The Hague, Boston : Kluwer Law International.

McGoldrick, D. Rowe, P. and Donnelly, E. (eds.) (2004) The permanent International Criminal Court : legal and policy issues Oxford: Hart.

Ralph, Jason (2007) Defending the Society of States.  Why America opposes the International Criminal Court and its vision of World Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.244.

Ralph, Jason (2004) ‘Review Article: International Society and the International Criminal Court’, International Journal of Human Rights 8 (2) 235-247. 

Ralph, Jason (2003) ‘Between Cosmopolitan and American Democracy: understanding American opposition to the International Criminal Court’, International Relations 17 (2) 195-212. 

Ratner, S.R. and Abrams, J.S. (2001) Accountability for human rights atrocities in international law : beyond the Nuremberg legacy . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Sadat, Leila N. (2002) The International Criminal Court and the transformation of international law : justice for the new millennium. Transnational Publishers.

Sadat, Leila N. and Carden, S.R. (2000) ‘The new International Criminal Court. An Uneasy Revolution’, Georgetown Law Journal 88, pp.381-474.

Schabas, William A (2006) The UN international criminal tribunals : the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schiff. B. N. (2008) Building the International Criminal Court Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Week 8. The Responsibility to Prosecute. ICC Developments (w/c 14 March)

 

Essential Reading

Group A: What has been the ICC’s role in some of the cases we have examined?

Mark Kersten (2020) Justice in Conflict. The Effects of the International Criminal Court's Interventions on Ending Wars and Building Peace Oxford University Press. Concluding chapter

Group B: What has driven the African ‘backlash’ against the ICC?

García Iommi, Lucrecia (2020) ‘Whose Justice? The ICC ‘Africa problem’ International Relations Vol.34 (1), 105-129.

Group C:  What has driven the African ‘backlash’ against the ICC?

Cannon, Brendon and Pkalya, Dominic and Maragia, Bosire, The International Criminal Court and Africa: Contextualizing the Anti-ICC Narrative (October 30, 2017). African Journal of International Criminal Justice 2(1-2), 2016, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3061703.

 

Further reading

Forsythe, David P. (2012) “The UN Security Council and Response to Atrocities: International Criminal Law and the P-5” Human rights quarterly. Vol. 34, Issue 3, pp. 840-863.

McMillan, Nesam and David Mickler. (2013) “From Sudan to Syria: Locating ‘Regime Change’ in R2P and the ICC” Global responsibility to protect. , 5, pp. 283-316.

Franziska Boehme, ‘We Chose Africa’: South Africa and the Regional Politics of Cooperation with the International Criminal Court, International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 11, Issue 1, March 2017, Pages 50–70

Sarah M. H. Nouwen, Wouter G. Werner, Doing Justice to the Political: The International Criminal Court in Uganda and Sudan, European Journal of International Law, Volume 21, Issue 4, November 2010, Pages 941–965

Khan, M. Z. I. (2019). Pathways to Justice for ‘Atrocity Crimes’ in Myanmar: Is There Political Will?, Global Responsibility to Protect, 11(1), 3-41

Charles Chernor Jalloh, Ilias Bantekas (eds.) The International Criminal Court and Africa Oxford University Press, 2017

Adam Bower, Contesting the International Criminal Court: Bashir, Kenyatta, and the Status of the Nonimpunity Norm in World Politics, Journal of Global Security Studies, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 88–104

*Oumar Ba States of Justice: The Politics of the International Criminal Court Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Jean-Baptiste Jeangène Vilmer, /The African Union and the International Criminal Court: counteracting the crisis’, International Affairs, 92 (6) 2016, 1319–1342.

Mills, K., and Bloomfield, A. (2018). ‘African resistance to the International Criminal Court: Halting the advance of the anti-impunity norm’ Review of International Studies, 44(1), 101-127.

Fisher, K. (2018). Africa's role in the progression of international criminal justice: A moral and political argument. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 56(4), 541-568.

Tiemessen A. The International Criminal Court and the lawfare of judicial intervention. International Relations. 2016;30(4):409-431

Beresford, A., & Wand, D. (2020). Understanding bricolage in norm development: South Africa, the International Criminal Court, and the contested politics of transitional justice. Review of International Studies, 46(4), 534-554

 

Week 9. R2P, Decolonisation and the changing international order (w/c 21 March)

Essential Reading

Group A  What does it mean to ‘decolonize’ the Responsibility to Protect?

Pison Hindawi C. Decolonizing the Responsibility to Protect: On pervasive Eurocentrism, Southern agency and struggles over universals. Security Dialogue. October 2021. doi:10.1177/09670106211027801

Group B As the main challenger to American hegemony, what is China’s position on R2P?

Rosemary Foot, China, the UN, and human protection : beliefs, power, image OUP 2020. Ch.4

Group C what challenges will the international responsibility to protect face in a postliberal order? How would the moral requirements of the international responsibility to protect differ in the post-liberal order?

 

James Pattison, (2021) The International Responsibility to Protect in a Post-Liberal Order International studies quarterly, 65 (4), 891-904

 

Further Reading

Courtney J. Fung China and Intervention at the UN Security Council: Reconciling Status OUP 2019.

Rosemary Foot (2011) The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and its Evolution: Beijing’s Influence on Norm Creation in Humanitarian Areas St. Antony's international review, 6 (2), p.47-66

Brian Job and Anastasia Shesterinina (2014) China as a Global Norm Shaper. Institutionalization and Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect In Implementation and World Politics. How International Norms Change Practice ed. Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard. Oxford University Press.

Andrew Garwood-Gowers, China's “Responsible Protection” Concept: Reinterpreting the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes’, Asian Journal of International Law ISSN: 2044-2513 Volume 6, Issue 1 January 2016 , pp. 89-118

Sarah Teitt (2020) “Resistance and Accommodation in China’s Approach toward R2P.” In Constructing the Responsibility to Protect. edited by Charles T. Hunt and Phil Orchard, 149–67. Abingdon: Routledge

Ralph J, ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the rise of China: Lessons from Australia’s role as a ‘pragmatic’ norm entrepreneur’, International relations of the Asia-Pacific. ISSN: 1470-482X, 17.1 (2017), 35-65

Ribeiro, M. M. L. A., de Almeida Medeiros, M., & Leite, A. C. C. (2020). China’s Engagement with R2P: Pluralist Shaper?, Global Responsibility to Protect, 12(3), 271-298

Anastasia Shesterinina (2016) Evolving norms of protection: China, Libya and the problem of intervention in armed conflict, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29:3, 812-830

David Capie, ‘The Responsibility to Protect norm in Southeast Asia: framing, resistance and the localization myth’, The Pacific review. ISSN: 0951-2748 25: 1, Feb. 2012, pp. 75–93.

Edward Newman and Cristina Stefan, ‘Normative Power Europe? The EU's Embrace of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ in a Transitional International Order Journal of Common Market Studies July 2019, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcms.12953

Bokeriya, S. (2020). Key Aspects of Combined Thinking of the brics Countries on the Responsibility to Protect, Global Responsibility to Protect, 12(3), 336-354

Ganguly S (2016) India and the Responsibility to Protect. International Relations 30(3): 362–374

Virk K (2013) India and R2P’s burdens of dissent and accommodation. In: Serrano M and Weiss T (eds) The International Politics of Human Rights. Rallying to the R2P Cause? London and New York: Routledge,129–147

Oliver Steukel (2014) “The BRICS and the Future of R2P: Was Syria or Libya the Exception?” Global Responsibility to Protect 6 (1): 3–28.

 

 

Week 10. Current and Future Challenges (w/c  25 April)

Groups A, B and C.  Where are the current areas of concern and what can be done?

https://www.globalr2p.org/populations-at-risk/

See also recent special issue editions of Global Responsibility to Protect.

 

Week 11. Revision.  Key themes, advocacy and essay preparation (w/c 2 May)

 

Belloni, R. (2014), ‘Civil Society and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Society, 28(2), pp. 158–79.

 

See for example the work of Protection Approaches at https://protectionapproaches.org/

 

The Foreign Affairs Committee has held several influential inquiries in this area.  Read them and the evidence from civil society groups here:

 

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmfaff/868/86802.htm

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmfaff/1005/100502.htm

https://committees.parliament.uk/committee/78/foreign-affairs-committee/news/119049/committee-launches-new-inquiry-on-xinjiang-detention-camps/

 

This list was last updated on 05/01/2022