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Module Reading List

History Wars: The Politics of the Past in Contemporary Europe, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Matthew Frank
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

HIST2040 HIstory wars: the politics of the past in contemporary europe 


Week 1

Lecture 1: Why ‘History Wars’?

Seminar 1: Introduction


Week 2

Lecture 2: A History of Europe since 1989 in 50 minutes

Seminar 2: Germany – Centre Against Reconciliation?


Week 3

Seminar 3: Czech Republic – Statue Wars


Week 4

Seminar 4: Russia – The Great Patriotic War


Week 5



Week 6

Seminar 5: Poland – Bad Neighbours


Week 7

Seminar 6: Ukraine – ‘Little Russia’


Week 8

Seminar 7: North Macedonia – To Be or Not to Be?


Week 9



Week 10

Seminar 8: Turkey – The ‘G’-Word


Week 11

Seminar 9: Belgium – King Leopold’s Ghost



General and Collected Works: Thematic and Contextual

Belavusau, Uladzislau, and Aleksandra Gliszczyńska-Grabias (eds),  Law and Memory: Towards legal governance of history (Cambridge, 2017)

Bell, Duncan (ed.), Memory, Trauma and World Politics: Reflections on the Relationship between Past and Present (Basingstoke, 2006)

Berger. Stefan and Chris Lorenz (eds), Nationalizing the Past: Historians as Nation Builders in Modern Europe (Basingstoke, 2010)

Berger, Stefan, Linas Eriksonas and Andrew Mycock (eds), Narrating the nation: Representations in history, media and the arts, new ed. (New York, 2011)

Bernhard, Michael and Jan Kubik, ‘A Theory of the Politics of Memory’, in Twenty Years after Communism: The Politics of Memory and Commemoration, ed. by Michael Bernhard and Jan Kubik (Oxford, 2014), 7–34

Bevernage, Berber and Nico Waters (eds), The Palgrave Handbook of State-Sponsored History after 1945 (Basingstoke, 2018)

Dobre, Claudia-Florentina, and Cristian Emilian Ghiţă (eds), Quest for a Suitable Past: Myths and Memory in Central and Eastern Europe (Budapest, 2016)

Echternkamp, Jörg and Stephan Jaeger (eds), Views of Violence: Representing the Second World War in German and European Museums and Memorials (New York, 2019)

Głowacka-Grajper, M., ‘Memory in Post-Communist Europe: Controversies over Identity, Conflicts, and Nostalgia’, East European Politics and Societies: And Cultures, 32 (2018)

Hamilton, Paula and James B. Gardner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Public History (Oxford, 2017)

Jarausch, Konrad H. and Thomas Lindenberger (eds), Conflicted Memories: Europeanizing Contemporary Histories (New York, 2007)

Judt, Tony, ‘The Past Is Another Country: Myth and Memory in Postwar Europe’, in Memory and Power in Post-War Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past, ed. Jan-Werner Müller (Cambridge: 2002)

Kopeček, Michal (ed.), Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe after 1989 (Budapest, 2008)


Kopeček, Michal and Piotr Wciślik (eds), Thinking Through Transition: Liberal Democracy, Authoritarian Pasts, and Intellectual History in East Central Europe After 1989 (Budapest, 2015)

Koposov, N., Memory Laws, Memory Wars: The Politics of the Past in Europe and Russia (Cambridge, 2017)

Lang, Ariella and Elazar Barkan (eds), Memory Laws and Historical Justice: The Politics of Criminalizing the Past (Palgrave, forthcoming 2022)

Lebow, Richard Ned, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu (eds), The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe (Durham, NC, 2006)

Levi, Neil, ‘“No Sensible Comparison”? The Place of the Holocaust in Australia's History Wars’, History & Memory, 19:1 (2007), 124–56

Linenthal, Edward Tabor, and Tom Engelhardt, History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past (New York,1996)

Luthar, Oto (eds), Of Red Dragons and Evil Spirits: Post-Communist Historiography between Democratization and the New Politics of History (Budapest, 2017)

Miller, Alexei, and Maria Lipman (ed.), The Convolutions of Historical Politics (Budapest, 2012)

Mark, James, The Unfinished Revolution: Making Sense of the Communist Past in Central-Eastern Europe (New Haven, CT, 2010)

Macintyre, Stuart, Anna Clark, and Anthony Mason. The History Wars (Melbourne, 2004)

Moses, A. Dirk, ‘Moving the Genocide Debate beyond the History Wars’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, 54:2 (2008)

Müller, Jan-Werner, Memory and Power in Post-war Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past (Cambridge, 2002)

__________, ‘On “European Memory”: Some conceptual and normative remarks’, in A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance, ed. by Małgorzata Pakier and Bo Stråth (New York, 2012), pp. 25–37 

Pakier, Małgorzata, and Bo Stråth (eds), A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance (New York, 2012)

Stone, Dan, ‘Memory Wars in the “New Europe”, in The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History, ed. by Dan Stone (Oxford, 2012)

Taylor, Tony, and Robert Guyver (eds), History Wars and the Classroom: Global Perspectives (Charlotte, NC, 2012)

Tismaneanu, Vladimir and Bogdan C. Iacob (eds), The End and the Beginning: The Revolutions of 1989 and the Resurgence of History (Budapest, 2012)

__________ (eds), Remembrance, History, and Justice: Coming to Terms with Traumatic Pasts in Democratic Societies (Budapest, 2015)

Torbakov, Igor, ‘History, Memory and National Identity: Understanding the Politics of History and Memory Wars in Post-Soviet Lands’, Demokratizatsiya, 19:3 (2011) Available Online Here

Trencsényi, Balázs, Péter Apor and Sorin Antohi (eds), Narratives Unbound: Historical Studies in Post-Communist Eastern Europe (Budapest, 2007)

Tunzelmann, Alex von, Fallen Idols: Twelve Statues That Made History (London, 2021)

Winter, Jay (ed.), Remembering War: The Great War between Memory and History in the Twentieth Century (New Haven, CT, 2006)


Wood, Nancy, Vectors of Memory: Legacies of Trauma in Postwar Europe (Oxford, 1999)


Special issue: ‘The Politics of History in Comparative Perspective’, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 617 (May 2008)



European Network of Remembrance and Solidarity (ENRS):


Cultures of History Forum:










Core reading:


Catherine Perron, ‘Museum of Memorial? Twenty Years of Controversy about the Documentation Centre for Displacement, Expulsion, Reconciliation in Berlin: Interview with Catherine Perron’, Les Analyses du CERI, 26 November 2021


Rainer Schulze, ‘Forced Migration of German Populations During and After the Second World War: History and Memory’, in Jessica Reinisch and Elizabeth White (eds), The Disentanglement of Populations: Migration, Expulsion and Displacement in Postwar Europe, 1944-49 (Basingstoke, 2011), 51-71


Pertti Ahonen, ‘On Forced Migrations: Transnational Realities and National Narratives in Post-1945 (West) Germany’, German History, 32:4 (2014), 599-614


Matěj Spurný, ‘The Colour of Compromise: The “Documentation Centre for Displacement, Expulsion, Reconciliation” as a Negotiated Museum’,  Cultures of History Forum, 29 Oct. 2021



The three short new items:


‘Expellee “Provocation”: Prague Refuses Apology to Sudeten Germans, Spiegel International, 14 Jun. 2011


‘New Irritants Plague Already Tense German-Polish Ties, Deutsche Welle, 26 Jun. 2007


‘The Germans and Czechs Trying to Deal With Ghosts of the Past’, 11 Nov. 2016








Further reading:


Ahonen, Pertti, After the Expulsion: West Germany and Eastern Europe, 1945-1990 (Oxford, 2003)

__________, ‘Taming the Expellee Threat in Post-1945 Europe: Lessons from the Two Germanies and Finland’, Contemporary European History, 14:1 (2005), 1-21

__________, ‘On Forced Migrations: Transnational Realities and National Narratives in Post-1945 (West) Germany’, German History, 32:4 (2014), 599-614

Beinek, Justyna, and Piotr H. Kosic (eds), Re-Mapping Polish-German Historical Memory: Physical, Political, and Literary Spaces Since World War II (Bloomington, IN, 2011)

Bojenko-Izdebska, Ewa, ‘“Expulsion” in German historical policy — consequences for Polish-German relations’, Studia nad Autorytaryzmem i Totalitaryzmem, 40:3 (2018), 11-22:

Connor, Ian, Refugees and Expellees in Post-War Germany (Manchester, 2007)

Corni, Gustavo et al, People on the Move: Forced Population Movements in the Second World War and its Aftermath (Oxford, 2008)

Demshuk, Andrew,The Lost German East: Forced Migration and the Politics of Memory, 1945-1970 (Cambridge, 2012)

Eley, Geoff, ‘Contemporary Germany and Denial: Is ‘Nazism’ All there is to Say?’, History Workshop Journal, 84 (2017), 44-66

Feindt,  Gregor, ‘From “Flight and Expulsion” to Migration: Contextualizing German Victims of Forced MigrationEuropean Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire, 24:4 (2017), 552-77

Frank, Matthew, Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context (Oxford, 2008)

__________,‘Reconstructing the Nation-State: Population Transfer in Central and Eastern Europe, 1944-48’, in Jessica Reinisch and Elizabeth White (eds), The Disentanglement of Populations: Migration, Expulsion and Displacement in Postwar Europe, 1944-49 (Basingstoke, 2011), 27-47

_________, Making Minorities History: Population Transfer in Twentieth-Century Europe (Oxford, 2017)

Gößwald, Udo, ‘Politics and Memory: How Germans Face Their Past’, in The Oxford Handbook of Public History, ed. by Paula Hamilton and James B. Gardner (Oxford, 2017)

Kansteiner, Wulf, ‘Losing the War, Winning the Battle: The Legacy of Nazism, World War II, and the Holocaust in the Federal Republic of Germany’, in Richard Ned Lebow, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu (eds), The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe (Durham, NC, 2006), 102-46

Kunštát, Miroslav, and Kristina Kaiserová, ‘The Collegium Bohemicum in Ústí Nad Labem, The Sudeten German Museum in Munich: Which Collective Memories Should Be Preserved, Promoted, and Passed On?’, Revue d’études Comparatives Est-Ouest, 47:1/2 (2016), 91–111

Langenbacher, Eric, ‘Twenty-First Century Memory Regimes in Germany and Poland: An Analysis of Elite Discourses and Public Opinion’, German Politics & Society, 26:4 (2008), 50–81

__________, ‘The Mastered Past? Collective Memory Trends in Germany since Unification’, German Politics & Society, 28:1 (2010), 42–68

Link, Bernard, ‘Recent Debates on the Fate of the German Population in Upper Silesia 1945-1950’, Germany History, 22 (2004), 372-405

Ludtke, Alf, ‘“Coming to Terms with the Past”: Illusions of Remembering, Ways of Forgetting Nazism in West Germany’, Journal of Modern History, 65:3 (1993), 542-72

Lutomski, Pawel, ‘The Debate about a Center against Expulsions: An Unexpected Crisis in German-Polish Relations?’, German Studies Review, 27:3 (2004), 449-68

Madajczyk, Piotr, ‘The Centre Against Expulsions vs. Polish-German Relations’, Polish Foreign Affairs Digest, 4:2 (2004), 43-78

Maier, Charles S., The Unmasterable Past: History, Holocaust, and German National Identity (Cambridge, MA, 1988)

__________, ‘Remembering the War in a Nation of Victims’, in Hanna Schissler (ed.), The Miracle Years: A Cultural History of West Germany 1949-1968 (Princeton, 2001), 83-109

Moeller, Robert, War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany (Berkeley, 2001), esp. pp. 51-87 [Ch. 3: ‘Driven into Zeitgeschichte: Historians and the “Expulsion of the Germans from East-Central Europe”’]

__________, ‘Sinking Ships, the Lost Heimat and Broken Taboos: Günter Grass and the Politics of Memory in Contemporary Germany’, CEH 12:2 (2003), 147-81

__________, ‘Germans as Victims? Thoughts on a Post-Cold War History of World War II’s Legacies’, History & Memory, 17 (2005), 147-94

Naimark, Norman, Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe (Cambridge, Mass., 2001), 108-38 [Ch. 4: ‘The Expulsion of Germans from Poland and Czechoslovakia’]

__________, ‘Historical Memory and the Debate about the Vertreibung Museum’, in Austria’s International Position after the End of the Cold War, ed. by Günter Bischof and Ferdinand Karlhofer (New Orleans, 2013), pp. 227–42

Niven, Bill (ed.), Germans as Victims: Remembering the Past in Contemporary Germany (Basingstoke, 2006)

Niven, Bill and Chloe Paver (eds), Memorialization in Germany since 1945 (Basingstoke, 2009)

Nolan, Mary, ‘Germans and Victims during the Second World War: Air Wars, Memory Wars’, Central European History, 38:1 (2005), 7-40

Schieder, Theodor et al. (eds), Documents on the Expulsion of the Germans from Eastern-Central Europe

i: The Expulsion of the German Population from the Territories East of the Oder-Neisse-Line (Bonn, c 1960)

                        ii/iii, The Fate of the Germans in Hungary (Bonn, 1961)

iv: The Expulsion of the German Population from Czechoslovakia (Bonn, 1960)

Schmitz, Helmut (ed.), A Nation of Victims? Representations of German Wartime Suffering from 1945 to the Present (Amsterdam, 2007)

Schulze, Rainer, ‘Memory in Germany History: Fragmented Noises or Meaningful Voices of the Past?’, Journal of Contemporary History, 39:4 (2004), 637-99

__________, ‘The Politics of Memory: Flight and Expulsion of German Populations after the Second World War and German Collective Memory’, National Identities, 8 (2006), 367–82

Service, Hugo, Germans to Poles: Communism, Nationalism and Ethnic Cleansing after the Second World War (Cambridge, 2013)

Stańczyk, Ewa, ‘Caught between Germany and Russia: Memory and National Identity in Poland’s Right-Wing Media Post-2004’, Slavonic and East European Review, 91:2 (2013), 289–316

Ther, Philipp, ‘The Integration of Expellees in Germany and Poland after World War II: A Historical Reassessment’, Slavic Review, 55:4 (1996), 779-805

__________, The Dark Side of Nation-States: Ethnic Cleansing in Modern Europe trans. Charlotte Kreutzmüller (New York, 2014)

Ther, Philipp and Ana Siljak (eds), Redrawing Nations: Ethnic Cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944-1948 (Lanham, 2001) [several relevant essays in this volume]

Troebst, Stefan, ‘The Discourse on Forced Migration and European Culture of Remembrance’, Hungarian Historical Review, 1:3/4 (2012), 397–414

Wittlinger, Ruth, and Steffi Boothroyd, ‘A “Usable” Past at Last? The Politics of the Past in United Germany’, German Studies Review, 33:3 (2010), 489–502

Wiskemann, Elizabeth, Germany’s Eastern Neighbours: Problems Relating to the Oder-Neisse Line and the Czech Frontier Regions (London,1956)

Zayas, Alfred M. de, Nemesis at Potsdam: The Anglo-Americans and the Expulsion of the Germans, rev. edn (London, 1979)







































Core reading:


Jakub Vrba: Monumental Conflict: Controversies Surrounding the Removal of the Marshal Konev Statue in Prague. In: Cultures of History Forum (18.12.2020)


Tim Gosling, ‘Czech-Russian Relations Headed for “Catastrophic”’, BIRN, 19 Apr. 2021:


Ondrej Ditrych, ‘The Sorry State of Czech-Russian Relations’, War on the Rocks, 5 Oct. 2021


Ivan Kratsev, ‘When Victory does not mean liberation’, Deutsche Welle, 5 May 2020:


Further reading:


Andělová, Kristina, ‘The Sound of Silence: How Czechs Commemorated the 50th Anniversary of the Prague Spring’, Cultures of History Forum, 30 Oct. 2018:

Biess, F. and Robert G. Moeller (eds), Histories of the Aftermath: The Legacies of the Second World War in Europe (New York, 2010)

Brüggemann, Karsten and Andres Kasekamp, ‘The Politics of History and the ‘War of Monuments in Estonia’, Nationalities Papers 36:3 (2008), 425-48

Cashman, Laura, ‘Remembering 1948 and 1968: Reflections on Two Pivotal Years in Czech and Slovak History’Europe-Asia Studies, 60:10 (2008), 1645-58

Deák, István, Jan Gross and Tony Judt (eds), The Politics of Retribution in Europe: World War II and its Aftermath (Princeton, NJ, 2000)

Eley, Geoff, ‘A Disorder of Peoples; The Uncertain Ground of Reconstruction in 1945’, in Reinisch, Jessica and Elizabeth White (eds), The Disentanglement of Populations: Migration, Expulsion and Displacement in Postwar Europe, 1944-49 (Basingstoke, 2011), pp. 291-314

Heimann, Mary, Czechoslovakia: The state that failed (New Haven, CT, 2011)

Jarausch, Konrad H., ‘1945 and the Continuities of German History: Reflections on Memory, Historiography, and Politics’, in Geoffrey J. Giles (ed.), Stunde Null: The End and the Beginning Fifty Years Ago, German Historical Institute Occasional Papers No. 20 (Washington DC, 1997), pp. 9-24

Kazharski, Aliaksei, and Andrey Makarychev, ‘From the Bronze Soldier to the “Bloody Marshal”: Monument Wars and Russia’s Aesthetic Vulnerability in Estonia and the Czech Republic’, East European Politics and Societies (First View: September 2021)

Kopeček, Michal, ‘In search of “National Memory”: The politics of history, nostalgia and the historiography of communism in the Czech Republic and East Central Europe’, in Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe after 1989, ed. by Michal Kopeček (Budapest, 2008), pp. 75–95

Klymenko, Lina, ‘Forging Common History: Soviet Second World War Monuments in Europe’, in Russia’s Cultural Statecraft, ed. by Tuomas Forsberg and Sirke Mäkinen (London, 2021)

Kuczyńska-Zonik, A., ‘Monument Wars in the Baltic States’, New Eastern Europe, 6 (2016) 165-9 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 02/02/2022) 

O’Dwyer, C., ‘Remembering, not commemorating, 1989: The twenty-year anniversary of the velvet revolution in the Czech Republic’, in Twenty Years after Communism: The Politics of Memory and Commemoration, ed. by Michael H. Bernhard and Jan Kubik (Oxford, 2014), pp. 171–192.

Ogrodnik, Łukasz, ‘Complications in the Czech Republic’s Relations Towards Russia’, PISM Bulletin, No. 179 (1425), 16 Dec. 2019 Available Online Here

Overy, Richard, ‘Interwar, War, Postwar: Was There a Zero Hour in 1945?’, in Dan Stone (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History (Oxford, 2012), pp. 60-78

Paces, Cynthia, Prague Panoramas: National memory and sacred space in the twentieth century ( Pittsburgh, 2009)

 Veronika Pehe, ‘Remembering 1968 in Czech Republic. Living Trauma and Forgotten Ideals’, Zeitgeschichte-online, 17 Aug. 2018:


Řehořová, Irena, ‘Visual Symbols, Democracy and Memory: The Monument of Ivan Stepanovich Konev and the Memory of Communism in the Czech Republic’, Memory Studies,14:6 (2021), 1241-54

Tomczuk, Sara Jean, ‘Contention, Consensus, and Memories of Communism: Comparing Czech and Slovak Memory Politics in Public Spaces, 1993–2012.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 57:3 (2016), 105-26


‘The Changing Legacy of 1945 in Germany: A Round-Table Discussion’, GH 23:4 (2005), 519-46














Core reading:


Mark Edele, ‘Fighting Russia’s History Wars: Vladimir Putin and the Codification of World War II’, History and Memory, 29:2 (2017), 90-124


Andrei Koleshnikov, ‘A Coercive History Lesson From Vladimir Putin: Triumphalism Replaces Reckoning as Russia Remembers the Soviet Past’, Foreign Affairs, 29 Oct. 2020:



Jade McGlynn, ‘Moscow Is Using Memory Diplomacy to Export Its Narrative to the World’, Foreign Policy, 25 Jun. 2021:



Tatiana Zhurzhenko, ‘Russia’s Never-Ending War against “Fascism”: Memory Politics in the Russian-Ukrainian Conflict’, Eurozine, 8 May 2015:


Further reading:


Adler, Nanci, ‘Reconciliation with — or Rehabilitation of — the Soviet Past?’, Memory Studies, 5:3 (2012), 327-38

Bækken, Håvard, and Johannes Due Enstad, ‘Identity under Siege: Selective Securitization of History in Putin's Russia’, Slavonic and East European Review, 98:2 (2020), 321-44

Brandenburger, David, ‘A New Short Course? A. V. Filippov and the Russian State's Search for a “Usable Past”', Kritika, 10:4 (2009) 825–33

Confino, Michael, ‘The New Russian Historiography, and the Old: Some Considerations’, History and Memory 21:2 (2009), 7-3

Domanska, Maria, ‘The Myth of the Great Patriotic War as a Tool of the Kremlins’ Great Power Policy’, OSW Commentary, No. 316, 31 Dec. 2019 Available Online Here

Fedor, J., M. Kangaspuro, and J. Lassila, , et al. (eds), War and Memory in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Basingstoke, 2017)

Gaufman, E., ‘Memory, Media and Securitization: Russian Media Framing of the Ukrainian Crisis’’, Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 1:1 (2015), 141-73 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

__________, ‘Fascism and the Ukraine Crisis’, in Security Threats and Public Perception: New Security Challenges, ed. by E. Gaufman (Basingstoke, 2017), pp. 103-24

Gjerde, Kristian, ‘The Use of History in Russia 2000–2011: The Kremlin and the Search for Consensus’, East European Politics, 31:2 (2015), 149–69

Hall, Stephen, ‘Reconsidering Western Concepts of the Ukrainian Conflict: The Rise to Prominence of Russia’s “Soft Force” Policy’, in Vocabularies of International Relations After the Crisis in Ukraine, ed. by Andrey Makarychev and Alexandra Yatsyk (London, 2017), 70–89

Klymenko, Lina, ‘World War II or Great Patriotic War Remembrance? Crafting the Nation in Commemorative Speeches of Ukrainian Presidents’, National Identities 17:4 (2015), 387-403

Kolstø, Pål, ‘Dmitrii Medvedev’s Commission Against the Falsification of History:  Why Was It Created and What Did It Achieve? A Reassessment’, Slavonic and East European Review, 97:4 (2019), 738-60

Lewis, Charlie, ‘Contemporary Russian Messianism under Putin and Russian Foreign Policy in Ukraine and Syria’, Slavonic and East European Review, 98:3 (2020), 531-59

Malinova, Olga, ‘Constructing the “Usable Past”: The Evolution of the Official Historical Narrative in Post-Soviet Russia’, in Cultural and Political Imaginaries in Putin’s Russia, ed/ by Niklas Bernsand and Barbara Törnquist-Plewa (Brill, 2019)

Mann, Y., ‘(Re)Cycling the Collective Memory of the Great Patriotic War’, The Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 33 (2020)

Markwick, R., ‘The Great Patriotic War in Soviet and post-Soviet collective memory’, in The Oxford handbook of postwar European history, ed. by Dan Stone (Oxford, 2012), pp. 692-713

McGlynn, Jade ‘Historical Framing of the Ukraine Crisis through the Great Patriotic War: Performativity, Cultural Consciousness and Shared Remembering’, Memory Studies, 13:6 (2020),1058-80

__________, ‘Constructing Memory Alliances: How Russia Uses History to Bolster Its Influence and Undermine Rivals Abroad’, in The Diversity of Russia’s Military Power: Five Perspectives, ed. by Mark F. Cancian and Cyrus Newlin (Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2020)

Marples, D. R., ‘Russia’s Perceptions of Ukraine: Euromaidan and Historical Conflicts’, European Politics and Society, 17:4 (2016),  424-37

Pasitselska, O., ‘Ukrainian Crisis through the Lens of Russian Media: Construction of Ideological Discourse’, Discourse & Communication, 11:6 (2017),  591-609

Pearce, James C., The Use of History in Putin’s Russia (Wilmington, DE, 2020)

Prus, Justyna, ‘Russia’s Use of History as a Political Weapon’, PISM Policy Paper, No. 12 (114), May 2015 Available Online Here

Sherlock, T., Historical Narratives in the Soviet Union and Post-soviet Russia: Destroying the Settled Past, Creating an Uncertain Future (Basingstoke, 2007)

_________, ‘Russian Politics and the Soviet Past: Reassessing Stalin and Stalinism under Vladimir Putin’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 49 (2016)

Uldricks, Teddy J., ‘War, Politics and Memory: Russian Historians Reevaluate the Origins of World War II’, History and Memory, 21:2 (2009), 60-82.

Walker, S. The Long Hangover: Putin’s Russia and the Ghosts of the Past (Oxford, 2017)

Wood, E. A., ‘Performing Memory: Vladimir Putin and the Celebration of World War II in Russia’, Soviet and Post-Soviet Review, 38:2 (2011), 172-200










Core reading:


Hackmann Jörg, ‘Defending the “Good Name” of the Polish Nation: Politics of History as a Battlefield in Poland, 2015–18’, Journal of Genocide Research, 20:4 (2018),  587-606


Further reading:


Bobryk, Sylwia, and Thomas Strobel, ‘History Textbooks in Poland since 1989: A Dialogue between the Past and the Present’, in Civic and Uncivic Values in Poland: Value Transformation, Education, and Culture, ed. by Sabrina P. Ramet et al. (Budapest, 2019), pp. 219-42

Etges, Andreas, Irmgard Zündorf, and Paweł Machcewicz. “History and Politics and the Politics of History: Poland and Its Museums of Contemporary History.” International Public History 1, no. 1 (2018):



Grabowski, Jan and Dariusz Libionka, ‘Distorting and Rewriting the History of the Holocaust in Poland: The Case of the Ulma Family Museum of Poles Saving Jews During World War II in Markowa’, Yad Yashem Studies, 45:1 (2017) OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 02/02/2022) 


Gross, Jan, Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland  (Princeton, 2001)

Harper, Jo (eds), Poland’s Memory Wars: Essays on Illiberalism (Budapest, 2018)

Logemann, Daniel, ‘On “Polish History”: Disputes over the Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk’, Cultures of History Forum, 21 Mar. 2017  

Machcewicz, Paweł. The War That Never ends: The Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk (Berlin, 2019)

Michlic, Joanna B., ‘“At the Crossroads”: Jedwabne and Polish Historiography of the Holocaust’, Dapim: Studies on the Holocaust, 31:3 (2017)

Muller, Anna and Daniel Logemann, ‘War, Dialogue, and Overcoming the Past: The Second World War Museum in Gdańsk, Poland’, The Public Historian, 39:3 (2017)

Peters, Florian, ‘Remaking Polish National History: Reenactment over Reflection’, Cultures of History Forum, 3 Oct. 2016  

Polonsky, Antony, and Joanna B. Michlic (eds), The Neighbors Respond: The Controversy over the Jedwabne Massacre in Poland (Princeton, 2004)

Stańczyk, Ewa, ‘Caught between Germany and Russia: Memory and National Identity in Poland’s Right-Wing Media Post-2004’, Slavonic and East European Review, 91:2 (2013), 289–316

Stola, Dariusz, ‘Poland's Institute of National Remembrance: A Ministry of Memory?’, in The Convolutions of Historical Politics, ed. by Aleksei Miller and Maria Lipman (Budapest, 2012), 45–58

Stoll, Katrin, ‘Conceptualizations of the Holocaust within Polish Historical Discourse’, Yad Vashem Studies, 44:2 (2016), 147-72 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 02/02/2022) 

Traba, Robert, The Past in the Present: The Construction of Polish History (Frankfurt am Main, 2015)



















































Core reading:


‘Poland's Parliament Declares Volyn Massacres “Genocide”, Ukraine Laments Move’, RFE/RL, 22 Jun. 2016 


Oxana Shevel, ‘The Battle for Historical Memory in Postrevolutionary Ukraine’, Current History, 115 (2016), 258–63.



Further reading:


Adamski, Łukasz, ‘Kyiv’s “Volhynian Negationism”: Reflections on the 2016 Polish–Ukrainian Memory Conflict’, Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, 3:2 (2017), 253–89 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 02/02/2022) 

Budrytė, Dovilė, ‘Memory politics and the study of crises in International Relations: insights from Ukraine and Lithuania’, Journal of International Relations and Development, 24 (2021), 980–1000

Copsey, Nathaniel, ‘Remembrance of Things Past: The Lingering Impact of History on Contemporary Polish-Ukrainian Relations’,  Europe-Asia Studies, 60:4 (2008), 531-60

Fedor, Julie, Markku Kangaspuro, Jussi Lassila and Tatiana Zhurzhenko (eds), War and Memory in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Basingstoke, 2017)

Himka, John-Paul, ‘Legislating Historical Truth: Ukraine’s Laws of 9 April 2015’, Ab Imperio, 21 (2015) OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 02/02/2022) 

__________, ‘Debates in Ukraine over nationalist involvement in the Holocaust, 2004-2008’, Nationalities Papers, 39.3 (2011), 353-70

Jilge, Wilfried, ‘The politics of history and the Second World War in post-Communist Ukraine (1986/1991-2004/2005)’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas (2006), 50-81

Kasianov, Georgiy, Memory Crash: Politics of History In and Around Ukraine, 1980s-2010s (Budapest, 2022) [forthcoming; free PDF] Available Online Here

Klymenko, Lina, ‘World War II or Great Patriotic War Remembrance? Crafting the nation in commemorative speeches of Ukrainian presidents’, National identities, 17:4 (2015), 387-403

__________, ‘Forging Ukrainian National Identity through Remembrance of World War II’, National Identities, 22:2 (2020),133–50

Marples, David R., Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine (Budapest, 2008)

__________, ‘Anti-Soviet Partisans and Ukrainian Memory’, East European Politics and Societies, 24:1 (2010), 26–43

 Myshlovska, Oksana, ‘Delegitimizing the Communist Past and Building a New Sense of Community: The Politics of Transitional Justice and Memory in Ukraine’, International Journal of History, Culture and Modernity, 7 (2019), 372–405.

Naimark, Norman, Stalin's Genocides (Princeton, 2011)

Nuzov, Ilya, ‘The Dynamics of Collective Memory in the Ukraine Crisis: A Transitional Justice Perspective’, International Journal of Transitional Justice, 11:1 (2017), 132–53

Rossolinski, G., Stepan Bandera: The Life and Afterlife of a Ukrainian Nationalist: Fascism, Genocide, and Cult (New York, 20014)

Rudling, Per A. ‘The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths’, The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies, 2107 (2011) Available Online Here

Shevel, Oxana, ‘The Politics of Memory in a Divided Society: A Comparison of Post-Franco Spain and Post-Soviet Ukraine’, Slavic Review, 70:1 (2011), 137–64

Siddi, M., ‘The Ukraine Crisis and European Memory Politics of the Second World War’, European Politics and Society, 18:4 (2017) ), 465-79

Snyder, Timothy, ‘The causes of Ukrainian-Polish ethnic cleansing 1943’, Past & Present, 179 (2003), 197-234

__________, Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin (London, 2012)

Umland, Andreas and Yuliya Yurchuk, ‘Introduction: The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in Post-Soviet Ukrainian Memory Politics, Public Debates, and Foreign Affairs’, Journal of Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, 3:2 (2017), 115–28 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 02/02/2022) 

Vushko, Iryna, ‘Historians at War: History, Politics and Memory in Ukraine’, Contemporary European History, 27:1 (2018), 112-24

Wilson, A., Ukraine Crisis: What It Means for the West (New Haven, CT, 2014)

Yekelchyk, Serhy, The Conflict in Ukraine: What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford, 2015)

Yurchuk, Yuliya, ‘Reclaiming the Past, Confronting the Past: OUN–UPA Memory Politics and Nation-Building in Ukraine (1991–2016)’, in War and Memory in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, ed. by Julie Fedor et al. (Basingstoke, 2017), 107–37

Zhurzhenko, Tatiana, ‘“Capital of Despair”: Holodomor Memory and Political Conflicts in Kharkiv after the Orange Revolution’, East European Politics and Societies, 25:3 (2011), 597-639


‘The future of Ukraine’s past’, Krytyka (2015): 



















Core reading:


‘Understanding the Macedonia Name Dispute’, RFE/RL, 6 February 2018:

Matthew Nimetz, ‘The Macedonian “Name” Dispute: The Macedonian Question - Resolved?’, Nationalities Papers, 48:2 (2020), 205-14

Armakolas, Ioannis and George Siakas, ‘“Why Did It Take So Long?” Exploring Greek Public Opinion as an Obstacle to the Settlement of the Macedonia Name Dispute’, Nationalities Papers (First View online: 26 Apr. 2021)

Ivalyo Ditchev, ‘Bulgaria vs. North Macedonia — is there a way forward?’, Deutsche Welle, 10 Jan. 2022:

‘New prime ministers reboot Bulgaria-North Macedonia relations’, Deutsche Welle, 24 Jan. 2022:



Further reading:


Balkan Insight pages on ‘Bulgaria-North Macedonia dispute’:



Armakolas, Ioannis and George Siakas, Greek Public Opinion and Attitudes towards the ‘Name Dispute’ and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Athens, 2016)


__________, What’s in a Name? Greek Public Attitudes towards the ‘Name Dispute’ and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 2018 (Athens: Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign Policy, 2018)

Brunnbauer, Ulf, ‘Ancient Nationhood and the Struggle for Statehood: Historiographic Myths in the Republic of Macedonia’, in Myths and Boundaries in South-Eastern Europe, ed. by Pal Kolstø (London, 2005)

Daskalovski, Zhidas, ‘Clashing Historical Narratives and the Macedonian Name Dispute: Solving the Unsolvable’, Trames: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. 21:4 (2017)


Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, ‘Perspectives on the Skopje-Athens Dialogue’, Political Trends and Dynamics in Southeastern Europe (Sarajevo, 2018)

Heraclides, Alexis, The Macedonian Question and the Macedonians: A History (Abingdon, 2021)

Irwin, Zachary T., ‘Macedonia/North Macedonia since 1989’, in Central and Southeast European Politics since 1989, ed. by Sabrina P. Ramet and Christine M. Hassenstab, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, 2019), pp. 362-98

Kofos, Evangelos, ‘Greek Policy Considerations over FYROM Independence and Recognition’, in The New Macedonian Question, ed. by James Pettifer (London, 2001), pp. 226–63

__________, ‘The controversy over the terms “Macedonians” and “Macedonian”: a probable exit scenario’, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 5:1 (2005)

Pettifer, James (ed.),The New Macedonian Question (London, 2001)

Rossos, Andrew, Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History (Stanford, CA, 2008)

Roudometof, Victor, ‘Nationalism and Identity Politics in the Balkans: Greece and the Macedonian Question’, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, 14:2 (1996)

Sjöberg, Erik, ‘The Past in Peril: Greek History Textbook Controversy and the Macedonian Crisis’, Education Enquiry, 2:1 (2011), 93–107 Available online 

Tziampiris, Aristotle, ‘The Macedonian Name Dispute and European Union Accession’, Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 12:1 (2012)

Vangeli, Anastas, ‘Nation-Building Ancient Macedonian Style: The Origins and the Effects of the So-Called Antiquization in Macedonia’, Nationalities Papers, 39:1 (2011)

Vankovska, Biljana, ‘David vs. Goliath: The Macedonian Position(s) in the Socalled “Name Dispute” with Greece’, Südosteuropa, 58 (2010), 436-67 Available Online Here

Zahariadis, Nikolaos, ‘Greek Policy toward the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia’, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, 14:2 (1996), 303-32



























Core reading:


Waal, Thomas de, ‘The G-Word: The Armenian Massacre and the Politics of Genocide’, Foreign Affairs, 94:1 (2015), 136–48


‘5 Reasons Why Biden’s Recognition of the Armenian Genocide Is Significant’, 26 Apr. 2021


Further reading:


Akçam, Taner, A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility (London, 2007)

_________, The Young Turks’ Crime against Humanity: The Armenian Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing in the Ottoman Empire (Princeton, 2012)

Auron, Yair, The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2004)

Ben Aharon, Eldad, ‘A Unique Denial: Israel's Foreign Policy and the Armenian Genocide’, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 42:4 (2015) 638-54

__________, ‘Between Ankara and Jerusalem: The Armenian Genocide as a Zero-Sum Game in Israel’s Foreign Policy (1980’s–2010’s)’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 20: 5 (2018), 459–76

__________, ‘Recognition of the Armenian Genocide after its Centenary: A Comparative Analysis of Changing Parliamentary Positions’, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, 13:3 (2019), 339-52

__________, ‘Superpower by Invitation: Late Cold War Diplomacy and Leveraging Armenian Terrorism as a Means to Rapprochement in Israeli–Turkish Relations (1980–1987)’, Cold War History, 19:2 (2019), 275–93

___________, ‘How Do We Remember the Armenian Genocide and the Holocaust? A Global View of an Integrated Memory of Perpetrators, Victims and Third-Party Countries’, PRIF Report, 6 (Frankfurt, 2020)

Bloxham, Donald, The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians (London, 2005)

Cheterian, Vicken, Open Wounds: Armenians, Turks and a Century of Genocide (Oxford, 2015)

Dixon, Jennifer, ‘Defending the Nation? Maintaining Turkey's Narrative of the Armenian Genocide’, South European Society and Politics, 15:3 (2010), 467-85

__________, Dark Pasts: Changing the State’s Story in Turkey and Japan (Ithaca, 2018)

Göçek, Fatma Müge, Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present, and Collective Violence against the Armenians, 1789–2009 (New York, 2015)

Gürpınar, Doğan, ‘The manufacturing of denial: the making of the Turkish “official thesis” on the Armenian Genocide between 1974 and 1990’, Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 18:3 (2016), 217-40

Kasbarian,  Sossie, ‘The politics of memory and commemoration: Armenian diasporic reflections on 2015’, Nationalities Papers, 46:1 (2018) 123-43 

Kevorkian, Raymond, The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History (London, 2011)

Koinova, Maria, ‘Diaspora coalition-building for genocide recognition: Armenians, Assyrians and Kurds’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 42:11 (2019), 1890-910

Laycock,  Jo, ‘Beyond National Narratives? Centenary Histories, the First World War and the Armenian Genocide’, Revolutionary Russia, 28:2 (2015), 93-117

Robertson, Geoffrey, An Inconvenient Genocide: Who Now Remembers the Armenians? (London, 2015)

Suny, Ronald Grigor, ‘They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else’: A History of the Armenian Genocide. (Princeton, 2015)

Suny, Ronald Grigor, Fatma Müge Göçek and Norman M. Naimark (eds), A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire (Oxford, 2011)

Üngör, Uğ ur Ümit, The Making of Modern Turkey: Nation and State in Eastern Anatolia, 1913–1950 (Oxford, 2011)

__________, ‘Lost in Commemoration: The Armenian Genocide in Memory and Identity’, Patterns of Prejudice, 48:2 (2014), 147–66

Waal, Thomas de, Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide (Oxford, 2015)


Roundtable: ‘One Hundred Years of Genocide Denial;’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 47:4 (2015)































Core reading:


Tim Stanley, ‘Belgium’s Heart of Darkness’, History Today, 62:10, 10 Oct. 2012:


‘Belgian King Breaks Silence on Colonial Past’, Politico, 30 Jun. 2020:


‘Belgium Staggers Towards Decolonization’, Deutsche Welle, 1 Feb. 2021:



Georgi  Verbeeck, ‘Legacies of an Imperial Past in a Small Nation: Patterns of Postcolonialism in Belgium’, European Politics and Society, 21:3 (2020), 292-306


Further reading:


Bach, Jonathan, ‘Colonial Pasts in Germany’s Present’, German Politics & Society, Issue 133, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Winter 2019), 58-73

Benjamin, Elisabeth, ‘Places and Spaces of Contested Identity in Memorials and Monuments of Paris’, Modern and Contemporary France, advanced access :

De Mul, Sarah, ‘The Holocaust as a Paradigm for the Congo Atrocities: Adam Hochschild's King Leopold's Ghost’, Criticism, 53:4 (2011), 587-606

Dwyer, Philip, ‘Remembering and Forgetting in Contemporary France: Napoleon, Slavery, and the French History Wars’, French Politics, Culture & Society, 26:3 (2008), 110–22

Ewans, M., European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and its Aftermath (London, 2002)

__________, ‘Belgium and the Colonial Experience’, Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 11:2 (2003), 167–180

Gerard, E., and B. Kuklick, Death in the Congo: Murdering Patrice Lumumba (Cambridge, MA, 2015)

Gewald, J.-B., ‘More than Red rubber and figures alone: A critical appraisal of the memory of the Congo exhibition at the Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium’, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 39:3 (2006), 471-86

Goddeeris, I., ‘Postcolonial Belgium: The memory of the Congo’, Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, 17:3 (2015), 434–45

__________, ‘Colonial Streets and statues: Postcolonial Belgium in the public space’, Postcolonial Studies, 18:4 (2015), 397–409

Gryseels, Guido, G. Landry, G., and K. Claessens, ‘Integrating the past: Transformation and renovation of the Royal museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium’, European Review, 13:4 (2005), 637-47

Hassett, Dónal, ‘Acknowledging or Occluding “The System of Violence”?: The Representation of Colonial Pasts and Presents in Belgium’s AfricaMuseum’, Journal of Genocide Research, 22:1 (2020), 26-45

Hochschild, Adam, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa (London,1998)

Hoenig, P.,  ‘Visualizing Trauma: The Belgian Museum for Central Africa and its Discontents’, Postcolonial Studies, 17:4 (2014), 343-66

Kühne, T., ‘Colonialism and the Holocaust: Continuities, causations, and complexities’, Journal of Genocide Research, 15:3 (2013), 339–62

Rahier, J. M., ‘The Ghost of Leopold II: The Belgian Royal Museum of Central Africa and its Dusty Colonialist Exhibition’, Research in African Literatures, 34:1 (2003), 58–84

Schilling, Britta, Postcolonial Germany; Memories of Empire in a Decolonized Nation (Oxford, 2014)

__________, ‘German Postcolonialism in Four Dimensions: A Historical Perspective’, Postcolonial Studies, 18:4 (2015), 427-439

Sèbe, Berny and Matthew G. Stanard (eds), Decolonising Europe? Popular Responses to the End of Empire (London: Routledge, 2020)

Silverman, Debora L., ‘Diasporas of Art: History, the Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa, and the Politics of Memory in Belgium, 1885–2014’, The Journal of Modern History, 87:3 (2015), 615–67

Stanard, Matthew G.,, The Leopard, the Lion and the Cock: Colonial Memories and Monuments in Belgium (Leuven, 2019)

Stanard, Matthew G., ‘King Leopold’s Bust: A Story of Monuments, Culture and Memory in Colonial Europe’, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, 12:2 (Fall 2011)

Vanthemsche, Guy, Belgium and the Congo, 1885–1980 (Cambridge, 2012)

Wastiau, Boris, ‘The Legacy of Collecting: Colonial Collecting in the Belgian Congo and the Duty of Unveiling Provenance’, in The Oxford Handbook of Public History, ed. by Paula Hamilton and James B. Gardner (Oxford, 2017)

Verbeeck, Georgi, ‘Coming to terms with the (post-)colonial past in Belgium: The inquiry into the assassination of Patrice Lumumba’, in Contemporary history on Trial. Europe since 1989 and the role of the expert historian, ed. by H. Jones,  K. Östberg and N. Randeraad  (Manchester, 2007), pp. 46–61

















This list was last updated on 31/01/2022