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PIED3504
Module Reading List

Critically Analysing The Responsibility to Protect, 2021/22, Semester 2
Professor Jason Ralph
J.G.Ralph@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

The key textbooks are both available as e-books on-line via the library homepage:  

Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne, The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).  

Alex Bellamy, The Responsibility to Protect: A Defense (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015)  

 

Other key texts are:

 

 

Key Journal

Global Responsibility to Protect. You have free access to all articles since it started in 2009

 

Websites

International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/  

Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (GR2P) http://www.globalr2p.org/

Asia-Pacific Centre for RtoP https://r2pasiapacific.org/

European Centre for RtoP https://ecr2p.leeds.ac.uk/

Office of the Special Advisor on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect http://www.un.org/en/preventgenocide/adviser/responsibility.shtml  

 

Syllabus:

  1. What is RtoP? History and Origins (week commencing 25 January)
  2. What is RtoP? Theoretical understandings and conceptual developments (w/c 1 February)
  3. Debating R2P. Sceptics, Advocates, Critics in state and non-state views (w/c 8 February)
  4. Coercive and Non-coercive measures: Côte d'Ivoire and Libya (w/c 15 February)
  5. The Death of RtoP? Cases of inaction Darfur, Sri Lanka, Syria (w/c 22 February)
  6. R2P tools. Assistance and Prevention: (w/c 29 February) Myanmar case
  7. R2P tools. Prosecution: ICC case study 1 (w/c 1 March)
  8. Assessment Preparation. No lecture. General seminar discussion (w/c 8 March)
  9. R2P tools. Prosecution: ICC case study 2(w/c 15 March)
  10. Current and Future Challenges (w/c 22 March)
  11. Revision, what role the UK, what role civil society? (w/c 26 April) 

Core Texts

Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016). E-book  

Alex Bellamy, The responsibility to protect : a defense (Oxford University Press, 2015) E-book.  

Key Journal

Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X. You have free access to all articles since it started in 2009

Websites

International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/  

Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (GR2P) http://www.globalr2p.org/

Asia-Pacific Centre for RtoP https://r2pasiapacific.org/

European Centre for RtoP https://ecr2p.leeds.ac.uk/

Office of the Special Advisor on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect http://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/

Other key texts

. Hehir, Aidan, Hollow norms and the responsibility to protect ISBN: 9783319905358 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)

 

Week 1: What is RtoP? The historical problem and the origins of the concept (week commencing 25 January)

The lecture provides an overview of 'the problem': the humanitarian impulse in the context of political and legal pluralism.

The seminar readings outline international society's attempt to create 'a solution': the Responsibility to Protect

Seminar questions

  1. Why is humanitarian intervention so controversial?
  2. Do you think states have a responsibility to protect?

Seminar Readings

 

Week 2. What is RtoP? Theoretical understandings and conceptual developments (w/c 1 February)

The lecture provides a more in-depth analysis of the RtoP including its developments since its endorsement in 2005, as well as theoretical interpretations. Each group presents to the class for 5 minutes. Name the author(s) and article(s) and explain 3- 5 key points to the class from each reading.

Group A. What do you understand by R2P’s pillars I, II and III.  Was this a helpful conceptualization?

Ed Luck’s report Implementing R2P http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/files/SGRtoPEng.pdf  

Adrian Gallagher ‘The promise of pillar II: analysing international assistance under the Responsibility to Protect’ International Affairs 91, 6 2015, 1259-1275.

Group B.  What does it mean to call R2P a norm? How has R2P been ‘localized’?

Cristina G. Stefan On non-Western norm shapers: Brazil and the Responsibility while Protecting, European Journal of International Security 2 (1) 2017 88-110

Kai Michael Kenkel and Felippe De Rosa,’ Localization and Subsidiarity in Brazil’s Engagement with the Responsibility to Protect’ Global responsibility to protect. 2 (4) 2015, 325–349.

Brian Job and Anastasia Shesterinina (2014) China as a Global Norm Shaper. Institutionalization and Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect In Implementation and World Politics. How International Norms Change Practice ed. Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard. Oxford University Press.

Group C. Is the meaning of R2P fixed?  How do we assess the way states discharge their responsibilities?

Jason Ralph ‘What should be done? Pragmatic constructivist ethics and the Responsibility to Protect’, International Organization, 72 (1) 2018 173-203.

Welsh, J. 'Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect', Global responsibility to protect. 5 (4) (2013) 365–396 

 

Week 3: Debating R2P. Sceptics, Advocates, Critics (w/c 8 February)

Seminar 3

Group A. Skeptics and Critics

Aidan Hehir, Why is it that we keep falling’? The RtoP as a hollow norm’. In Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray (Eds), Human Rights in the 21st Century, pp. 184 – 197.

Group B Advocates

Alex Bellamy, The responsibility to protect : a defense (Oxford University Press, 2015) ch.6 ‘Much Ado About Nothing?’

Group C Closer look at the great powers

Justin Morris, ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Great Powers: The Tensions of Dual Responsibility’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, 2-4, 2015, 398–421

 

Further reading

Sceptics and critics.

Hehir, Aidan. The responsibility to protect : rhetoric, reality and the future of humanitarian intervention (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 2012).

Hehir, Aidan, Hollow norms and the responsibility to protect ISBN: 9783319905358 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)

Robert A. Pape, ‘When Duty Calls: A Pragmatic Standard for Humanitarian Intervention’, International security. Vo. 37. No. 1. (Summer 2012), pp. 41-80.

Robert W. Murray ‘Humanitarianism, Responsibility or Rationality? Evaluating Intervention as State Strategy pp. 15-34, in Hehir and Murray (ed) Libya, the responsibility to protect and the future of humanitarian intervention

Robert Murray, The Challenges that Face R2P Implementation in W. Andy Knight and Frazer Egerton, Routledge handbook of the responsibility to protect (Oxford University Press, 2012) chapter 5.

Theresa Reinold, ‘The Responsibility to Protect-Much ado about Nothing? Review of international studies. (32, S1, 2010, 55-78), 55.

Valentino, B. (2006) The Perils of Limited Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the 1990s. Wisconsin International Law Journal 24(3), pp. 723-740.

Cunliffe, P.'The doctrine of the 'responsibility to protect' as a practice of political exceptionalism'. European journal of international relations. ISSN: 1354-0661, 23(2), 2017. pp. 446- 486.

Phillip Cunliffe, (ed) Critical perspectives on the responsibilty to protect : interrogating theory and practice, Routledge, 2011

Kuperman AJ (2008) The moral hazard of humanitarian intervention: Lessons from the Balkans. International studies quarterly. 52(1): 49–80.

Kuperman AJ (2003) Transnational causes of genocide, or how the West exacerbates ethnic conflict. in: Thomas RGC (ed.) Yugoslavia unraveled : sovereignty, self-determination, intervention. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 55–85.

Kuperman AJ (2004a) Humanitarian hazard: Revisiting doctrines of intervention. Harvard international review 26(1): 64–68.

Kuperman AJ (2004b) Provoking genocide: A revised history of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Journal of genocide research. 6(1): 61–84.

Kuperman AJ (2009a) Rethinking the responsibility to protect. Whitehead journal of diplomacy and international relations Winter/Spring: 33–43.

Kuperman AJ (2009b) Darfur: Strategic victimhood strikes again? Genocide Studies and Prevention 4(3): 281–303.

Rauchhaus RW (2005) Conflict management and the misapplication of moral hazard theory. Ethnopolitics.ISSN: 1744-9057; 1744-9065 4(2): 215–224.

David Chandler, The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the Liberal Peace‘. International peacekeeping. 11(1), (2004) pp. 59-81.

David Chandler (2009) ‘Unravelling the Paradox of ‘The Responsibility to Protect’’ Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. 20 (2009), 27–39.

Tara McCormack (2010) The Responsibility to Protect and the End of the Western Century, Journal of intervention and statebuildingISSN: 1750-2977, volume 4, issue 1, pp 69 – 82.

 

Advocates

Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, ‘On the Limits of Moral Hazard Theory: The Responsibility to Protect, Armed Conflict, and Mass Atrocities’, European journal of international relations., Vol. 18, No. 3., 2011, pp. 539-571.

Gareth Evans and Ramesh Thakur, Robert A. Pape, ‘Correspondence: Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect’, International security. Vol. 37. No. 4 (Spring 2013), pp. 199-214, 199-200.

  1. M. Welsh, ‘Taking Consequences Seriously: Objections to Humanitarian Intervention’, in J. M. Welsh (ed.), Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006),
  2. Welsh, ‘Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 4. 2013, pp. 365 – 396.

Tim Dunne, Distributing Duties and Counting Costs, Global responsibility to protect. vol. 5, No. 4, 2013, pp. 443-465

Alex Bellamy, ‘A Responsibility to Protect or a Trojan Horse?  The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq’, Ethics and international affairs, 19 (2) 2005.

Cristina Badescu and Thomas Weiss, “Misrepresenting R2P and Advancing Norms: An Alternative Spiral? ” International studies perspectives., Vol. 11, Issue 4, 2010.

Cristina Badescu and Linnea Bergholm. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Conflict in Darfur: The Big Let-down,” Security dialogue., Vol. 40, Issue 3, 2009.

Ramesh Thakur, ‘In Defence of the Responsibility to Protect’, International journal of human rights. vol. 7. No. 3. 2003. Pp. 160-178.

 

Closer look at Great Powers and regional organisations

Ekaterina Stepanova, ‘Russia’, in the Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, pp. 409 – 429 (e-book).

Andrew Garwood-Gowers, China's “Responsible Protection” Concept: Reinterpreting the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes’, Asian Journal of International Law ISSN: 2044-2513 Volume 6, Issue 1 January 2016 , pp. 89-118

Ralph J, ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the rise of China: Lessons from Australia’s role as a ‘pragmatic’ norm entrepreneur’, International relations of the Asia-Pacific. ISSN: 1470-482X, 17.1 (2017), 35-65

David Capie, ‘The Responsibility to Protect norm in Southeast Asia: framing, resistance and the localization myth’, The Pacific review. ISSN: 0951-2748 25: 1, Feb. 2012, pp. 75–93.

Edward Newman and Cristina Stefan, ‘Normative Power Europe? The EU's Embrace of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ in a Transitional International Order Journal of Common Market Studies July 2019, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcms.12953

 

 

 

Week 4. Coercive and Non-Coercive Measure: Libya w/c 15 February.

Essential reading

Group A. Why did controversy surround the implementation of Resolution 1973?

Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, The new politics of protection? Côte d’Ivoire, Libya and the responsibility to protect. International Affairs 87 (4) 2011 825–850.

Jennifer Welsh,Civilian Protection in Libya: Putting Coercion and Controversy back into RtoP’, Ethics and international affairs 25 (3) 2011 255-262

 

Group B. What were the main points of the Hehir, Dunne and Gelber debate on Resolution 1973?

Aidan Hehir, ‘Libya and The Responsibility to Protect: Resolution 1973 as Consistent with the Security Council’s Record of Inconsistency’, International security., 38 (1) 2013 137-15

Tim Dunne and Katherine Gelber ‘Arguing Matters’, Global Responsibility to Protect, 6(3), 2014.  326-349.

Aidan Hehir, ‘The Dog That Didn’t Bark? : A Response to Dunne and Gelber’s Analysis of RtoP’s Influence on the Intervention in Libya’, Global responsibility to protect., 7 (2) 2015 211–224

Tim Dunne and Katherine Gelber, 'Text and Context in the Responsibility to Protect: A Reply to Hehir’, Global responsibility to protect. 7 (2) 2015 225-233

 

Group C.  What was the diplomatic fallout from the Libya intervention?

Jason Ralph and Adrian Gallagher “Legitimacy Faultlines in International Society. The Responsibility to Protect and Prosecute after Libya”, Review of International Studies 41 (3) 2015, 553-573.

Jason Ralph and Jess Gifkins ‘The purpose of Security Council Practice. Contesting competence claims in the normative context created by the Responsibility to Protect’ European Journal of International Relations 23 (3) 2017 630–653.

 

Further Reading: 

Simon Chesterman, ‘Leading from behind’: The Responsibility to Protect, the Obama Doctrine, and Humanitarian Intervention after Libya’, Ethics and international affairs Vol. 25. No. 3 (2011) pp. 279–285

Luke Glanville, ‘Gaddafi and Grotius: Some Historical Roots of the Libya Intervention’, Global responsibility to protect. 5 (3) 2013, 342-361.

Marie-Eve Loiselle , ‘ The Normative Status of the Responsibility to Protect After Libya’ , Global responsibility to protect. 5 (3). 2013, 317-341.

Williams, P. and Bellamy, A. ‘Principles, Politics, and Prudence: Libya, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Use of Military Force’, Global governance : a review of multilateralism and international organizations. 18 (2012), 273–297

Ian Hall, ‘Tilting at Windmills? The Indian Debate over The Responsibility to Protect after UNSC Resolution 1973’, Global responsibility to protect., 5 (1) 2013, 84-108.

Bajoria, J. (2011) Libya and the Responsibility to Protect. Council on Foreign Relations. Available online [Accessed: 14 May 2012].

Hallams, E. and Schreer, B. (2012) Towards a „post-American‟ alliance? NATO burden-sharing after Libya. International affairs. 88(2), pp. 313-327.

Weiss, T. (2011) RtoP Alive and Well after Libya. Ethics and international affairs 25(3), pp. 287-292.

A Cubuckcu, , A. The responsibility to protect: Libya and the problem of transnational solidarity. Journal of human rights 12, 1 (2013), pp. 40–58.

Von Eggert, K. (2012) „Why Russia is standing by Syria‟, BBC News, 15 June 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18462813 [Accessed: 19 June 2012].

UN (2012) Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Libya. UN Human Rights Council. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session19/A.HRC.19.68.pdf - 2012-06-18 [Accessed: 19 June 2012].

Cameron, D., Sarkozy, N. and Obama, B. (2011) „The Bombing continues until Gaddafi goes‟, The Times., 15April 2011.

President Barack Obama, Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya, National Defense University Washington, D.C. (March 28 2011) https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/28/remarks-president-address-nation-libya

http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/28/remarks-president-address-nation-libya  Accessed 19 December 2012 

Harold Hongju Koh, ‘Statement Regarding Use of Force in Libya’ American Society of International Law Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, ( March 26, 2011), https://2009-2017.state.gov/s/l/releases/remarks/159201.htm Accessed 19 December 2012

 

Week 5. The Death of RtoP? Syria (w/c 22 February)

Group A. What were the main obstacles to consensus at the Security Council?

Derek Averre, Lance Davies, ‘Russia, humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: the case of Syria’ International affairs.ISSN: 0020-5850, 91 (1) 2015, 813-834

Aidan Hehir, Assessing the influence of the Responsibility to Protect on the UN Security Council during the Arab Spring Cooperation and conflict 51 (2) 2016, 166-183 

Group B. Was the announcement of RtoP’s death justified?

Tocci, Nathalie, On Power and Norms: Libya, Syria and the Responsibility to Protect, Global responsibility to protect.  8 (1) 2016, pp. 51-75

Welsh, Jennifer. 2016. The Responsibility to Protect after Libya & Syria. Daedalus 145 (4), 75-87.

  1. Morris, ‘Libya and Syria: the spectre of the swinging pendulum’, International affairs. , 2013, 89(5), 1265-1283.

Group C: Is it a good idea to broaden the concept of RtoP to include refugee protection?

Jason Ralph and James Souter, 'A special responsibility to protect: the UK, Australia and the rise of Islamic State', International affairs., 91, 4, 2015, 709-723

Alise Cohen, Capable and Culpable? The United States, RtoP, and Refugee Responsibility-Sharing, Ethics and international affairs ISSN: 0892-6794, 31, 1, 2017, pp. 71-92.

Further Reading:

Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Special issue, vol. 26. No. 2. 2013, pp. 285 – 350 (three articles and one introduction).

Robert Murray, (ed) ‘RtoP, Syria and Humanitarianism in Crisis’, E-International Relations, January 2014, E-book with contributions from world leading RtoP scholars. http://www.e-ir.info/2014/01/20/edited-collection-r2p-syria-and-humanitarianism-in-crisis/

Jess Gifkins, ‘The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis’, Global responsibility to protect. Vol. 4. No. 3. (2012) pp. 377-393, 391.

Micael D. Swaine, ‘Chinese views of the Syrian Conflict’, China Leadership Monitor, No. 39. http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/CLM39MS.pdf Accessed 01.01.2013.  

Nesam McMillan and David Mickler, ‘From Sudan to Syria: Locating ‘Regime Change’ in R2P and ICC, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 3., 2013. Pp. 283-316.

Zifcack Spencer, ‘Is the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine Dead? ’ The Doctrine’s Standing in the Wake of Syrian Massacre’, in Vasila Sancin and Masa Kovic Dine Responsibility to protect in theory and practice : papers presented at the Responsibility to Protect in Theory and Practice Conference, Ljubljana, April 11-12, 2013 (GV Zalozba, 2013), 253-290.

Raymond Hinnebusch, ‘Syria: From Authoritarian Upgrading to Revolution’, International affairs. Vol. 88. No. 1 (2012) pp. 95-113, 95.

Paul Rogers,‘The Jihadist Element in Syria and its Implications’, The Oxford Research Group (28 August 2012) - Available online: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/153655/12-08.pdf

War Child, ‘What is Happening in Syria? ’, (6 March 2012) http://www.warchild.org.uk/news/whats-happening-syria? gclid=CNqjr4Po4rQCFWbKtAoda2kAWw#_edn2

War Child, ‘Syria: A War on Childhood’ (July 2012) http://www.protectingeducation.org/sites/default/files/documents/warchild.pdf

Save the Children, Childhood Under Fire: The Impact of Two Years Conflict in Syria (London: Save the Children, 2013). - Available online: https://www.refworld.org/docid/51403b572.html 

David Kaye, ‘A Responsibility to Object’, Foreign Policy (10 January 2013) http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/01/10/responsibility_to_object Accessed 11 January 2013.

Samuel Charap, ‘Russia, Syria and the Doctrine of Intervention’, Survival : global politics and strategy. Vol. 55. No. 1. (2013) pp. 35-41.

Robert G. Rabil, Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006).

Richard Dicker, ‘Holding The Security Council to Account on Syria’, The Progressive (29 January 2013) https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/01/29/holding-security-council-account-syria Accessed 18 February 2013.

Paul Rogers, ‘Syria: The Evolving Problem of Competing Militias’ Oxford Research Group (February 2013) https://www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/syria-the-evolving-problem-of-competing-militias Accessed 15 March 2013

Megan Price, Jeff Klingner, and Patrick Ball, Preliminary Statistical Analysis of Documentation of Killings in the Syrian Arab Republic The Benetech Human Rights Program, Commission by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (January 2013)

Jason Ralph Benedict Docherty, Xavier Mathieu, ‘R2P and the Arab Spring. Norm Localisation and the US response to the early Syria crisis’, Global Responsibility to Protect 12 (3) 246-270.

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/SY/PreliminaryStatAnalysisKillingsInSyria.pdf Accessed 12 January 2  

Volkan Şeyşane and Çiğdem Çelik ‘R2P and Turkish Foreign Policy: Libya and Syria in Perspective Authors’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, 2-4, 2015, 376–397 (22)

 

 

Week 6. R2P tools: Prevention (w/c 1 March)

Group A: a look at how the UN and others talk about prevention

Report of the UN Secretary-General, Responsibility to protect: State responsibility and prevention, 2013, pp. 1-17 http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/UNSG%20Report%20on%20RtoP%20and%20State%20Responsibility%20and%20Prevention(1).pdf  

Welsh, J. The Responsibility to Prevent: Assessing the Gap between Rhetoric and Reality’, Cooperation and conflict ISSN: 0010-8367, Vol. 51, No. 2 (2016), pp. 216-232

Jeremy Moses, ‘A pacifist ethos for the Responsibility to Protect: detaching prevention from intervention’, International Politics, 56 (2) 2019 pp 228–242

Group B: cases of prevention in practice.

Naomi Kikoler, ‘Guinea: An Overlooked Case of the Responsibility to Prevent in Practice’, in in Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed):  The Responsibility to Prevent (OUP, 2016), pp. 304 – 323.

Serena K Sharma, ‘The 2007-2008 Post Election Crisis in Kenya: A Case of Escalation Prevention’, in Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed):  The Responsibility to Prevent (OUP, 2016), pp. 280 – 303.

Group C: Why did prevention strategies fail in Myanmar?

Eglantine Staunton and Jason Ralph, ‘The Responsibility to Protect norm cluster and the challenge of atrocity prevention. An analysis of the European Union’s strategy in Myanmar’, European Journal of International Relations 26 (3) 660-686.

 

Further reading

Ban Ki- Moon: Report: Early Warning, Assessment, and the Responsibility to Protect 2010

http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/N1045020%281%29.pdf  

Aidan Hehir. ‘The Responsibility to Prevent: The Last Refuge of the Unimaginative?’, in Hehir, The responsibility to protect : rhetoric, reality and the future of humanitarian intervention ISBN: 9780230289185 (paperback); 0230289185 (paperback); 9780230289178 (hardback); 0230289177 (hardback), Palgave, 2012, pp.87-118.

Aidan Hehir, ‘The Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide: Adding Value to the UN’s Mechanisms for Preventing Intra-State Crises?’ Journal of genocide research. ISSN: 1462-3528 (13, 3. 2011, 271 – 286).

Witold Mucha ‘The Next Spring is Certain to Come – and Certain to be Missed’ Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. Pp. 382-406.

Stephen McLoughlin, ‘Rethinking the Structural Prevention of Mass Atrocities’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. , pp. 407-429

Bridget Conly-Zilkic, ‘Who is the subject of Atrocities Prevention?’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. 430-452

Manus I. Midlarsky, ‘International Affinity and the Prevention of Genocide’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, Vol. 6. No. 4, pp. 453-482.

Deborah Mayersen, ‘Rethinking approaches to Prevention under the Responsibility to protect’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4., pp. 483-507.

 

Week 7. R2P tools. Prosecution. Case study 1 ICC Origins (w/c 1 March)

Group A. How might the prosecution help prevent atrocity crimes?

Dan Saxon ‘The International Criminal Court and the Prevention of Crimes’ K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed):  The Responsibility to Prevent (OUP, 2016)

 

Group B. Why was the International Criminal Court created in 1998?

Schabas William A. (2011) An Introduction to the International Criminal Court. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Group C. Can the ICC Prosecutor exercise jurisdiction in the following cases?

  • - a British soldier accused of war crimes in Iraq
  • - an Ethiopian soldier accused of war crimes in Somalia
  • - a Russian soldier accused of war crimes in Ukraine
  • - an Australian soldier accused of war crimes in Afghanistan
  • - an American solider accused of war crimes in Bosnia
  • - a French soldier accused of war crimes in Mali
  • - a Chinese soldier accused of war crimes in India

 

Further Reading

On criminal justice as a tool of atrocity prevention

Contarino, Michael and Selena Lucent. (2009) “Stopping the Killing: The International Criminal Court and Juridical Determination of the Responsibility to Protect”, Global responsibility to protect. 1, pp. 560-583.

Contarino, Michael and Melinda Negron-Gonzales. (2013). “The International Criminal Court” (Chapter 18) in Gentian Zyberi (ed.) An institutional approach to the responsibility to protect . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 411-436.

Contarino, Michael, Melinda Negron-Gonzales and Kevin T. Mason. (2012) “The International Criminal Court and Consolidation of the Responsibility to Protect as an International Norm”. Global responsibility to protect. 4, pp. 275-308.

Holvoet, Mathias and Medlir Mema. (2014). “The International Criminal Court and the Responsibility to Protect” (Chapter 2) in Daniel Fiott and Joachim Koops (eds.) The responsibility to protect and the third pillar: legitimacy and operationalization

Jason Ralph (ed.) ‘Symposium: International Criminal Justice and the Responsibility to Protect’ special issue of Criminal Law Forum 26 (1) 2015 Jason Ralph ‘The International Criminal Court’ Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

Jo, H., & Simmons, B. (2016). Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity? International Organization, 70(3), 443-475

 

Creation and operation of ICC

Bosco, David. Rough justice: the International Criminal Court in a world of power politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Bass, G. (2000) Stay the hand of vengeance: the politics of war crimes tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bassiouni, M.C. (1997) ‘From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court’, Harvard human rights journal. 10, pp.11-62.

Birdsall, A. (2007) 'Creating a more 'just' order - the Ad Hoc International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia' Cooperation and conflict , vol. 42, No. 4 pp. 397-418

Broomhall, B. (2003) International justice and the International Criminal Court : between sovereignty and the rule of law . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cassese, A. (2002), ‘From Nuremberg to Rome: International Military Tribunals to the International Criminal Court’ in Antonio Paolo Cassese, Paolo Gaeta and J.R.W.D. Jones (eds.) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. A Commentary Vol.I and II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Edgar, A.D. (2002) ‘Peace, Justice and Politics: The International Criminal Court, “New Diplomacy” and the UN system’, in A.F. Cooper, J. English, and R. Thackur (eds.) Enhancing global governance : towards a new diplomacy? United Nations University Press.

Kerr. R. (2004) The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: an exercise in law, politics, and diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lee, R.S. (eds.) (1999) The International Criminal Court : the making of the Rome Statute--issues, negotiations, results The Hague, Boston : Kluwer Law International.

McGoldrick, D. Rowe, P. and Donnelly, E. (eds.) (2004) The permanent International Criminal Court : legal and policy issues Oxford: Hart.

Ralph, Jason (2007) Defending the Society of StatesWhy America opposes the International Criminal Court and its vision of World Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.244.

Ralph, Jason (2005) ‘International Society, The International Criminal Court, and American Foreign Policy’, Review of International Studies, 31 (1) 27-44.  

Ralph, Jason (2004) ‘Review Article: International Society and the International Criminal Court’, International Journal of Human Rights 8 (2) 235-247. 

Ralph, Jason (2003) ‘Between Cosmopolitan and American Democracy: understanding American opposition to the International Criminal Court’, International Relations 17 (2) 195-212. 

Ratner, S.R. and Abrams, J.S. (2001) Accountability for human rights atrocities in international law : beyond the Nuremberg legacy . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Sadat, Leila N. (2002) The International Criminal Court and the transformation of international law : justice for the new millennium. Transnational Publishers.

Sadat, Leila N. and Carden, S.R. (2000) ‘The new International Criminal Court. An Uneasy Revolution’, Georgetown Law Journal 88, pp.381-474.

Schabas, William A (2006) The UN international criminal tribunals : the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schiff. B. N. (2008) Building the International Criminal Court Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Week 8. Assessment Preparation Week (w/c 8 March)

There is no lecture or seminars. The thinking here is that you can finalise the one thousand words to be submitted to your Seminar Tutor for feedback.

 

Week 9. The Responsibility to Prosecute. ICC Developments (w/c 15 March)

Group A: What has been the ICC’s role in some of the cases we have examined?

Forsythe, David P. (2012) “The UN Security Council and Response to Atrocities: International Criminal Law and the P-5” Human rights quarterly. Vol. 34, Issue 3, pp. 840-863.

Group B: What has been the ICC’s role in some of the cases we have examined?

McMillan, Nesam and David Mickler. (2013) “From Sudan to Syria: Locating ‘Regime Change’ in R2P and the ICC” Global responsibility to protect. , 5, pp. 283-316.

Group C:  What has driven the African ‘backlash’ against the ICC?

Beresford, A., & Wand, D. (2020). Understanding bricolage in norm development: South Africa, the International Criminal Court, and the contested politics of transitional justice. Review of International Studies, 46(4), 534-554

 

Further reading

Franziska Boehme, ‘We Chose Africa’: South Africa and the Regional Politics of Cooperation with the International Criminal Court, International Journal of Transitional Justice, Volume 11, Issue 1, March 2017, Pages 50–70

Sarah M. H. Nouwen, Wouter G. Werner, Doing Justice to the Political: The International Criminal Court in Uganda and Sudan, European Journal of International Law, Volume 21, Issue 4, November 2010, Pages 941–965

*Charles Chernor Jalloh, Ilias Bantekas (eds.) The International Criminal Court and Africa Oxford University Press, 2017

Adam Bower, Contesting the International Criminal Court: Bashir, Kenyatta, and the Status of the Nonimpunity Norm in World Politics, Journal of Global Security Studies, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2019, Pages 88–104

*Oumar Ba States of Justice: The Politics of the International Criminal Court Cambridge University Press, 2020.

Jean-Baptiste Jeangène Vilmer, /The African Union and the International Criminal Court: counteracting the crisis’, International Affairs, 92 (6) 2016, 1319–1342.

Mills, K., and Bloomfield, A. (2018). ‘African resistance to the International Criminal Court: Halting the advance of the anti-impunity norm’ Review of International Studies, 44(1), 101-127.

Fisher, K. (2018). Africa's role in the progression of international criminal justice: A moral and political argument. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 56(4), 541-568.

Tiemessen A. The International Criminal Court and the lawfare of judicial intervention. International Relations. 2016;30(4):409-431

Cannon, Brendon and Pkalya, Dominic and Maragia, Bosire, The International Criminal Court and Africa: Contextualizing the Anti-ICC Narrative (October 30, 2017). African Journal of International Criminal Justice 2(1-2), 2016, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3061703.

 

Week 10. Current and Future Challenges (w/c 22 March)

All: Marking moments in time?

Jennifer Welsh, ‘R2P’s Next Ten Years: Deepening and Extending the Consensus’, in The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, pp. 984 – 1000 (e-book)

R2P at 15 Special Issue of Global Responsibility to Protect.

Groups A, B and C.  Where are the current areas of concern and what can be done?

https://www.globalr2p.org/populations-at-risk/

 

Week 11. Revision, what role the UK and civil society

 

Belloni, R. (2014), ‘Civil Society and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Society, 28(2), pp. 158–79.

Jason Ralph Mainstreaming the Responsibility to Protect UNA-UK Report 2014.

Jason Ralph ‘UK and the Responsibility to Protect’ R2P Briefs Asia-Pacific Centre for R2P https://r2pasiapacific.org/files/2775/r2pbrief_2015_uk_r2p.pdf

Chloe Gilgan ‘Human Rights Localisation in Liberal States: The UK’s Responsibility to Protect as Regime Change and Political Transition in Syria’ International Journal of Human Rights forthcoming 2021.

The Foreign Affairs Committee has held several influential inquiries in this area.  Read them and the the evidence from civil society groups here:

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmfaff/868/86802.htm

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmfaff/1005/100502.htm

https://committees.parliament.uk/committee/78/foreign-affairs-committee/news/119049/committee-launches-new-inquiry-on-xinjiang-detention-camps/

Jason Ralph, Jess Gifkins and Samuel Jarvis, ‘The UK’s Special Responsibilities at the United Nations. Diplomatic Practice in Normative Context’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 22 (2) 2020 164-81.

Jason Ralph, Jack Holland and Kalina Zhekova ‘Before the Vote. UK foreign policy discourse on Syria 2011-13’ Review of International Studies, 43 (5) 2017 875-97.

This list was last updated on 10/12/2020