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Module Reading List for THEO2999

Ideologies of Hebrew Bible Texts and Readers, 2021/22, Semester 1
Prof. Johanna Stiebert
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Reading List for THEO2999


Set text

Clines, David J. A. Interested Parties: The Ideology of Writers and Readers of the Hebrew Bible. JSOTSup 205. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press, 1995. Student to purchase  


Online Resources

If you feel very adrift when it comes to the Bible, here are some great resources to immerse yourself in:

  1. Bible Odyssey: see This site is run by the Society of Biblical Literature, and offers a range of short articles and videos on people, places, and themes in the Bible. All are created by scholars working in the field of biblical studies. It also has some useful resource lists, and suggestions for further reading. Good for getting an overview of a particular topic.
  2. In a similar vein, there is also the SOTS Wiki site: SOTS is the Society for Old Testament Study, the UK's largest academic society focused on the study of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. Here you will find plenty of very good short and informative pieces of good quality (e.g. on individual books/characters/places of the Hebrew Bible).

3.     YouTube: search for ‘Helen Paynter Tour of the Bible’. During the Covid-19 lockdown, Rev. Dr. Helen Paynter recorded short, thoughtful summaries (with points of focus) for every single book of the Bible. These recordings are bout 15 minutes long each. They are great to listen to for gaining an overview.


More great online resources…

See ‘Biblical Studies Online’:   Here you can find many very good recorded lectures and talks by established biblical scholars. Plenty of these are on topics of relevance to our module (e.g. see ‘Biblical Studies Topics’ > ‘Gender, Men, Women’. The site is curated by Prof. James Crossley and Dr. Deane Galbraith. 

Several of the scholars discussed in our module, or whose writings are recommended in this reading list, have their own blogs. This includes Wilda Gafney, for instance: . This blog offers lots of excellent resources and examples of ideological-critical readings.


Bible and Critical Theory (= BCT) Online Journal

This is an excellent open access online resource for ideological criticism of the Bible. Please see: for the full archive.

For Esther – see the article by womanist Ericka Dunbar in BCT 15/2 (2019) and the article by Sarah Emanuel in BCT 13/1 (2017).

For Hagar – see the article by Zanne Domoney-Lyttle in BCT 15/2 (2019). This piece is also useful on visual criticism (see the text below, by J. Cheryl Exum.)

On feminist responses to Edwards’ book Admen and Eve (see full reference below), see issue BCT 10/2 (2014).

On the Levite’s wife (Judges 19) – see the article by James Harding in BCT 12/2 (2016).


Journal for Interdisciplinary Biblical Studies (JIBS): Online Journal

This new journal offers plenty of resources for this module. E.g. Spring 2020 — The Bible: Transgender and Genderqueer Perspectives, see here:

A special JIBS volume (2/1) on activism in the biblical studies classroom is just out (edited by Johanna Stiebert). This volume includes contributions on queer criticism, race- and class-critical readings of the Bible, feminist criticism, antisemitism, supersessionism, male-male sexual violence, ableism and eco-criticism of the Bible:


On Gender and the Bible, here are more good online resources:

The Shiloh Project (Rape Culture, Religion and the Bible), see: (LOTS of short articles on Esther, the Levite’s wife, gender-based violence in the Bible and more… take a look). 

Also useful is The Shiloh Podcast - search for it on Spotify and other podcast providers. (There is an excellent episode on the Levite's wife - but beware: it's a tough listen.)

The #SheToo Podcast, see: (with recordings about the Levite’s wife, Hagar, David’s daughter Tamar).


General (on ideological-critical readings/ideology and the Bible)

Aichele, George and et al. The Postmodern Bible. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. (Very thorough, if somewhat technical expositions of critical methods in biblical studies.)

Anderson, Cheryl. B. Ancient Laws & Contemporary Controversies: The Need for Inclusive Biblical Interpretation. Oxford: OUP, 2009. (Excellent on the pervasiveness of biblical ideologies and their adaptations.)

Barr, James. History and Ideology in the Old Testament. Oxford: OUP, 2000. 

Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2017. (Much more concise and accessible than The Postmodern Bible.)

Bloesch, Sarah J. and M. Minister. The Bloomsbury Reader in Cultural Approaches to the Study of Religion. London, New York: Bloomsbury, 2018. (See especially for feminist, womanist, gender, and queer approaches.)

Du Mez, Kristin Kobes. Jesus and John Wayne: How White Evangelicals Corrupted a Faith and Fractured a Nation. New York: Liveright, 2020. (On white evangelicals in the USA and appropriation of the Bible for political purposes.)

Gottwald, Norman. “Ideology and Ideologies in Israelite Prophecy.” in Social justice and the Hebrew Bible: Volume One. Eugene, Or.: Wipf and Stock, 2016.

Gottwald, Norman K. “Framing Biblical Interpretation at New York Theological Seminary: A Student Self-Inventory on Biblical Hermeneutics.” In Reading from this Place: Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in the United States. Vol. 1. Fernando Segovia and Mary Ann Tolbert, eds. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995, 251-261.

Graybill, Rhiannon and Lynn R. Huber. The Bible, Gender, and Sexuality: Critical Readings. London/New York: Bloomsbury/T&T Clark, 2021. A great collection of short papers - useful for ideologies pertaining to biblical women (Kelso, Stone, Bailey, Exum, Krutzsch - including two on Song of Songs), gendered space/female sexuality (Davidson), masculinity (Hentrich, Wilson, Krutzsch), masculinity and disability (Hentrich), queer criticism (Koch), reception in popular culture (Rowlett), and race/ethnicity (Barton).

Junior, Nyasha. “Re/Use of Texts,” At This Point: Theological Investigations in Church and Culture. (10:1, Winter 2015), Accessed on 3 January 2020.

Moslener, Sarah. Virgin Nation: Sexual Purity and American Adolescence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. (On the pervasiveness of purity culture, its biblical basis, and its influence in the contemporary USA.)

Paynter, Helen and Michael Spalione (eds.). The Bible on Violence: A Thick Description. (Bible in the Modern World, 73). Sheffield Institute for Interdisciplinary Biblical Studies Monographs, 1. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2020. (Especially good for Judges 4-5, Jael, Genesis 19, Song of Songs, contemporary readings/interpretations). 

Penchansky, D. “Up for Grabs: A Tentative Proposal for Doing Ideological Criticism.” Ideological criticism of biblical texts 59 (1992): 35-41.

Phillips, Peter M. The Bible, Social Media and Digital Culture. Oxford, New York: Routledge, 2020. (On the ubiquity of the Bible, the Bible in online and in ‘secular’ settings.)

Pippin, T. “Ideology, Ideological Criticism and the Bible.” Currents in Research: Biblical Studies 4 (1996): 51-78. Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Reed, R. W. “The Problem of Ideology in Biblical Studies.” Bulletin for the study of religion 40.4 (2011): 17-22.

Segovia, Fernando. “’And They Began to Speak in Other Tongues’: Competing Modes of Discourse in Contemporary Biblical Criticism.” In Reading from this Place: Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in the United States.  Vol. 1, Ferndando Segovia and Mary Ann Tolbert, eds. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995), 1-32.

Stiebert, Johanna. The Exile and the prophet's wife : historic events and marginal perspectives. Interfaces. Liturgical Press: Collegeville, Minnesota, 2005. (Contains an introduction to ideological criticism - pitched at student readers.)

Yee, Gale A. “The Author/Text/Reader and Power: Suggestions for a Critical Framework for Biblical Studies.” In Reading from this Place: Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in the United States. Vol. 1. Ferndando Segovia and Mary Ann Tolbert, eds. (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995), 109-118.


Gender and Sexuality (General Resources)

O’Brien. Julia M. (ed. in chief). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies. (In 2 volumes). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. (Offers excellent critical essays on a number of topics relevant to this module, including on queer criticism, gender, sexuality, feminism and womanism.)

Page, Sarah-Jane and Heather Shipley. Religion and Sexualities: Theories, Themes, and Methodologies.London, New York: Routledge, 2020. (Excellent and accessible sociological survey of how religion and sexualities intersect. Quite a lot of reference to Christianity, purity culture and the Bible – but reference to other religious traditions also.)


Feminist Criticism, Womanist Criticism and Women in/and the Bible

Bloesch, Sarah J. and M. Minister. The Bloomsbury Reader in Cultural Approaches to the Study of Religion. London, New York: Bloomsbury, 2018.

Barr, Beth Allison. The Making of Biblical Womanhood: How the Subjugation of Women Became Gospel Truth.Grand Rapids, MA: Brazos. (Focused mostly on the New Testament but offers good discussion on the impact of biblical texts and of patriarchy on women’s lives.)

Blyth, Caroline. Rape Culture, Purity Culture, and Coercive Control in Teen Girl Bible. (Routledge Focus). London/New York: Routledge: 2021. (On ideological use of the Bible directed by evangelical Christianity at teen girls. Brilliant. You can consult Moslener - see above - for more on this topic.)

Blyth, Caroline. Reimagining Delilah’s Afterlives as Femme Fatale: The Lost Seduction. London, New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2017. (On Delilah, reception of the Bible, feminist criticism, Delilah in art/visual media.)

Brenner, Athalya (ed.). A feminist companion to the latter prophets . Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995. 

Brenner-Idan, Athalya. The Israelite Woman: Social Role and Literary Type in Biblical Narrative. (2nd edn). London, New York: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2015 [1985]. (Excellent introduction to female figures/characters in the Hebrew Bible. Good chapter on feminist and gender criticism.)

Everhart, Ruth. The MeToo Reckoning: Facing the Church’s Complicity in Sexual Abuse and Misconduct. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2020. (Very good for readings on David and women in the David story, 2 Samuel 11-13.)

Exum, J. Cheryl. Samson and Delilah: Selected Essays. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2020. 

Fewell, D. N. “Reading the Bible Ideologically: Feminist Criticism.” Pages 268-282 in To Each Its Own Meaning: An Introduction to Biblical Criticisms and their Application. Edited by S. L. McKenzie and S. R. Haynes. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1999.

Gafney, Wilda. Womanist Midrash: A Reintroduction to the Women of the Torah and the Throne. Westminster/John Knox Press, 2016.

Junior, Nyasha. An Introduction to Womanist Biblical Interpretation. Westminster/John Knox Press, 2015.

Junior, Nyasha. Reimagining Hagar: Blackness and Bible. Oxford: OUP, 2019.

Peecook, Emily (2002) "Hagar: An African American Lens," Denison Journal of Religion: Vol. 2 , Article 2. Available at:

Ruether, Rosemary R. “Feminism and Patriarchal Religion: Principles of Ideological Critique of the Bible.”Journal for the study of the Old Testament. 22 (1982): 54-66.

Scholz, Susanne. “A Third Kind of Feminist Reading: Toward a Feminist Sociology of Biblical Hermeneutics.” Currents in Biblical Research 9.1 (2010): 9-32.

Smith, Mitzi J. (ed.) I Found God in Me: A Womanist Biblical Hermeneutics Reader. Cascade Books, 2018.

Smith, Mitzi J. Womanist Sass and Talk Back: Social (In)Justice, Intersectionality, and Biblical Interpretation. Cascade Books, 2015.

Stiebert, Johanna. “The Peoples’ Bible, Imbokodo, and the King’s Mother’s Teaching of Proverbs 31.” Biblical Interpretation 20 (2012): 244-279. (On gender, inequality and poverty – ideological-critical reading of Proverbs 31.)

Weems, Renita J. Just A Sister Away: A Womanist Vision of Women’s Relationships in the Bible. Innisfree Press, 1988.  (On Hagar and Sarah, Ruth and Naomi, Vashti and Esther)

Williams, Delores S. Sister in the Wilderness: The Challenge of Womanist God Talk. Orbis, 2013. (On Hagar.)

Yee, Gale A. “Thinking Intersectionally: Gender, Race, Class, and the Etceteras of Our Discipline.” Journal of Biblical Literature 139/1 (2020): 3-26.

Women in the Bible (see the section above also, e.g. Weems 1988, Everhart, Junior 2019, Williams 2013)

Berlin, A., 'Characterization in Biblical Narratives: David’s Wives', Journal for the study of the Old Testament.t 23 (1982) pp.69-85. (looks at women in the David story Michal, Bathsheba, Abigail, and Abishag).

Blyth, Caroline. The Narrative of Rape in Genesis 34: Interpreting Dinah’s Silence. Oxford: OUP, 2010. (On Dinah.)

Brenner, Athalya. (ed.), A feminist companion to Samuel and Kings, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994. (Women in the David story)

Brenner, Athalya (ed.). A feminist companion to Samuel and Kings . A Feminist Companion to the Bible (Second Series). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. 

Clanton, Dan W. Daring, Disreputable and Devout: Interpreting the Hebrew Bible’s Women in the Arts and Music. London/New York: T&T Clark, 2009.

Edwards, Katie. Admen and Eve: The Bible in Contemporary Advertising. Sheffield: Phoenix, 2012.  (Ideological-critical readings in reception of the Bible. See also on BCT above.)

Exum, J. Cheryl. Art as Biblical Commentary: Visual Criticism from Hagar the Wife of Abraham to Mary the Mother of Jesus. London, New York: T&T Clark, 2019. (On Hagar. On visual criticism and art as ideological.)

Exum, J. Cheryl. ‘The Accusing Look: The Abjection of Hagar in Art’. Religion and the Arts 11/2 (2007): 143-171. DOI: 10.1163/156852907X199134

Exum, J. Cheryl. Fragmented Women: Feminist (Sub)versions of Biblical Narratives. T&T Clark, 2015 (on women in the David story: Bathsheba and Michal and on the Levite’s wife and Jephthah’s daughter).

LaCoque, A. The feminine unconventional : four subversive figures in Israel's tradition . Overtures to Biblical Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990. (See for Esther and Ruth).

Paynter, Helen. Telling Terror in Judges 19: Rape and Reparation for the Levite’s Wife. London, New York: Routledge, 2020. (Levite’s wife)

Rosen, Aaron. ‘Changing the Family Portrait: Hagar and Sarah in Art and Interfaith Dialogue’. Religion Compass 7/5 (2013): 179-189.

Solvang, E. K. A woman's place is in the house : royal women of Judah and their involvement in the house of David. Journal for the study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 349. London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003 (gives a historical account of royal women in Judah, and then focusses on Michal, Bathsheba, and Athaliah).

Stiebert, Johanna. Rape Myths, The Bible, and MeToo. New York, London: Routledge, 2020. (Violence against women in the Bible – Dinah, Tamar, Bathsheba)

Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1978. (See especially on Eve and Ruth.)

Trible, Phyllis. Texts of terror : literary-feminist readings of Biblical narratives . Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984. (See for the Levite’s wife of Judges 19, Tamar of 2 Samuel 13, Jephthah’s daughter of Judges 11 and on Hagar in Genesis.)

Weems, Renita. J. Marriage, Sex, and Violence in the Hebrew Prophets. Minneapolis: Augsburg Press, 1995. (Prophetic metaphor.)


Song of Songs

Bergant, Diane, ‘”My Beloved is Mine and I am His” (Song 2:16): The Song of Songs and Honor and Shame’ in Latino/a biblical hermeneutics : problematics, objectives, strategies Semeia 68 (1994), pp.23-40. 

Black, Fiona, C., ‘Beauty or the Beast? The Grotesque Body in the Song of Songs’ in Biblical interpretation. 8.3 (2000), pp.302-323. 

Boer, Roland, ‘The Second Coming: Repetition and Insatiable Desire in the Song of Songs’ in Biblical interpretation. 8.3 (2000), pp.276-301. (NB. This article contains some pretty dense literary theory; only consult if you want a challenge).

Brenner, Athalya, A feminist companion to the Song of songs Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993. (See especially Exum’s ‘Ten Things Every Feminist Should Know About the Song of Songs’).

Brenner, Athalya and Carole R. Fontaine (eds.). A feminist companion to the Song of songs . A Feminist Companion to the Bible (Second Series). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. 

Exum, Cheryl J., Song of songs : a commentary, Old Testament Library (Westminster John Knox Press, 2005). 

Polaski, Donald C., ‘What Will Ye See in the Shulammite? Women, Power and Panopticism in the Song of Songs’, Biblical interpretation. 5.1 (1997) pp.64-81.

Masculinities and Queer Criticism

Clines, David J. A. “He-Prophets: Masculinity as a Problem for the Hebrew Prophets and their Interpreters.” Pages 311-328 in Sense and sensitivity : essays on reading the Bible in memory of Robert Carroll . Edited by Alastair H. Hunter and Philip R. Davies. JSOTSup 348. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002.

Creanga, O., and P.-B. Smit (eds.) Biblical masculinities foregrounded, Hebrew Bible Monographs, 62; Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix.

Creanga, O. Hebrew Masculinities Anew. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2019. 

Greenough, Chris. The Bible and Sexual Violence Against Men. London, New York: Routledge, 2020. (On hegemonic masculinity and sexual violence.)

Greenough, Chris. Queer Theologies: The Basics. London, New York: Routledge, 2020.

Guest, Deryn, et al. The Queer Bible Commentary. London: SCM, 2006. (Contains chapter on every biblical book.)

Haddox, S. E. “Masculinity Studies of the Hebrew Bible: The First Two Decades.” Currents in Biblical Research 14.2 (2016): 176-206.

Heacock, Anthony. Jonathan loved David : manly love in the Bible and the hermeneutics of sex . The Bible in the Modern World 22. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2011. 

Hornsby, Teresa J. and Ken Stone. Bible trouble : queer reading at the boundaries of biblical scholarship : Queer Reading and the Boundaries of Biblical Scholarship. Semeia Studies 67. Atlanta: SBL Press, 2011. 

Kirova, Milena. Performing  Masculinity in the Hebrew Bible. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2020. 

Koch, Timothy R. ‘Cruising as Methodology: Homoeroticism and the Scriptures’, in Ken Stone (ed.), Queer Commentary and the Hebrew Bible (JSOTSup 334). London: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001, pp.169-180.

Krutzsch, Brett. ‘Un-Straightening Boaz in Ruth Scholarship’. Biblical Interpretation 23 (2015): 541-552. (On Ruth, Naomi and Boaz)

Macwilliam, Stuart, ‘Ideologies of Male Beauty and the Hebrew Bible’, Biblical interpretation. 17 (2009) pp.265-287.

Miller, Joshua H. ‘”Until Death Do We (Queers) Part”: (Queer) Biblical Interpretation, (Invented) Truth, and Presumption in Controversies Concerning Biblical Characters’ Sexualities’, QED: A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking4/1 (Spring 2017), 42-67. OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 06/08/2020) 

Nissinen, M. Homoeroticism in the biblical world : a historical perspective (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1998).

Roden, Frederick (ed.). 2009. Jewish/Christian/queer : crossroads and identities. (Farnham: Ashgate). 

Rosenberg, Gil. Ancestral Queerness: The Normal and the Deviant in the Abraham and Sarah Narratives. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2019. 

Stewart, D. T. “LGBT/Queer Hermeneutics and the Hebrew Bible.” Currents in Biblical Research 15.3 (2017): 289-314.

Stone, Ken. Practicing Safer Texts: Food, Sex and Bible in Queer Perspective (London, New York: T&T Clark, 2005). (Tamar, Song of Songs)

Stone, Ken. Queer commentary and the Hebrew Bible . JSOTSup 334. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001. 

Sullivan, Nikki. A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Thiede, Barbara. Male Friendship, Homosociality, and Women in the Hebrew Bible:  Malignant Fraternities. London, New York: Routledge, 2021. (Excellent on the topics of masculinity and gender-based violence in the Hebrew Bible. Good to read alongside the chapter by Clines in our set text.)

van Klinken, Adriaan and Johanna Stiebert, with Sebyala Brian and Fredrick Hudson. Sacred Queer Stories: Ugandan LGBTQ+ Refugee Lives and the BibleReligion in Transforming Africa series. Woodbridge, Suffolk and Rochester, NY: James Currey, 2021. 


See also some of the texts above, e.g. by Weems, Gafney, Junior, Williams, Smith, Dunbar. (On intersectionality, see especially Yee 2020 above)

Bailey, Randall C. ‘“That’s Why They Didn’t Call the Book Hadassah!” The Interse(ct)/(X)ionality of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality in the Book of Esther’, in They Were All Together in One Place? Toward Minority Biblical Criticism, edited by Randall C. BaileyTat-Siong Benny Liew and Fernando F. Segovia, (Society of Biblical Literature, Semeia Studies, 2009), 227-250.

Barton, Mukti. ‘The Skin of Miriam Became as White as Snow: The Bible, Western Feminism and Colour Politics’, Feminist Theology 27 (2001): 68-80.

Brenner, Athalya, ‘Ruth as a Foreign Worker and the Politics of Exogamy’ in Athalya Brenner (ed.), Ruth and Esther : a feminist companion to the Bible (Second Series), (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999) pp.158-164.

Brown II, A. Philip, ‘The Problem of Mixed Marriages in Ezra 9-10’, The Bibliotheca sacra. 162 (2005) pp.437-58.  

Carroll, Robert P. “The Myth of the Empty Land.” Semeia 59 (1992): 79-93.

Dor, Yorina ‘The Rite of Separation of the Foreign Wives in Ezra-Nehemiah’ in Oded Lipschits, Gary N. Knoppers, and Manfred Oeming (eds.) Judah and the Judeans in the Achaemenid period : negotiating identity in an international context (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2011) pp.173-188. 

Eskenazi, Tamara C., and Eleanore P. Judd, ‘Marriage to a Stranger in Ezra 9-10’ in Tamara C. Eskanazi and Kent H. Richards (eds.) Second Temple studies. 2, Temple community in the Persian period, JSOTSup 175 (JSOT Press: Sheffield, 1994).

Gafney, Wil. ‘Mother Knows Best: Messianic Surrogacy and Sexploitation in Ruth’, in C. A. Duggan and T. Pippin (eds), Mother Goose, Mother Jones, Mommie Dearest: Biblical Mothers & Their Children (Atlanta: SBL), pp.23-36.

Honig, Bonnie, ‘Ruth, the Model Emigrée: Mourning and the Symbolic Politics of Immigration’ in Athalya Brenner (ed.), Ruth and Esther: A Feminist Companion to the Bible (Second Series), (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999) pp.50-74.

Janzen, David, ‘Scholars, Witches, Ideologues, and What the Text Said: Ezra 9-10 and its Interpretation’ in Jon L. Berquist (ed.) Approaching Yehud : new approaches to the study of the Persian period, Semeia Studies 60 (Atlanta: SBL, 2007): 49-69

LaCoque, A. The feminine unconventional : four subversive figures in Israel's tradition . Overtures to Biblical Theology. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990. (Especially on Ruth and Esther.)

Mangrum, Benjamin, ‘Bringing ‘Fullness’ to Naomi: Centripetal Nationalism in The Book of Ruth’, Horizons in biblical theology 33 (2001) pp.62-81.

Moore, Michael S., ‘Ruth the Moabite and the Blessing of Foreigners’, The Catholic Biblical quarterly. 60 (1998): 203-217. 

Olyan, Saul M., ‘Purity Ideology in Ezra-Nehemiah as a Tool to Reconstitute the Community’, Journal for the study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman period. XXXV.1 (2004): 1-16. 

Reaves, Jayme R. ‘Sarah as victim and perpetrator: Whiteness, power, and memory in the matriarchal narrative’. Review and Expositor (2018): 1-17. Available online:

Siquans, Agnethe, ‘Foreignness and Poverty in the Book of Ruth: A Legal Way for a Poor Foreign Woman to be Integrated into Israel’, Journal of Biblical Literature.. 128/3 (2009): 443-452.

Southwood, Katherine E., ‘Will Naomi’s Nation be Ruth’s Nation?: Ethnic Translation as a Metaphor for Ruth’s Assimilation within Judah’, Humanities 3/2 (2014): 102-131.

Smith-Christopher, Daniel, L., ‘The Mixed Marriage Crisis in Ezra 9-10 and Nehemiah 13: A study of the sociology of the post-exilic Judean community’ in Tamara C. Eskenazi and Kent H. Richards (eds.) Second Temple studies. 2, Temple community in the Persian period, JSOTSup 175 (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1994) pp.243-265. 

Stiebert, Johanna, ‘The Wife of Potiphar, Sexual Harassment, and False Rape Allegation’ in Joachim Kuegler, Rosinah Gabaitse and Johanna Stiebert (eds.), The Bible and Gender Troubles in Africa (Bible in Africa Studies 22), (University of Bamberg Press, 2019) pp.73-114. Available online: (the piece is also relevant to the topic of gender, sexuality and sexual violence).

Wolak, Arthur J., ‘Ezra’s Radical Solution to Judean Assimilation’, Jewish Biblical Quarterly 40.2 (2012) pp.93-104.

Yee, Gale A. ‘"She Stood in Tears Amid the Alien Corn": Ruth, the Perpetual Foreigner and Model Minority’, in They Were All Together in One Place? Toward Minority Biblical Criticism, edited

by Randall C. BaileyTat-Siong Benny Liew and Fernando F. Segovia, (Society of Biblical Literature, Semeia Studies, 2009), 119-140.

Ideologies and Propaganda of the Davidic Monarchy

Cross, Frank Moor. “The Ideologies of Kingship in the Era of the Empire: Conditional Covenant and Eternal Decree.” Pages 219-265 in Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Halpern, Baruch. David's secret demons : messiah, murderer, traitor, king. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 2001. 

McKenzie, Steven L. King David: A Biography. Oxford: OUP, 2000. 

Roberts, J. J. M. “Public Opinion, Royal Apologetics, and Imperial Ideology: A Political Analysis of the Portrait of David, ‘A Man after God’s Own Heart’.” Theology today. 69.2 (2012): 116-132.

Thiede, Barbara. Male Friendship, Homosociality, and Women in the Hebrew Bible:  Malignant Fraternities. London, New York: Routledge, 2021. (Excellent on the topics of masculinity and gender-based violence in the Hebrew Bible. Good to read alongside the chapter by Clines in our set text.)


See also some of the entries in masculinities and queer criticism above

Brownson, James V. 2013. Bible, gender, sexuality : reframing the church's debate on same-sex relationships (Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans).

Coogan, Michael. 2010.  God and sex : what the Bible really says (New York: Twelve).

Holben, L.R. 1999. What Christians think about homosexuality : six representative viewpoints (North Richland Hills, TX: BIBAL Press). 

 Violence (see also on entries on gender-based violence)

Avalos, Hector. The Reality of Religious Violence. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2019. 

Claassens, L. Juliana M. Claassens. Writing and Reading to Survive: Biblical and Contemporary Trauma Narratives in Conversation. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2020. 

Paynter, Helen and Michael Spalione. The Bible on Violence. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix, 2020. 


Evans, Craig A. “Why Did the New Testament Writers Appeal to the Old Testament?” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 38/1 (2015), 36-48.

Gregg, Carl. “Is the Bible ‘History Remembered or Prophecy Historicized’?” Carl Gregg (blog). (20 April 2017).

Levenson, Jon D. “Is There a Counterpart in the Hebrew Bible To New Testament Anti-Semitism.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 22:2 (Spring 1985), 242-260.

Reaves, Jayme. “Reading the Whole Bible with Integrity: Identifying Context, Identity, Community, and Antisemitism in Christian Hermeneutical Practices,” JIBS 2/1 (2020): 150-178. (JIBS is an online journal, see information above.)


White Saviour Complex

Aronson, B. 'The White Savior Industrial Complex: A Cultural Studies Analysis of a Teacher Educator, Savior Film, and Future Teachers'. Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis 6/3 (2017). Available online:   

Flaherty, Jordan. No More Heroes: Grassroots Challenges to the Savior Mentality. Chico, CA: AK Press, 2016.

Straubhaar, R. 'The stark reality of the "White Saviour" complex and the need for critical consciousness: A document analysis of the early journals of a Freirean educator'. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 45/3 (2015): 381-400. doi: 10.1080/03057925.2013.876306

Sullivan, S. Good White People: The Problem with Middle-Class White Anti-Racism. Albany, NY: Suny, 2014. 

This list was last updated on 12/09/2021