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Module Reading List

Rethinking Policing 1, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Anna Barker
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Seminar 1: Introduction to policing/rethinking policing

Reiner, R. 2010. The Politics of the Police (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapters 1.   

Shearing, C. and Stenning, P. 2020. ‘Global Developments in Policing Provision in the 21st Century’. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Oxford University Press.   

Crawford, A. 2018. ‘Decentring the Police from Policing: Re-imagining Public Safety in and through Networks’, Lecture at the Launch of the Centre for Crime, Law & Justice, University of New South Wales, 16th May 2018. Available via pdf.

Loader, I. 2020. Revisiting the Police Mission, Policing Insight Paper 2, The Strategic Review of Policing in England and Wales, The Police Foundation.  

Rogers, C. 2017. Plural Policing: Theory and Practice, Bristol: Policy Press. Ch 1.    

Additional Supplementary Reading 

Brodeur, J.P. 2010. The Policing Web. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Crawford, A. 2003. ‘The Pattern of Policing in the UK: Policing Beyond the Police’, in T. Newburn (ed.) Handbook of Policing, Cullompton: Willan Publishing, pp. 136-68.

Crawford, A. 2006. ‘Networked Governance and the Post-Regulatory State’, Theoretical Criminology, 10(4), 449-79.

Crawford, A. and Evans, K. 2017. ‘Crime Prevention and Community Safety’, in A. Liebling, S. Maruna & L. McAra (eds) Oxford Handbook of Criminology (6th Edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 797-824.

Crawford, A. and L’Hoiry, X. (2017) ‘Boundary crossing: networked policing and emergent “communities of practice” in safeguarding children’, Policing & Society, 27(6): 636-654.

Dupont, B. 2009. ‘Security Networks’, in A. Wakefield and J. Fleming (2009) The Sage Dictionary of Policing (Sage), pp. 286-9.

Jones, T. and Newburn, T. (2002) ‘The Transformation of Policing? Understanding Current Trends in Policing Systems’, British Journal of Criminology, 42, 129-46

Garland, D. 2001. The Culture of Control, Oxford University Press, Chp 5.

Newburn, T. 2008. The Handbook of Policing (2nd edn). Cullompton: Willan. (e-book)

Newburn, T. 2004. Policing: key readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Rowe, M. 2014. Introduction to Policing (2nd edn). London: Sage.

Reiner, R. 2010. The Politics of the Police (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Whelan, C. and Dupont, B. 2017. ‘Taking stock of networks across the security field: a review, typology and research agenda’, Policing & Society, 27(6): 671-687.

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Seminar 2: Rethinking policing - a craft or a science? Evidence-based policing and police professionalisation

Cockbain, E. and Knutsson, J. 2015. Applied police research : challenges and opportunities. Abingdon: Routledge.  

Lum, C. and Koper, C.S. 2017. Evidence-based policing : translating research into practice, Oxford University Press.   

Kennedy, D. 2015. 'Working in the Field: Police Research in Theory and Practice', in E. Cockbain and J. Knutsson (eds) Applied police research : challenges and opportunities , Oxford University Press Available online .   

Knutsson, J. and Thompson, L. 2017. (eds) Advances in evidence-based policing, Routledge. Chapter One OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (afp 02/10/2019) .    

Rogers, C. and Frevel, B. (eds) 2018. HIGHER EDUCATION AND POLICE: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE. Switzerland: Palgrave MacMillan/Springer.  

Tilley, N. and Laycock, G. (2017) ‘The why, what, when and how of evidence-based policing’, in J. Knutsson and L. Thompson (eds) Advances in evidence-based policing, Routledge, pp. 10-26 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (afp 02/10/2019) .    

Additional Supplementary Reading

Bradley, D. and Nixon, C. 2009. ‘Ending the “dialogue of the deaf”: evidence and policing policies and practices’, Police Practice and Research, 10(5/6), pp. 423-35.

Braga, A. 2013. ‘Embedded Criminologists in Police Departments’. Ideas in American Policing. 13. Washington DC: Police Foundation. Available at:

Buerger, M.E. 2010. ‘Policing and Research: two cultures separated by an almost common language’. Police Practice and Research. 11(2), pp.135-43.

Bullock, K. and Tilley, N. 2009. ‘Evidence-Based Policing and Crime Reduction’. Policing, 3(4): pp.381-387.

Cockbain, E. and Knutsson, J. 2015. Applied Police Research, Challenges and Opportunities. Abingdon: Routledge.  

Goode, J. and Lumsden, K. 2016. ‘The McDonaldisation of police–academic partnerships’. Policing and Society, 28(1), pp.75-89.  

Crawford, A. 2017. ‘Research co-production and knowledge mobilisation in policing’, in J. Knutsson and L. Thompson (eds) Advances in Evidence-Based Policing, Routledge, pp. 195-213.

Fielding, N, Bullock, S. and Holdaway, S. 2020. Critical Reflections on Evidence-Based Policing. London: Routledge.  

Flemming, J. and Rhodes, R. 2018. ‘Can experience be evidence? Craft knowledge and evidence-based policing’, Policy & Politics, 46(1), pp.3-26.  

Holdaway, S. 2017. ‘The re-professionalization of the police in England and Wales’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 17(5), pp. 588-604.

Hough, M. 2010. ‘Gold standard or fool’s gold? The pursuit of certainty in experimental criminology’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 10(1), pp.11-22.

Johnson, S.D., Tilley, N. and Bowers, K.J. 2015. ‘Introducing EMMIE’, Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11(3), pp.459–473.

Kennedy, D. 2015. Working in the Field: Police Research in Theory and Practice. In E. Cockbain and J. Knutsson, Applied Police Research, Challenges and Opportunities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Knutsson, J. and Thompson, L. 2017. (eds) Advances in Evidence-Based Policing, Routledge.

Lum, C. and Koper, C.S. 2017. Evidence-Based Policing: Translating Research into Practice, Oxford University Press.   

Lum, C., Telep, C.W., Koper, C.S. and Grieco, J. 2012. ‘Receptivity to Research in Policing’, Justice Research and Policy, 14(1), pp. 61-95.  

Martin, P. and Mazerolle, L. 2016. ‘Police Leadership in Fostering Evidence-Based Agency Reform’. Policing. 10(1), pp.34-43.

Mitchell, R. and Huey, L. 2019. Evidence Based Policing: An Introduction. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter 9.    

Moore, M.H. 2006. ‘Improving police through expertise, experience, and experiments’. In: Weisburd, D. and Braga, A. eds. Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.    

Sherman, L. 1998. ‘Evidence-Based Policing’, Ideas in American Policing, Police Foundation.

Sherman, L. 2013. ‘The Rise of Evidence-Based Policing’, Crime and Justice, 377-451.

Sherman, L. 2015. A tipping point for ‘totally evidenced policing’. International Criminal Justice Review. 25(1), pp.11-29.

Sherman, L.W. and McKenzie, D.L. 2002. Evidence-Based Crime Prevention. London: Routledge.

Sparrow, M. 2011. ‘Governing Science’, New Perspectives in Policing, January 2011, NIJ.

Sparrow, M. 2016. Handcuffed: What Holds Policing Back, and the Keys to Reform, Brookings.

Thacher, D. 2001. ‘Policing is Not a Treatment: Alternatives to the Medical Model of Police Research’, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(4), pp.387-415.

Weisburd, D. and Neyroud, P. 2011. ‘Police Science: Toward a New Paradigm’, New Perspectives in Policing, January 2011, Washington: NIJ.

Willis, J.J. 2013. ‘Improving Police: What’s Craft Got to Do with It?Ideas in American Policing. 16. Washington, DC: Police Foundation

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Seminar 3: Rethinking policing through predictive analytics

Greengard, S. (2012). Policing the future. Communications of the ACM, 55(3), 19-21. Available from: 

Meijer, A., & Wessels, M. (2019). Predictive policing: Review of benefits and drawbacks. International Journal of Public Administration, 42(12), 1031-1039.  

Bennett Moses, L., & Chan, J. (2018). Algorithmic prediction in policing: assumptions, evaluation, and accountability. Policing and Society, 28(7), 806-822.

Pearsall, B. (2010). Predictive policing: The future of law enforcement. National Institute of Justice Journal266(1), 16-19. 

Ratcliffe, J. et al. (2020) The Philadelphia Predictive Policing Experiment: Summary Of Experiment And Findings, Temple University Press

Additional Readings

Bowers, K.J., Johnson, S.D., and Pease, K., 2004. Prospective hot-spotting: The future of crime mapping? British journal of criminology, 44 (5), 641–658. 

Ratcliffe, J. H., Taylor, R. B., Askey, A. P., Thomas, K., Grasso, J., Bethel, K. J., ... & Koehnlein, J. (2020). The Philadelphia predictive policing experiment. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1-27.

Ratcliffe, J. H., Taylor, R. B., & Fisher, R. (2019). Conflicts and congruencies between predictive policing and the patrol officer’s craft. Policing and Society, 1-17.

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Seminar 4: Available as an Online Course Reading in MinervaRethinking policing and the role of the voluntary sector

Bullock, K. 2014. Citizens, Community and Crime Control. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Chapter 8    

Plimley, S.L. and Krahenbuhl, S. 2019. “Proud to be a Special”: a qualitative study exploring the experiences of Special Constables in the UK. Safer Communities. 18(3/4): pp. 121-131.

Additional Reading

The following provides a list of additional readings should you wish to read in more depth around the topic and to assist in your reading around essay questions.

Bennett, T. 1990. Evaluating Neighbourhood Watch. Aldershot: Gower

Britton, I. and Callender, M. 2016. Citizen involvement in policing - a critical but under-researched aspect of policing. [Online]. Social Policy Association conference, 4–6 July, Belfast. [Accessed 2 December 2020]. Available at:

Brudney, J. 1999. The effective use of volunteers: best practices for the public sector. Law and Contemporary Problems. 62(4): pp. 219–255.

Bullock, K. 2017. Shoring up the ‘home guard’? Reflections on the development and deployment of police support volunteer programmes in England and Wales. Policing & Society. 27(4): pp. 341-357

Bullock, K. and Leeney, D. 2014. On matters of balance: an examination of the deployment, motivation and management of the special constabulary. Policing & Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy. 26(5): pp. 483-502.

Bullock, K. and Millie, A. eds. 2018. The Special Constabulary: Historical Context, International Comparisons and Contemporary Themes. Abingdon: Routledge.

Callender, M. Pepper, M. Cahalin, K. and Britton, A. 2018. Exploring the police support volunteer experience: findings from a national survey. Policing & Society. 29(4): pp. 392-406.

Dickson, G. 2019. Bridging the gap? Police volunteering and community policing in Scotland. Policing: A Journal of Policy & Practice. [Advanced online publication].

Dobrin, A. 2017. Volunteer police: history, benefits, costs and current descriptions. Security Journal. 30(3): pp. 717–733.

Gaston, K. and Alexander, J. 2001. Effective organisation and management of public sector volunteer workers: police special constables. The International Journal of Public Sector Management. 14 (1): pp. 59–74.

Gill, M. and Mawby, R. 1990. A Special Constable: A Study of the Police Reserve. Aldershot: Avebury.  

Gravelle, J. and Rogers, C. 2009. The economy of policing: the impact of the volunteer. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. 4(1): pp. 56–63.

Home Office. 2016. Reforming the powers of police staff and volunteers: summary of consultation responses and proposals for legislation. London: Home Office.

Leon, C. 1991. Special constables: an historical and contemporary survey. Unpublished PhD thesis. Bath: University of Bath.

Millie, A. 2016. Volunteering within the police: experiences of special constables and police support volunteers. Ormskirk: Edge Hill University.

Millie, A. and Jacobson, J. 2002. Employee volunteering and the special constabulary: a review of employer policies. London: The Police Foundation.

Mirrlees-Black, C. and Byron, C. 1994. Special considerations: issues for the management and organisation of the volunteer police. Home Office Research and Planning Unit Paper 88. London: Home Office.

Neuberger, B. 2009. Volunteering across the Criminal Justice System. London: The Cabinet Office.

NPIA. 2008. Special Constabulary National Strategy Implementation Advice. London: NPIA.  

NPIA. 2010. Special Constabulary Recruitment Marketing and Retention Surveys: Report of Findings – July 2010. [Online] London: NPIA. [Accessed 11 January 2019]. Available at:

Pepper, I. 2014. Do part-time volunteer police officers aspire to be regular police officers? Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles. 87(2): pp. 105–113.

Pepper, I. and Wolf, R. 2015. Volunteering to serve: An international comparison of volunteer police officers in a UK northeast police force and a US Florida Sheriff’s office. Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles. 88(3): pp. 209–219.

Seth, R. 1961. The Specials: The Story of the Special Constabulary in England, Wales and Scotland. London: Victor Gollancz.

Strudwick, K. Jameson, J. and Rowe, J. 2017. Developing volunteers in policing: assessing the potential volunteer police community police officer. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. 13(4): pp. 397-410.

Tomczak, P. 2016. The Penal Voluntary Sector. Abingdon: Routledge.

Washnis, G.L. 1976. Citizen Involvement in Crime Prevention. London: Lexington Books.  

Whittle, J. 2014. The rise of the special constabulary: are forces getting value for money from their voluntary officers? An empirical study in Avon and Somerset police. Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles. 87(1): pp. 29–40

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Seminar 5: Police and Crime Commissioners as agents of policy transfer

Bainbridge, L. 2021. Police and Crime Commissioners: new agents of crime and justice policy transfer? Policing and Society. 31(6), pp.721-734.

Bainbridge, L., 2019. Transferring 24/7 sobriety from South Dakota to South London: the case of MOPAC’s alcohol abstinence monitoring requirement pilot. Addiction, 114 (9), 1696–1705.  

Caless, B. and Owens, J. 2016. Police and crime commissioners: the transformation of police accountability. Policy Press. Core 

Cooper, S., 2021. Police and Crime Commissioners: A Dislocated Expectation? Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice. doi:  

Crowhurst, L., 2016. Reducing crime through innovation: the role of PCCs. The police foundation, barrow cadbury fund, 1– 11. Available online:

Evans M., Davies J., 1999. Understanding policy transfer: a multi-level, multi-disciplinary perspective. Public Administration. 77 (2), 361–85.  

Jones, T., Blaustein, J., and Newburn, T., 2019. Researching cross-national policy mobilities in crime control. Criminology & Criminal Justice. doi:10.1177/1748895819864627.  

Jones, T. and Newburn, T., 2007. Policy transfer and criminal justice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.  

Lister, S., 2013. The new politics of the police: police and crime commissioners and the ‘operational independence’ of the police. Policing, 7 (3), 239–247.

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. Electing police and crime commissioners in England and Wales: prospecting for the democratisation of policing. Policing & Society. 25(4), pp.358-377. 

Loader, I. and Muir, R., 2016. Embracing police and crime commissioners: lessons from the past, directions for the future. The police foundation, 1–6. Available online:

Loveday, B., 2018. Police and crime commissioners: Developing and sustaining a new model of police governance in England and Wales. International journal of police science & management, 20 (1), 28–37.

Loveday, B. and Roberts, S., 2019. A time of change: the expanding role of police and crime Commissioners in local criminal justice delivery. In: A. Pycroft and D. Gough, ed. Multi-agency working in criminal justice. Theory, policy and practice. Bristol: Policy Press, 41–50.

Newburn, T., 2012. Police and crime commissioners: The Americanization of policing or a very British reform? International journal of law, crime and justice, 40 (1), 31–46.

Raine, J.W. and Keasey, P., 2012. From police authorities to police and crime commissioners: might policing become more publically accountable? International journal of emergency services, 1 (2), 122–134.

Sampson, F., 2012. ‘Hail to the Chief?’ – How far does the introduction of elected police commissioners herald a US-style politicization of policing for the UK? Policing, 6 (1), 4–15.

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Seminar 6: Rethinking UK-EU Police Co-operation after Brexit

Davies, G., 2021. 'Facilitating Cross-Border Criminal Justice Cooperation Between the UK and Ireland After Brexit: ‘Keeping the Lights On’ to Ensure the Safety of the Common Travel Area' Journal of Criminal Law, 85 (2), 77-97.   

Gutheil, M., Liger, Q., et al., 2018. The EU-UK relationship beyond Brexit Options for police cooperation and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. BrusselsEuropean Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights. Fully available online at

House of Lords, 2021. Beyond Brexit: policing, law enforcement and security. European Union Committee, HL Paper 250.  

Mitsilegas, V., 2020. 'After Brexit: reframing EU-UK cooperation in criminal matters'. In R. Pereira, A. Engel and S. Miettinen, The Governance of Criminal Justice in the European Union. CheltenhamEdward Elgar Publishing, 17–38.    

Additional reading

Carrapico, H., Niehuss, A. & Berthélémy, C., 2019. 'Sectoral Views on Police and Judicial Cooperation'. In: Carrapico, H. (ed.), Brexit and Internal Security. London: Palgrave MacMillan. 

Curtin, D., 2018. 'The ties that bind: Securing information-sharing after Brexit'. In: Martill, B. & Staiger, U., Brexit and Beyond: Rethinking the Futures of Europe. London: UCL Press, 148-155.

Dickinson, R. & Kramer, A., 2020. 'The Changing Landscape of UK-EU Policing and Justice Cooperation' European Papers, 5(1), 479-492. Available online 

Graux, I., Innesti, A., et al., 2018. The future EU-UK relationship Options in the field of the protection of personal data for general processing activities and for processing for law enforcement purposes, European Parliament's Policy Department for Citizens' Rights. Available online at

Hillebrand, C., 2017. 'With or without you? The UK and information and intelligence sharing in the EU' Journal of Intelligence History, 16(2), 91-94.

MacPartholan, C., 2020. 'Arresting Developments: The Post-Brexit Future of European Arrest Warrants' Journal of criminal law (Hertford), 84(2), 124-141.

Mitsilegas, V. 2021. 'A new ‘special relationship’ or a damage limitation exercise? EU–UK criminal justice cooperation after Brexit' New Journal of European Criminal Law, 12(2), 105-106. Available online at 

Piquet, A., 2020. The post-Brexit police cooperation: An act of tightrope walk, QMUL Blog. Available online at

Von Luckner, J. G., 2021. 'A Brexit last call: The strange practice of pre-Brexit opt-ins' Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 28(4), 556-572. 

This list was last updated on 20/09/2021