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HIST2045
HIST2045 Reading Lists 2021-2022

Transformations of the Roman World, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Jonathan Jarrett
J.Jarrett@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General Reading List

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Secondary Surveys

(Ordered alphabetically by author surname)

*Peter R. L. Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971; repr. London: The Folio Society, 2014)

Peter R. L. Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, A. D. 200–1000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996, 2nd ed. 2002)

Peter R. L. Brown, Through the Eye of a Needle: Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2013)

Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire, AD 284–430 (London: Fontana, 1993, 2nd ed. 2012)

Averil Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 375–700 (London: Routledge, 1993, 2nd ed. 2012)

*Roger Collins,  Early Medieval Europe 300–1000 (London: Longman, 1991, 2nd ed. 1997, 3rd ed. 2010)

Peter Garnsey and Richard Saller, The Roman Empire: Economy, Society and Culture (Berkeley: University of California, 1987)

Jeremy K. Knight, The End of Antiquity: Archaeology, Society and Religion AD 235-700 (Stroud: Tempus, 1999)

*Stephen Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284–641, 2nd ed. (Hoboken: Wiley, 2015)

David Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180–395 (London: Routledge, 2004)

Richard Reece, The Later Roman Empire: An Archaeology AD 150-600 (Stroud: Tempus, 1999)

*Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean 400–800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005): especially valuable for economic matters; work from the index

*Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London: Allen Lane, 2009; repr. London: Penguin, 2009)

 

If in doubt, resort can always be made to the Cambridge Ancient History and the New Cambridge Medieval History, which are modern part-works with essays by many experts on various matters (ordered in series):

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 11: The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Dominic Rathbone, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 12: The Crisis of Empire A.D. 193–337, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Averil Cameron, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 13: The Late Empire, A.D. 337–425, ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins and Michael Whitby, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500– c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

 

And see also:

The Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 1: Origins to Constantine, ed. by Margaret Mary Mitchell, Frances M. Young, and K. Scott Bowie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)

The Cambridge History of Christianity Volume 2: Constantine to c. 600, ed. by Augustine Casiday and Frederick W. Norris (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

The Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 3: Early Medieval Christianities, c. 600– c. 1100, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and Julia M. H. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, ed. by Dennis Sinor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods, ed. by Ehsan Yarshater (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983): with care! Older than the rest, and Iranian studies seemed then to work on different standards of proof to the rest of the academy

The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World, ed. by Michele Renee Salzmann (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

The Cambridge World History, volume 4: A World with States, Empires and Networks, 1200 BCE‒900 CE, ed. by Craig Benjamin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

The Cambridge World History, volume 5: Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conflict, 500 CE‒1500 CE, ed. by Benjamin Z. Kedar and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

The New Cambridge History of Islam, volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries, ed. by Chase F. Robinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010)

 

For simple fact-checking or looking up technical terms, there is now available the fantastic The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, ed. by Oliver Nicholson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018): almost everything has a short entry with further references there, with a number written by Leeds staff!

 

Two good resources for recent historiographical debates on most issues covered by this module are:

The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009).

 

As for primary material, many of the most important primary sources are available in translation, but two useful compilations are:

Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook, ed. by Michael Maas (London: Routledge, 2000)

Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, ed. by William Stearns Davis, 2 vols (Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1912), ii <https://archive.org/details/readingsinancien011109mbp> [accessed 20 May 2021]: this is much older than Maas but is on the open web

If you need more than these give you or are looking for a specific source, a list of other translations can be found at Historian on the Edge, ‘Translations of Late Antique Sources, c.300-c.800: A Hand List’, Historian on the Edge, 1 February 2012 <https://edgyhistorian.blogspot.com/2012/02/translations-of-late-antique-sources.html> [accessed 20 May 2021], but much has been published even since then. See also the primary source sections of the weekly bibliographies, of course!

 

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Websites and Online Resources

(Note: all sites listed here were live when accessed 20 May 2021.) Most primary sources are online somewhere. Good places to look are Project Gutenberg <http://www.gutenberg.org>, the Internet Archive <https://archive.org/details/texts>, or (for selections) the Internet Sourcebooks Project, specifically the Internet Ancient Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall, <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/ancient/asbook.asp>, and the Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/sbook.asp>.

As for secondary material, there are many relevant websites, though not many are written by people with any more knowledge than you should have by the time you finish the module. Lots of scholarly articles can be found on Academia.edu <http://www.academia.edu>, but it is not easily searchable. The easiest way to find articles on the site is to include the string ‘site:academia.edu’, without quotes, in a Google search on the topic you are interested in,, rather than going to the site itself. An account is only necessary to download files, and we do not recommend that you register for one; you can read materials on the site without it.

A website that can be unequivocally recommended is De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families, ed. by Richard D. Wiegel <http://www.roman-emperors.org>. As the title suggests, this is a site dedicated to the Roman Emperors: most of the entries are excellent, having been written specially by then-leading Late-Antique scholars in the United States.

Wikipedia had many good entries on Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages at time of writing, which often also have useful external links providing online access to sources in translation). Wikipedia is always subject to change, however, and is therefore best used as a route to other sources rather than a reference itself.

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Week 1. Geopolitics and Periodization

It is likely that you have not studied this period before, and so the first order of business is to give you some outline sense of its historical shape and dynamics. Following fast on that is the question of whether, with some massive socio-political changes within it, it even counts as one period. In 1971 the historian Peter Brown popularized the term ‘late Antiquity’ for the era roughly from 2nd to 8th centuries, but the label has not been without contest. Our questions for this week, other than simply ‘what happened when?’, are thus: what, if anything, was there about this period that makes of it a historical unity? Was that thing the same in both West and East? What divisions were there within this world and time which ought still to be recognised? And how well do those divisions map onto each other?

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Required Readings

Primary Source

Bede, ‘The Greater Chronicle’, in The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, by Bede, trans. by Roger Collins and Judith McClure (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 307‒40 (‘The Sixth Age’)   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Secondary Reading

Craig Benjamin and Merry Wiesner-Hanks, ‘The Mediterranean’, in The Cambridge World History, volume 4: A World with States, Empires and Networks, ed. by Craig Benjamin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 325‒49  

Peter Brown, ‘The World of Late Antiquity Revisited’, Symbolae Osloenses, 72.1 (1997), 5–30: there are ten responses to Brown’s article following it, which may also be of interest; they are short  

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Background Reading

*Peter R. L. Brown, The World of Late Antiquity (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971; repr. London: The Folio Society, 2014)

G. W. Bowersock, Empires in Collision in Late Antiquity (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012) <https://www.upne.com/TOC/TOC_1611683202.html> [accessed 17 November 2020]: short

*Gillian Clark, Late Antiquity: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Jeremy K. Knight, The End of Antiquity: Archaeology, Society and Religion AD 235-700 (Stroud: Tempus, 1999)

Peter Brown, Late Antiquity, trans. by Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998): shortest of all!

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Readings in Late Antiquity: A Sourcebook, ed. by Michael Maas (London: Routledge, 2000)

Richard Reece, The Later Roman Empire: An Archaeology AD 150-600 (Stroud: Tempus, 1999)

Katherine Reynolds Brown, Migration Art, A.D. 300–800 (New York, N.Y: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Migration_Art_AD_300_800> [accessed 17 October 2012].

Secondary Works

Empires and Exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity: Rome, China, Iran, and the Steppe, ca. 250–750, ed. by Nicola Di Cosmo and Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)

Ian Wood, ‘The Transformation of Late Antiquity 1971 – 2015’, Networks and Neighbours, 4.1 (2016), 1–25: historiographical review OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CRH 29/07/2021)

The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012): essays on pretty much all subjects

A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009): as previous but with a more critical and less introductory angle

Tamara Lewit Gibbon, ‘Changing Concepts of Late Antiquity: The Rise and Fall of Gibbonism’, Bulletin de l’Association pour l’Antiquité tardive, 10, 2001, 33–37:  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CRH 29/07/2021): a targeted historical review  

Interpreting Late Antiquity: Essays on the Postclassical World, ed. by G. W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, and Oleg Grabar (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999)

Periodization and Regionalization

Mark Humphries, ‘Late Antiquity and World History: Challenging Conventional Narratives and Analyses’, Studies in Late Antiquity, 1.1 (2017), 8–37 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CRH 29/07/2021)   

Late Antiquity in Contemporary Debate, ed. by Rita Lizzi Testa (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017), esp. Jean-Michel Carrié, ‘The Historical Path of “Late Antiquity”: From Transformation to Rupture’, pp. 174–214

Garth Fowden, ‘Late Antiquity, Islam, and the First Millennium: A Eurasian Perspective’, Millennium, 13 (2016), 5–28: published alongside six responses which are also useful

Late Antiquity: Eastern Perspectives, ed. by Teresa Bernheimer and Adam Silverstein (Warminster: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2012)

*Arnaldo Marcone, ‘A Long Late Antiquity?: Considerations on a Controversial Periodization’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 1.1 (2008), 4–19

*Michael Kulikowski, ‘Drawing a Line Under Antiquity: Archaeological and Historical Categories of Evidence in the Transition from the Ancient World to the Middle Ages’, in Paradigms and Methods in Early Medieval Studies, ed. by Celia Chazelle and Felice Lifshitz, The New Middle Ages (New York City, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2007), pp. 171–84

Intellectual and Religious Traditions

Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity, ed. by David M. Gwynn and Susanne Bangert, Late Antique Archaeology, 6 (Leiden: Brill, 2010): mainly material-cultural

A. H. Merrills, History and Geography in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008)

Constructing Identities in Late Antiquity, ed. by Richard Miles (New York City, NY: Routledge, 1999)

Sabine MacCormack, ‘How the Past Is Remembered: From Antiquity to Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Beyond’, in The Past and Future of Medieval Studies, ed. by John Van Engen (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1994), pp. 105–28.

Peter Brown, Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982): collected papers from the first half of Brown’s long career

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Week 2. The Position of the Emperor

This module is focused primarily on the super-state which we call either the Roman or the Byzantine Empire. (That is a basically academic division: its people always called it the Empire of the Romans.) The head of this state, obviously, was the emperor, but that role was not well defined. How were emperors chosen? What could emperors do, or not? What could go wrong with the imperial system? And was there any space in this system for women? We focus here on the pre-Christian Empire.

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Required Readings

Primary Source

Historia Augusta, trans. by David Magie, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1921, online ed. 2014), i, 371‒429: this is a facing-page Latin and English version, and obviously you only need the English, so this is half as long as it looks!  

Secondary Reading (in suggested order)

Michael Peachin, 'Rome the Superpower 96–235 CE', in  A Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. by David S. Potter (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006), pp. 126–52  

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, ‘Civilis princeps: Between Citizen and King’, Journal of Roman Studies, 72 (1982), 32–48  

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Background Reading

David Potter, ‘The Transformation of the Empire: 235–337 CE’, in Companion to the Roman Empire, ed. by Potter, as above, pp. 153–73

David Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay, AD 180–395 (London: Routledge, 2004)

The Cambridge Ancient History volume 11: The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey and Dominic Rathbone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000)

Martin Goodman and Jane Sherwood, The Roman World, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge, 1997)

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Aurelius Victor, About the Emperors, trans. as Aurelius Victor, Liber de Caesaribus of Sextus Aurelius Victor, trans. by Harry W. Bird (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994)

Cassius Dio, Roman History, ed. by Herbert Baldwin Foster, trans. by Earnest J. Carey, 9 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914–27, online ed. 2014), ix

Eutropius, Abridgement of Roman History, trans. by John Selby Watson (London: Bohn, 1853), Book IX <http://www.forumromanum.org/literature/eutropius/index.html> [last modified 7 September 2010 as of 26 May 2021]

Secondary Works

On the Sources

Diederik Burgersdijk, ‘Pliny's Panegyricus and the Historia Augusta’, Arethusa, 45 (2013), 289–312

Fritz-Heiner Mutschler, ‘The Problem of “Imperial Historiography” in Rome’, in Conceiving the Empire: China and Rome Compared, ed. by Fritz-Heiner Mutschler and Achim Mittag (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 119–41

Ronald Syme, Emperors and Biography: Studies in the Historia Augusta (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971): very, er, stylish, but with important points

Political systems and ideology

*Inge Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (Leiden: Brill, 2011)

Olivier J. Hekster, ‘Fighting for Rome: The Emperor as a Military Leader’, in The Impact of the Roman Army (200 BC-AD 476): Economic, Social, Political, Religious, and Cultural Aspects, ed. by Lukas de Blois and Elio lo Cascio (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 91–106

Werner Eck, ‘The Emperor and His Advisors’, and ‘Emperor, Senate and Magistrates’, both in The Cambridge Ancient History volume 11, ed. by Bowman, Garnsey and Rathbone, as above, pp. 195–213 and 214–37

Fergus Millar, ‘Emperors, Kings and Subjects: The Politics of Two-Level Sovereignty’, Studia Classica Israelica, 15 (1996), 159–73 <https://scriptaclassica.org/index.php/sci/article/view/4335> [last modified 24 October 2017 as of 16 August 2021]

Empresses and princesses

Judith Herrin, ‘Late Antique Origins of the “Imperial Feminine”: Western and Eastern Empresses Compared’, Byzantinoslavica, 74.1–2 (2016), 5–25

Julie Langford, Maternal Megalomania: Julia Domna and the Imperial Politics of Motherhood (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013): cf. Levick!

Pat Southern, Empress Zenobia: Palmyra’s Rebel Queen (London: A&C Black, 2008)

*Barbara Levick, Julia Domna: Syrian Empress (London: Routledge, 2007); cf. Langford!

Jasper Burns, Great Women of Imperial Rome: Mothers and Wives of the Caesars (London: Routledge, 2006), pp. 125‒245

(Male) Imperial biographies (there are many; here are some, in historical order)

Julian Bennett, Trajan, optimus princeps: A Life and Times (London: Routledge, 1997)

Anthony Birley, Hadrian: The Restless Emperor (London: Routledge, 1997)

Anthony Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography, 2nd ed. (London: Batsford, 1987)

Olivier Hekster, Commodus: An Emperor at the Crossroads (Leiden: Brill, 2002)

*Anthony R. Birley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 1988)

John Jefferson Bray, Gallienus: A Study in Reformist and Sexual Politics (Auckland, NZ: Wakefield Press, 1997)

Alaric Watson, Aurelian and the Third Century (London: Routledge, 1999)

Stephen Williams, Diocletian and the Roman Recovery (New York: Routledge, 1997)

Bill Leadbetter, Galerius and the Will of Diocletian (London: Routledge, 2009)

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Week 3. The Representation of Power

Authority is kind of useless if no-one believes that you can apply it. Unsurprisingly, therefore, all the polities covered in this module put some effort into projecting an impression of their own power. In societies at best partially literate, though much could be communicated in text via other readers, visual representation was understandably common, whence many monuments, but also smaller broadcasts of power like coins. What messages did these various transmissions send, and to whom? Did they work, and how? Were all competing civilisations using the same tools, or was this culturally specific signalling? And how far does surviving evidence correctly convey the experience of the time?

N. B. in a perfect world this class will be taught in Special Collections with the aid of genuine ancient coins from the University’s collections. If Covid-19 prevents this, I apologise in advance.

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Required Readings

Primary Source

‘Rome: A Thousand Years of Monetary History’, American Numismatic Society <http://numismatics.org/rome-a-thousand-years-of-monetary-history/> [accessed 7 June 2021]: the first section is not important for us (though it may help). Follow the links actually to see the coins!  

Secondary Reading (in suggested order)

Jonathan Jarrett, ‘Coinage in the Western World at the End of the Roman Empire and After: Tradition, Imitation and Innovation’, in From Constantinople to Chang’an: Byzantine Gold Coins in the World of Late Antiquity, ed. by Sven Günther, Qiang Li, Lin Ying and Claudia Sode, Supplements to the Journal of Ancient Civilizations, 8 (presented at the International Conference in Changchun, China, 23‒26 June 2017, Changchun: Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations, 2021), pp. 31–74    

Nikolaus Schindel, ‘Sasanian Coinage’, in The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran, ed. by Daniel T. Potts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 814–40  

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Background Reading

Stephen Mitchell, A History of the Later Roman Empire, AD 284-641: The Transformation of the Ancient World, 2nd ed. (Malden: John Wiley, 2014)

Beate Dignas and Engelbert Winter, Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity: Neighbours and Rivals (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Coinage, ed. by William E. Metcalf (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 405‒666

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

‘The Inscription of Shapur I at Naqsh-e Rustam in Fars’, trans. by Ethan Spanier (University of Massachusetts-Lowell, 2012) <http://faculty.uml.edu/ethan_spanier/Teaching/documents/ResGestaeShapurINAQSH.pdf> [accessed 16 March 2016].

Katherine Reynolds Brown, Migration Art, A.D. 300–800 (New York, N.Y: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Migration_Art_AD_300_800> [accessed 17 October 2012]

Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965)

Prokopios, Buildings, printed as Procopius, ed. and trans. by H. B. Dewing, 7 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914, online ed. 2014), vii

Secondary Works

Power and Representation

Imagining Emperors in the Later Roman Empire, ed. by Diederik P. W. Burgersdijk and Alan J. Ross (Leiden: Brill, 2018)

James A. Francis, ‘Visual and Verbal Representation: Image, Text, Person, and Power’, in A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), pp. 285–305

Erika Manders, ‘Mapping the Representation of Imperial Power in Times of Crisis’, in Crises and the Roman Empire, ed. by Olivier Hekster, Gerda de Kleijn, and Daniëlle Slootjes (Leiden: Brill, 2007), pp. 275–90

Michael McCormick, ‘Emperor and Court’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, AD 425-600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins, and Michael Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 135–63

Monuments and Architecture

Touraj Daryaee, ‘On Forgetting Cyrus and Remembering the Achaemenids in Late Antique Iran’, in Cyrus the Great: Life and Lore, ed. by M. Rahim Shayegan, Ilex Foundation Series, 21 (Boston, MA: Ilex Foundation, 2019), pp. 221–31

Matthew P. Canepa, ‘Technologies of Memory in Early Sasanian Iran: Achaemenid Sites and Sasanian Identity’, American Journal of Archaeology, 114.4 (2010), 563–96

Hubertus von Gall, ‘New Perspectives on Sasanian Rock Reliefs’, in Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and History, ed. by Derek Kennet and Paul Luft (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2008), pp. 149–61

Emmanuel Mayer, ‘Civil War and Public Dissent: The State Monuments of the Decentralised Roman Empire’, and Carlos Machado, ‘Building the Past: Monuments and Memory in the Forum Romanum’, both in Social and Political Life in Late Antiquity, ed. by William Bowden, Adam Gutteridge and Carlos Machado (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 141–55 and pp. 157–92

Marlia Mundell Mango, ‘Building and Architecture’, in Cambridge Ancient History 14, ed. by Cameron, Ward-Perkins and Whitby, as above, pp. 918–71

A. L. Frothingham, ‘Who Built the Arch of Constantine? Its History from Domitian to Constantine’, American Journal of Archaeology, 16.3 (1912), 368–86: still useful despite great age

Coinage and Power

*Jonathan J. Arnold, ‘Theoderic’s Invincible Mustache’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 13 (2013), 152–83

Cécile Morrisson, ‘Displaying the Emperor’s Authority and Kharaktèr in the Marketplace’, in Authority in Byzantium, ed. by Pamela Armstrong (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 65–82

Erika Manders, Coining Images of Power: Patterns in the Representation of Roman Emperors on Imperial Coinage, A.D. 193-284 (Leiden: Brill, 2012)

Richard Reece, ‘Coins and Politics in the Late Roman World’, in Bowden, Gutteridge and Machado, Social and Political Life, as above, pp. 113–37

Christopher Howgego, ‘Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces’, in Coinage and Identity in the Roman Provinces, ed. by Christopher Howgego, Volker Heuchert, and Andrew Burnett (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 1–17: other papers also relevant

Carlos F. Noreña, ‘The Communication of the Emperor’s Virtues’, Journal of Roman Studies, 91 (2001), 146–68

*Catherine E. King, ‘Roman Portraiture: Images of Power?’, in Roman Coins and Public Life under the Empire, ed. by G. M. Paul and M. Ierardi (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999), pp. 61–82

Week 4. Local Power

Emperors might be all-powerful, or look it, but authority and actually being able to get things done are not the same. Over a territory the size of those with which we deal in this module, with no form of communication more rapid than a horse, delegation was a necessary evil. Thus, imperial power was mostly felt and carried out at the local level, by people whose authority reflected the emperor’s but also often drew on their own standing. What tensions existed between central and local power? Could anyone exercise power locally without local standing, or without central backing? Was power based more in law or in charisma? And how did religion help create that charisma if so?

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Required Readings

Primary Source

‘St Daniel the Stylite’, in Three Byzantine Saints: Contemporary Biographies of St Daniel the Stylite, St Theodore of Sykeon and St John the Almsgiver, Translated from the Greek, trans. by Elizabeth Dawes, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Mowbrays, 1977), pp. 1–84 (pp. 14‒44 (cc. 14‒62)   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Secondary Reading (in suggested order)

Peter Brown, ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity’, Journal of Roman Studies, 61 (1971), 80–101, repr. in Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity, by Brown (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 103–52, or in Christentum und Antike Gesellschaft, ed. by Jochen Martin and Barbara Quint (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1990), pp. 391–439  

Mark Whittow, ‘Ruling the Late Roman and Early Byzantine City: A Continuous History’, Past & Present, 129, 1990, 3–29  

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Background Reading

Christopher Kelly, Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004)

Hartmut Galsterer, ‘Local and Provincial Institutions and Government’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 11: The High Empire, A.D. 70–192, ed. by Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey, and Dominic Rathbone, 2nd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 344–60

Sam Barnish, A. D. Lee, and Michael Whitby, ‘Government and Administration’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, AD 425-600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins, and Michael Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 164–206

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Olivier Hekster, Rome and Its Empire, AD 193-284 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008), pp. 121‒42

Ioannes Lydus, On Powers, or the Magistracies of the Roman State (De Magistratibus Reipublicae Romanae), trans. by Anastasius C. Bandy (Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2013)

Select Papyri: Public Documents, ed. by Arthur S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934; online edition 2014)

Secondary Works

Power and charisma

John Weisweiler, ‘Populist Despotism and Infrastructural Power in the Later Roman Empire’, in Ancient States and Infrastructural Power: Europe, Asia and America, ed. by Clifford Ando and Seth Richardson (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017), pp. 149–78

*Inge Mennen, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (Leiden: Brill, 2011)

John Drinkwater, ‘Women and Horses and Power and War’, in Urban Centers and Rural Contexts in Late Antiquity, ed. by Thomas S. Burns and John W. Eadie (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 2001), pp. 135–46

Law and justice

Caroline Humfress, ‘Law in Practice’, in A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), pp. 377–91

Caroline Humfress, ‘Law and Justice in the Later Roman Empire’, in A.H.M. Jones and the Later Roman Empire, ed. by David M. Gwynn (Leiden: Brill, 2008), pp. 121–42

Jill Harries, Law and Empire in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)

Jill Harries, ‘Constructing the Judge: Judicial Accountability and the Culture of Criticism in Late Antiquity’, in Constructing Identities in Late Antiquity, ed. by Richard Miles (New York City, NY: Routledge, 1999), pp. 214–33

Religious authority

Alexander Panayotov, ‘Jewish Communal Offices in Late Roman and Byzantine Law and Jewish Inscriptions from the Balkans’, in Jews in Early Christian Law: Byzantium and the Latin West, 6th‒11th Centuries, ed. by John Victor Tolan, Nicholas de Lange, Laurence Foschia and Capucine Nemo-Pekelman (Turnhout: Brepols, 2014), pp. 167–77

Scott McDonough, ‘Bishops or Bureaucrats?: Christian Clergy and the State in the Middle Sasanian Period’, in Current Research in Sasanian Archaeology, Art and History, ed. by Derek Kennet and Paul Luft (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2008), pp. 87–92

Adolf Ritter, ‘Church and State up to c.300 CE’, in The Cambridge History of Christianity, 1: Origins to Constantine, ed. by Margaret Mary Mitchell and Frances M. Young with K. Scott Bowie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 524–37

*Peter R. L. Brown, ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity, 1971-1997’, Journal of Early Christian Studies, 6.3 (1998), 353–76: review of impact of his old article

Peter Brown, ‘Town, Village and Holy Man: The Case of Syria’, in Brown, Society and the Holy, as above, pp. 153–65

Making the Empire work

Daniëlle Slootjes, ‘Governing the Empire: The Effects of the Diocletianic and Constantinian Provincial Reforms Under the Sons of Constantine’, in The Sons of Constantine, AD 337-361: In the Shadows of Constantine and Julian, ed. by Nicholas J. Baker-Brian and Shaun Tougher (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020), pp. 255–74

Peter Heather, ‘Running the Empire: Bureaucrats, Curials, and Senators’, in Gwynn, Jones and the Later Roman Empire, as above, pp. 97–119

John F. Haldon, ‘Economy and Administration: How Did the Empire Work?’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, ed. by Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 28–59

Ramsay MacMullen, Corruption and the Decline of Rome (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988)

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Week 5. The Spread of Christianity

Born in the polytheistic Roman Empire, during our period Christianity became a matter of such concern that intermittent persecutions of its practitioners were attempted. This ended suddenly in 311 and, next year, Christianity was legalized throughout the Roman Empire. By then, however, it had already spread beyond imperial borders, and furthermore had broken into violently opposed factions. Imperial acceptance brought new regulation to the growing religion, but also brought it into the state. How can Christianity’s success be explained? What was gained and lost from imperial support? Why were its disputes so hard to resolve? And how did Christianity outside relate to the imperial Church?

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Required Readings

Primary Source

Bishop Cyprian of Carthage, Epistles, trans. in The Epistles of S. Cyprian with the Council of Carthage on the Baptism of Heretics (Oxford: J. H. Parker, 1844), pp. 40–44 and 46–59 (nos 16, 17, and 20–27), full view on Google Books here   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 21/01/2022)   

Secondary Reading (in suggested order)

Peter Brown, ‘Christianization and Religious Conflict’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 13: The Late Empire, A.D. 337-425, 2nd edn., ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 632‒63  

Allen Brent, Cyprian and Roman Carthage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 2–22   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

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Background Reading

The Cambridge History of Christianity, volume 1: Origins to Constantine, ed. by Margaret Mary Mitchell, Frances M. Young, and K. Scott Bowie (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire, AD 284–430, 1st edn (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 30‒98 (esp. 60‒98): easy reading political and social background

Robert Markus, The End of Ancient Christianity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990)

Ramsay MacMullen, Christianizing the Roman Empire (A. D. 100–400) (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984)

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

‘大秦景教流行中國碑 : Stele on the diffusion of the Luminous Religion of Da Qin (Rome) in the Middle Kingdom’, trans. by L. Eccles and Sam Lieu (SERICA, 2016) <https://www.mq.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/55987/Xian-Nestorian-Monument-27-07-2016.pdf> [accessed 24 June 2019]

‘Texts Relating to Axum, Christianity, and Relations with the Roman Empire’, ed. and trans. by Christopher Haas, <https://web.archive.org/web/20160306050355/http://www29.homepage.villanova.edu/christopher.haas/Ethiopia-txts.htm> [captured 6 March 2016 as of 8 June 2021]

Eusebius, Life of Constantine, ed. and trans. by Averil Cameron and Stuart G. Hall (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999)

Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, ed. by John E. L. Oulton and trans. by Kirsopp Lake, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1926, online ed. 2014)

The Doctrine of Addai, ed. and trans. by George Phillips (London: Trübner, 1876), ed. by Roger Pearse <http://www.ccel.org/ccel/pearse/morefathers/files/addai_2_text.htm> [accessed 8 June 2021]

Secondary Works

Clifford Ando, ‘Religion and Violence in Late Roman North Africa’, and H. A. Drake, ‘Monotheism and Violence’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 6 (2013), 197–202 and 251–63

Ramsay MacMullen, The Second Church: Popular Christianity A. D. 200–400 (Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009)

Robert A. Markus, ‘The Problem of Self-Definition: From Sect to Church’, in Jewish and Christian Self-Definition, ed. by E. P. Sanders and Ben F. Meyer, 3 vols (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1980–83), i, 1–15 <http://ww3.haverford.edu/religion/courses/122a/markus.pdf> [last modified 9 April 2015 as of 27 November 2016], repr. in From Augustine to Gregory the Great, by Robert Markus (London: Variorum, 1983), chapter I

Processes of Conversion

Jaclyn Maxwell, ‘Paganism and Christianization’, in The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 849–75

Richard Lim, ‘Christianization, Secularization, and the Transformation of Public Life’, in A Companion to Late Antiquity, ed. by Philip Rousseau and Jutta Raithel (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), pp. 497–511

Michele Renee Salzman, The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004)

Eric Rebillard, ‘Conversion and Burial in the Late Roman Empire’, in Conversion in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: Seeing and Believing, ed. by Kenneth Mills and Anthony Grafton (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2003), pp. 61‒83

The Empire and the Church

H. A. Drake, ‘The Impact of Constantine on Christianity’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, ed. by Noel Lenski (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 111‒36

Anatova Stamenko, ‘Barbarians and the Empire-Wide Spread of Christianity’, in The Spread of Christianity in the First Four Centuries: Essays in Explanation, ed. by William V. Harris (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 69–86

*Garth Fowden, Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993)

*Raymond van Dam, 'The Many Conversions of the Emperor Constantine', in Conversion in Late Antiquity, ed. by Mills and Grafton, as above, pp. 127–51

David Hunt, ‘The Church as a Public Institution’, in Cameron and Garnsey, Cambridge Ancient History 13, as above, pp. 238‒74

Authority within Christianity

Raymond Van Dam, ‘Bishops and Society’, in The Cambridge History of Christianity Volume 2: Constantine to c. 600, ed. by Augustine Casiday and Frederick W. Norris (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 343–66

Henry Chadwick, ‘Orthodoxy and Heresy from the Death of Constantine to the Eve of the First Council of Ephesus’, in Cameron and Garnsey, Cambridge Ancient History 13, as above, pp. 561‒600

Christianity outside the Empire

Jan Willem Drijvers, ‘The Protonike Legend, the Doctrina Addai and Bishop Rabbula of Edessa’, Vigiliae christiana, 51 (1997), 298–315

*S. P. Brock, ‘The “Nestorian” Church: A Lamentable Misnomer’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 78.3 (1996), 23–35

Persia

Justin David Strong, ‘Candida: An Ante-Nicene Martyr in Persia’, Journal of Early Christian Studies, 23 (2015), 389–412

Philip Wood, ‘Collaborators and Dissidents: Christians in Sasanian Iraq in the Early Fifth Century CE’, in Late Antiquity: Eastern Perspectives, ed. by Teresa Bernheimer and Adam Silverstein (Warminster: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2012), pp. 57–70

Gerrit J. Reinink, ‘Tradition and the Formation of the “Nestorian” Identity in Sixth- to Seventh-Century Iraq’, Church History and Religious Culture, 89.1/3 (2007), 217–50

A. V. Williams, ‘Zoroastrians and Christians in Sasanian Iran’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 78 (1996), 37–54

Christopher Buck, ‘The Universality of the Church of the East: How Persian Was Persian Christianity’, Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society, 10.1 (1996), 54–95

 

Central Asia

Joel Walker, ‘From Nisibis to Xi’an: The Church of the East in Late Antique Eurasia’, in The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity, ed. by Scott Fitzgerald Johnson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 994–1052

E. C. D. Hunter, ‘The Church of the East in Central Asia’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 78.3 (1996), 129–42

Owen Lattimore, ‘A Ruined Nestorian City in Inner Mongolia’, in Studies in Frontier History: Collected Papers, 1928 - 1958, by Owen Lattimore (London: Oxford University Press, 1962), pp. 221–40 <https://roxanarodriguezortiz.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/lattimore_1962-studies-in-frontier-history-collected-papers-1928-1958-by-lattimore-s.pdf> [accessed 2 March 2020]

China

Richard Todd Godwin, Persian Christians at the Chinese Court: The Xi’an Stele and the Early Medieval Church of the East (London: I.B. Tauris, 2018)

Scott Fitzgerald Johnson, ‘Silk Road Christians and the Translation of Culture in Tang China’, in Translating Christianity, ed. by Simon Ditchfield, Charlotte Methuen, and Andrew Spicer, Studies in Church History, 53 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017), pp. 15–38

Aksum (Ethiopia)

David W. Phillipson, Foundations of an Ancient Civilisation: Aksum and the Northern Horn, 1000 BC – AD 1300 (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2014), esp. pp. 91–107

Christopher Haas, ‘Mountain Constantines: the Christianization of Aksum and Iberia’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 1 (2008), 101–26

Niall Finneran, ‘Ethiopian Christian Material Culture: The International Context. Aksum, the Mediterranean and the Syriac Worlds in the Fifth to Seventh Centuries’, Reading Medieval Studies, 32 (2007), 75–89

India

Robert Eric Frykenberg, Christianity in India: From Beginnings to the Present (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), esp. pp. 91‒115

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Week 6. The Rise of Islam

Although Muhammad preached towards the end of this module’s period, the obvious parallels between the spreads of Islam and that of Christianity make them useful to study together. Islam’s spread was far faster than Christianity’s, and also driven largely by military conquest; but it was not, usually, an evangelist religion after the time of its prophet. What lay behind Islam’s phenomenal success as a military-political ideology? What effect did it have in the areas which it conquered? How did its attitude to other religions differ from that of Christianity? And how did its structures of authority compare to the Christian Church?

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Required Readings

Primary Source

‘Pact of Umar, 7th Century?’, in Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall. [accessed 10 June 2021]  

Secondary Reading (in suggested order)

Richard Fletcher, The Cross and the Crescent: Christianity and Islam from Muhammad to the Reformation (London: Penguin, 2003), pp. 1-29     OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 21/01/2022) 

David J. Wasserstein, ‘ISIS, Christianity, and the Pact of Umar’, Yale University Press Blog, 2017. [accessed 10 June 2021]  

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Background Reading

James Howard-Johnston, Witnesses to a World Crisis: Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 436‒510

Hugh Kennedy, The Great Arab Conquests: How the Spread of Islam Changed the World We Live In, (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2007)

Carole Hillenbrand, ‘Muhammad and the Rise of Islam’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500- c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 317–45

*Hugh Kennedy, The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century, 3rd ed. (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2015), pp. 1–106

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd Allāh al-Azdī, The Early Muslim Conquest of Syria: An English Translation of al-Azdī’s Futūḥ al-Shām, trans. by Hamada Hassanein and Jens J. Scheiner (New York City, NY: Routledge, 2019)

‘The Chronicle of Seert’, trans. by Anthony Alcock, 2014 <https://archive.org/details/AlcockChronicleOfSeertET/> [accessed 21 June 2020]

Marcus Milwright, An Introduction to Islamic Archaeology (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010)

Clive Foss, Arab-Byzantine Coins: An Introduction, with a Catalogue of the Dumbarton Oaks Collection (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2008)

The Seventh Century in the West-Syrian Chronicles, including two Seventh-Century Syriac Apocalyptic Texts, ed. by Robert Hoyland and trans. by Andrew Palmer and Sebastian Brock (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1993)

Secondary Works

Controversial Syntheses

*Garth Fowden, ‘Late Antiquity, Islam, and the First Millennium: A Eurasian Perspective’, Millennium, 13 (2016), 5–28: short version of new book, with whole journal issue of responses to follow up

Olof Heilo, Eastern Rome and the Rise of Islam: History and Prophecy (Abingdon: Routledge, 2015)

Fred M. Donner, Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010) <https://archive.org/details/MuhammadAndTheBelieversByFredM.Donner> [accessed 9 January 2019]

*Peter Von Sivers, ‘The Islamic Origins Debate Goes Public’, History Compass, 1.1 (2003), 1–16

Patricia Crone, Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987): controversial! Compare R. B. Serjeant, ‘Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam: Misconceptions and Flawed Polemics’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 90 (1990), 472–86, and Crone, ‘Serjeant and Meccan Trade’, Arabica, 39 (1992), 216–40

Source Problems

Robert Hoyland, ‘Writing the Biography of the Prophet Muhammad: Problems and Solutions’, History Compass, 5 (2007), 581–602

*Robert Hoyland, Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam (Princeton: Darwin, 1997)

Fred M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing (Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1998)

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Greg Fisher, ‘Kingdoms or Dynasties? Arabs, History, and Identity before Islam’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 4.2 (2011), 245–67

*Mark Whittow, ‘The Late Roman/Early Byzantine Near East’, Josef Wiesehöfer, ‘The Late Sasanian Near East’, and Michael Lecker, ‘Pre-Islamic Arabia’, in The New Cambridge History of Islam volume 1: The Formation of the Islamic World, Sixth to Eleventh Centuries, ed. by Chase F. Robinson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), pp. 72–97, 98‒152 and pp. 153–70

Barbara Finster, ‘Arabia in Late Antiquity: An Outline of the Cultural Situation in the Peninsula at the Time of Muhammad’, and Mikhail D. Bukharin, ‘Mecca on the Caravan Routes in Pre-Islamic Antiquity’, in The Qurʼān in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations into the Qurʼānic Milieu, ed. by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai and Michael Marx (Leiden: Brill, 2010) <https://archive.org/details/TheQuranInContext> [last modified 28 April 2016 as of 16 January 2019], pp. 61–114 and 115–34

Effects of Conquest

Hugh Kennedy, ‘From Polis to Madina revisited: Some Reflections Thirty Years On’, in Entre civitas y madina: El mundo de las ciudades en la península ibérica y en el norte de África (siglos IV-IX), ed. by Sabina Panzram and Laurent Callegarin (Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2018), pp. 13–22 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

Michele Campopiano, ‘The End of an Era? The Impact of Early Islamic Expansion on Economic and Social Structures in the Byzantine East’, Journal of European Economic History, 46.2 (2017), 139–50

Gideon Avni, The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014)

Corisande Fenwick, ‘From Africa to Ifrīqiya: Settlement and Society in Early Medieval North Africa (650–800)’, al-Masāq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean, 25.1 (2013), 9–33

*John Haldon and Hugh Kennedy, ‘Regional Identities and Military Power: Byzantium and Islam ca. 600–750’, in Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium and the Islamic World, 300-1100, ed. by Walter Pohl, Clemens Gantner, and Richard E. Payne (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 317–53

Derek Kennet, ‘Transformations in Late Sasanian and Early Islamic Eastern Arabia: The Evidence from Kush’, in L’Arabie à la veille de l’Islam, ed. by Jérémie Schiettecatte and Christian Robin (Paris: De Boccard, 2008), pp. 135–61

Petra M. Sijpesteijn, ‘The Arab Conquest of Egypt and the Beginning of Muslim Rule’, in Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700, ed. by Roger S. Bagnall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 437–59

Hugh Kennedy, ‘From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria’, Past & Present, 106, 1985, 3–27, reprinted in Pre-Industrial Cities & Technology, ed. by Colin Chant and David Goodman (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 94-98 and in The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), chapter I: a classic and still important; cf. revision above

Coinage

Luca Zavagno, ‘Betwixt the Greeks and the Saracens: Coins and Coinage in Cyprus in the Seventh and the Eighth Century’, Byzantion, 81 (2011), 448–83

Stefan Heidemann, ‘The Merger of Two Currency Zones in Early Islam: The Byzantine and Sasanian Impact on the Circulation in Byzantine Syria and Northern Mesopotamia’, Iran, 36 (1998), 95–112

Money, Power and Politics in Early Islamic Syria: A Review of Current Debates, ed. by John Haldon (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010): esp. Gene W. Heck, ‘First Century Islamic Currency: Mastering the Message from the Money’, pp. 97–124

None of the Above

John F. Haldon,  The Empire that Would Not Die: The Paradox of Eastern Roman Survival, 640-740 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016)

Eduardo Manzano Moreno, ‘Did the Arabs Really Invade Hispania?’, Ian D. Morris: Titbits of Wisdom on the Origins of Islam, 2014 <http://www.iandavidmorris.com/did_the_arabs_really_invade_hispania/> [accessed 10 February 2021]

*Robert Haug, ‘Frontiers and the State in Early Islamic History: Jihād Between Caliphs and Volunteers’, History Compass, 9.8 (2011), 634–43

Parvaneh Pourshariati, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: the Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran (London: I.B. Tauris in association with the Iran Heritage Foundation, 2008)

Rashad Odetallah Khouri, ‘Heresies in the Early Byzantine Empire: Imperial Policies and the Arab Conquest of the Near East’, Collectanea christiana orientalia, 4 (2007), 109–17 <http://www.uco.es/investiga/grupos/hum380/collectanea/sites/default/files/Odetallah.pdf> [last modified 8 September 2010 as of 10 December 2016]

Michael Lecker, ‘Were the Jewish Tribes in Arabia Clients of Arab Tribes?’, in Patronate and Patronage in Early and Classical Islam, ed. by Monique Bernards and John Abdallah Nawas (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 50–69

*Nadia Maria el-Cheikh, ‘Muhammad and Heraclius: A Study in Legitimacy’, Studia Islamica, 89 (1999), 5–22

Patricia Crone, ‘Were the Qays and Yemen of the Umayyad Period Political Parties?’, Der Islam, 71.1 (1994), 1–57 <https://www.ias.edu/sites/default/files/hs/Crone_Articles/Crone_Qays-Yemen.pdf> [last modified 11 February 2020 as of 18 January 2022]

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Week 7. The Wider Religious World

Christianity and Islam were of course not the only religions of the late antique world. In the Empire itself Christianity had always striven to distinguish itself from Judaism and to compete with the myriad different religions we lazily group together as ‘paganism’. Further east, however, Christianity and later Islam also met Zoroastrianism (the Persian state religion), Buddhism (perhaps the first real world religion), Manichaeanism and the local religions of India and China. Did these religions have any wider influence, or did the two Syro-Palestine religions out-compete them, and why or why not? Which ones received support from rulers, of what kind, and why? Are these all religions in the same sense, and how much of their believers’ lives did they make up?

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Week 7 is a reading week, with no tutorial, so this list is only advisory

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Background Reading

The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World, ed. by Michele Renee Salzman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Paul C. Dilley, ‘Religious Intercrossing in Late Antique Eurasia: Loss, Corruption, and Canon Formation’, Journal of World History, 24.1 (2013), 25–70

*Garth Fowden,  Empire to Commonwealth: Consequences of Monotheism in Late Antiquity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993)

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Herbert Härtel and Marianne Yaldiz, Along the Ancient Silk Routes: Central Asian Art from the West Berlin State Museums (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/along_the_ancient_silk_routes_central_asian_art_from_the_west_berlin_state_museums> [accessed 17 October 2012]

The Letter of Tansar, trans. by M. Boyce (Roma: Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente, 1968) <https://archive.org/details/TheLetterOfTansarTranslatedByMaryBoyce> [accessed 21 March 2019], pp. 26‒70: introduction, pp. 1‒26, also valuable

Julian, Julian, trans. by Wilbur C. Wright, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1913‒23, online ed. 2014), esp. ii, 417‒512 (‘Misopogon’) and iii, 313‒17 (‘Against the Galilæans’)

Hiuen Tsiang, Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, Translated from the Chinese (A.D. 629), trans. by Samuel Beal, 2 vols (London: Trübner & Co., 1884), i <http://www.archive.org/details/siyukibuddhistre01hsuoft> [accessed 8 November 2014] and ii <http://www.archive.org/details/siyukibuddhistre02hsuoft> [accessed 19 November 2014]

Secondary Works

Lee E. Patterson, ‘Minority Religions in the Sasanian Empire’, in Sasanian Persia: Between Rome and the Steppes of Eurasia, ed. by Eberhard W. Sauer (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017), pp. 181–98

Nicholas Baker-Brian, ‘The Politics of Virtue in Julian’s Mispogon’, in Emperor and Author: The Writings of Julian 'the Apostate', ed. by Baker-Brian and Shaun Tougher (Swansea: Classical Press of Wales, 2012), pp. 263‒80: on one of the sources

Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity, ed. by David M. Gwynn and Susanne Bangert (Leiden: Brill, 2010)

Thomas Jansen, ‘New Tendencies, Religious and Philosophical, in the Chinese World of the Third through Sixth Centuries’, in Conceiving the Empire: China and Rome Compared, ed. by Fritz-Heiner Mutschler and Achim Mittag (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 397–419

            Judaism

Rodrigo Laham Cohen, The Jews in Late Antiquity (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2018)

Barbarians and Jews: Jews and Judaism in the Early Medieval West, ed. by Yitzhak Hen and Thomas F. X. Noble (Leiden: Brill, 2018)

Oded Irshai, ‘Confronting a Christian Empire: Jewish Life and Culture in The World of Early Byzantium’, in Jews in Byzantium: Dialectics of Minority and Majority Cultures, ed. by Robert Bonfil, Oded Irshai, Guy G. Stroumsa and Rina Talgam (Leiden: Brill, 2011), pp. 15–64

The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire, ed. by Judith Lieu, John A. North, and Tessa Rajak (London: Routledge, 1992)

            Zoroastrianism

Michael Shenkar, ‘Rethinking Sasanian Iconoclasm’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 135.3 (2015), 471–99

Almut Hintze, ‘Monotheism the Zoroastrian Way’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 24.2 (2014), 225–49

Prods Oktor Skjærvø, ‘Zoroastrianism’, in The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World, ed. by Salzman, as above, pp. 102–28

Yumiko Yamamoto, ‘The Zoroastrian Temple Cult of Fire in Archaeology and Literature’, Orient, 15 (1979), 19–53, and 17 (1981), 67–104

            Buddhism

Patricia Crone, ‘Buddhism as Ancient Iranian Paganism’, in Late Antiquity: Eastern Perspectives, ed. by Teresa Bernheimer and Adam Silverstein (Warminster: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2012), pp. 25‒41

Max Deeg, ‘“Show Me the Land Where the Buddha Dwelled…” Xuanzang’s 玄奘 “Record of the Western Regions” (Xiyu Ji 西域記 ): A Misunderstood Text?’, China Report, 48.1–2 (2012), 89–113

Daniel Boucher, ‘Dharmarakṣa and the Transmission of Buddhism to China’, Asia Major, China at the Crossroads: A Festschrift in Honor of Victor H. Mair, 19.1/2 (2006), 13–37

Robin A. E. Coningham, ‘Monks, Caves and Kings: A Reassessment of the Nature of Early Buddhism in Sri Lanka’, World Archaeology, 27.2 (1995), 222–42

Kathleen D. Morrison, ‘Trade, Urbanism, and Agricultural Expansion: Buddhist Monastic Institutions and the State in the Early Historic Western Deccan’, World Archaeology, 27.2 (1995), 203–21

            (Classical) Paganism

Béatrice Caseau, ‘Late Antique Paganism: Adaptation under Duress’, and David M. Gwynn, ‘The “End” of Roman Senatorial Paganism’, both in  The Archaeology of Late Antique Paganism, ed. by Luke Lavan and Michael Mulryan (Leiden: Brill, 2009), pp. 111–34 and 135–61

Allen D. Lee, ‘Traditional Religions’, in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, ed. by Noel Lenski (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 159‒82

Oliver Nicholson, ‘The “Pagan Churches” of Maximinus Daia and Julian the Apostate’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 45.1 (1994), 1–10

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Week 8. Barbarians and Romans

If a person knows one thing about the Roman Empire that is not an emperor’s name, it is probably that barbarians were the Empire’s chief enemy, which is somewhat unfair on Persia! But who were ‘the barbarians’ anyway? An answer involves characterizing maybe hundreds of groups with differing languages, lifestyles and locations; but the historiography often tries anyway. Was there actually anything common about the identities of those the Romans considered ‘barbarian’? Was there communication or cooperation between such groups? Once in contact with the Empire, could they be assimilated into it, or was the social barrier impassable? And how was the barrier made evident and maintained?

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Required Readings

Primary Source

Orosius, Seven Books of History Against the Pagans, trans. by Andrew T. Fear (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2010), pp. 393–407 (Book VII, chapters 36–41)  

Secondary Reading (in suggested order)

Thomas S. Burns, Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.-A.D. 400 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), pp. 309–73  

Walter Pohl, ‘Telling the Difference: Signs of Ethnic Identity’, in Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of the Ethnic Communities, 300–800, ed. by Walter Pohl and Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 1998), pp. 17–69, reprinted in From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 2006), pp. 120–67

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Background Reading

*Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London: Allen Lane, 2009, reprinted Penguin 2010), pp. 19‒108

Edward James, Europe's Barbarians AD 200-600 (Harlow: Longman, 2009)

Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Richard Gerberding, ‘The Later Roman Empire’ and Guy Halsall, ‘The Barbarian Invasions’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500- c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 13–34 and 35–55; see also Halsall on sources

Malcolm Todd, ‘The Germanic Peoples’ and Peter Heather, ‘Goths and Huns, c. 320–425’, in The Cambridge Ancient History volume 13: The Late Empire, A.D. 337–425, ed. by Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 461–86 and 487–515

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Texts

Priscus, History, trans. as The Fragmentary History of Priscus: Attila, the Huns and the Roman Empire, AD 430-476, trans. by John Given (Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2014)

Themistius, Orations, in The Goths in the Fourth Century, ed. by Peter Heather and John Matthews (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1991), pp. 11–46 (Orations 8 and 10)

Sidonius Apollinaris, Poems and Letters, ed. and trans. by W. B. Anderson, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1936‒65, online ed. 2014)

Ammianus Marcellinus, History, ed. and trans. by John C. Rolfe, 3 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1935, online ed. 2014)

Salvian of Marseille, On the Government of God, trans. by Eva M. Sanford (New York City: Columbia University Press, 1930)

Material Culture

Simon Esmonde Cleary, The Roman West, AD 200–500: An Archaeological Study (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

Secondary Works

The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, ed. by Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015)

*Walter Goffart, ‘Rome’s Final Conquest: The Barbarians’, History Compass, 6.3 (2008), 855–83

Peter Heather, ‘The Barbarian in Late Antiquity: Image, Reality, and Transformation’, in Constructing Identities in Late Antiquity, ed. by Richard Miles (New York City, NY: Routledge, 1999), pp. 234–58

Imperial Policy and the Barbarian Frontiers

Michael Kulikowski, Rome's Gothic Wars, from the Third Century to Alaric (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

*Ralph W. Mathisen, 'Peregrini, Barbari, and Cives Romani: Concepts of Citizenship and the Legal Identity of Barbarians in the Later Roman Empire', American Historical Review, 111 (2006), 1011–40

Peter Heather, ‘The Late Roman Art of Client Management: Imperial Defence in the Fourth Century West’, in The Transformation of Frontiers from Late Antiquity to the Carolingian, ed. by Walter Pohl, Ian Wood, and Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 2001), pp. 15–68

Barbarians and the ‘Fall’ of the Roman Empire

Peter Heather, Empires and Barbarians: Migration, Development and the Birth of Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010)

Walter Goffart, Barbarian Tides: The Migration Age and the Later Roman Empire (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006)

Christopher Kelly, Attila the Hun: Barbarian Terror and the Fall of the Roman Empire (London: Bodley Head, 2008)

*From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms, ed. by Noble, as above: reprints various important articles with commentary

*Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. by Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein (Oxford: Blackwells, 1998), pp. 5–104, collects several classic articles on the subject, and adds the important piece, Chris Wickham, ‘The Fall of Rome Will Not Take Place’, pp. 45–57

Peter Heather, ‘The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe’, English Historical Review, 110 (1995), 4-41, reprinted in Warfare in the Dark Ages, ed. by John France and Kelly DeVries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), chapter V

Walter Goffart, ‘Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians’, American Historical Review, 91 (1986), 275–306, repr. in Goffart,  Rome's Fall and After (London: Hambledon, 1989), pp. 1–32, and in France and DeVries, Warfare in the Dark Ages, as above, chapter II

Identity and Identification

Christoph Eger, ‘Habitus Militaris or Habitus Barbarus? Towards an Interpretation of Rich Male Graves of the Mid 5th Century in the Mediterranean’, in Aristocrazie e società fra transizione romano-germanica e alto medioevo, ed. by Carlo Ebanista and Marcello Rotili (Cimitile: Tavolario Edizioni, 2015), pp. 213–36

J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz, ‘Habitus Barbarus: Did Barbarians Look Different from Romans?’, in Expropriations et confiscations dans les royaumes barbares : Une approche régionale, ed. by Pierfrancesco Porena and Yann Rivière (Roma: École française de Rome, 2012), pp. 13–28

*Andrew Gillett, ‘Ethnogenesis: A Contested Model of Early Medieval Europe’, History Compass, 4 (2006), 241–60

On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Andrew Gillett (Turnhout: Brepols, 2003)

Patrick Geary, ‘Barbarians and Ethnicity’, in Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, ed. by Glenn Bowersock, Peter R. L. Brown and Oleg Grabar (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), pp. 107–29

Hans J. Hummer, ‘The Fluidity of Barbarian Identity: The Ethnogenesis of Alemanni and Suebi, AD 200-500’, Early Medieval Europe, 7.1 (1998), 1–27

Assimilation and (De-)Romanization

Aleksander Paradziński, ‘Inclusion and Exclusion of “Barbarians” in the Roman Elites of the Fifth Century: The Case of Aspar’s Family’, in Inclusion and Exclusion in Mediterranean Christianities, 400-800, ed. by Yaniv Fox and Erica Buchberger (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 259–78

John Drinkwater, ‘Un-Becoming Roman: The End of Provincial Civilisation in Gaul’, and David Lambert, ‘Salvian and the Bacaudae’, both in Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter: Kulturgeschichte einer Region, ed. by Steffen Diefenbach and Gernot Michael Müller (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013), pp. 59–78 and pp. 255–76

*Romans, Barbarians, and the Transformation of the Roman World: Cultural Interaction and the Creation of Identity in Late Antiquity, ed. by Ralph W. Mathisen (Farnham: Ashgate, 2011)

Ralph W. Mathisen, ‘“Becoming Roman, Becoming Barbarian”: Roman Citizenship and the Assimilation of Barbarians into the Late Roman World’, in Migration and Membership Regimes in Global and Historical Perspective: An Introduction, ed. by Ulbe Bosma, Gijs Kessler, and Leo Lucassen (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 191–217

Strategies of Distinction, ed. by Pohl and Reimitz, as above: many relevant essays

The Great Accommodation Debate

Walter Goffart, ‘The Technique of Barbarian Settlement in the Fifth Century: A Personal, Streamlined Account with Ten Additional Comments’, and Guy Halsall, ‘The Technique of Barbarian Settlement in the Fifth Century: A Reply to Walter Goffart’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 3 (2010), 65–98 and 99–112

Samuel Barnish, ‘Taxation, Land and the Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 54 (1986), 170–95

Modern Relevance?

Richard Lachmann and Fiona Rose-Greenland, ‘Why We Fell: Declinist Writing and Theories of Imperial Failure in the Longue Durée’, Poetics, 50 (2015), 1–19: on writing like the three below

Adrian Goldsworthy, How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009)

James Joseph O’Donnell, The Ruin of the Roman Empire: A New History (New York: Harper Perennial, 2008)

Cullen Murphy, Are We Rome? The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007)

Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 6 vols (London: Strahan & Cadell, 1776‒89): you shouldn’t use it, but you should know about it, the classic of the form. The 1-volume abridgement is the weak choice!

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Week 9. Kings of the Collapse

Whatever the exact role of barbarians in the process was, whereas in 400 Western Europe had pretty much all been under the rule of the Roman emperor, by 500 it was broken into kings whose peoples were identified as barbarian ones: Goths, Franks, Saxons, Vandals and so on. Rather than debate the never-ending question of how the Empire ‘fell’, it may be more helpful to ask things like: what actually changed in these kingdoms because of the new management? Who gained and who lost out from the transition? Were the kings able to maintain Roman ways of doing things, and did they try, or were they innovators? And how did the answers to these questions differ from case to case?

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Required Reading

Primary material

Cassiodorus, Variae, trans. S. J. B. Barnish (Liverpool 1992), pp. 28–38 (Book II, nos 16–39)  

Secondary orientation

Michael Kulikowski, ‘Sundered Aristocracies, New Kingdoms, and the End of the Western Empire’, in Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter: Kulturgeschichte einer Region, ed. by Steffen Diefenbach and Gernot Michael Müller (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013), pp. 79–90  Available Online Here

Chris Wickham, The Inheritance of Rome: A History of Europe from 400 to 1000 (London: Allen Lane, 2009, reprinted Penguin 2010), pp. 76‒108   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 21/01/2022) 

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Background Reading

Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500-700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011)

Wickham, Inheritance of Rome, as above, pp. 109‒231

Guy Halsall, Barbarian Migrations and the Roman West, 376-568 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500- c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

John Moorhead, The Roman Empire Divided, 400-700 (Harlow: Pearson, 2001)

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Texts

Cassiodorus, The Variae: The Complete Translation, trans. by M. Shane Bjornlie (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2019)

Victor of Vita, History of the Vandal Persecution, trans. by John Moorhead (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1992), or in Arians and Vandals of the 4th-6th centuries: Annotated Translations of the Historical Works by Bishops Victor of Vita (Historia Persecutionis Africanae Provinciae) and Victor of Tonnena (Chronicon), and of the Religious Works by Bishop Victor of Cartenna (De Paenitentia) and Saints Ambrose (De Fide Orthodoxa contra Arianos), and Athanasius (Expositio Fidei), ed. and trans. by John R. C. Martyn (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scolars Press, 2008), pp. 1–70

The Lives of the Visigothic Fathers, trans. by Andrew T. Fear (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1997)

Venantius Fortunatus, Life of Radegund, trans. Jo Ann McNamara as ‘Radegund, Queen of the Franks and Abbess of Poitiers (ca. 525–587)’, in Sainted Women of the Dark Ages, ed. by McNamara, John E. Halborg and Gordon E. Whatley (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992), pp. 70–86

The Laws of the Salian Franks, trans. by Katherine Fischer Drew (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press, 1991)

Conquerors and Chroniclers of Early Medieval Spain, trans. by Kenneth Baxter Wolf (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1990), pp. 57–77 and 79–110 (John of Biclaro and Isidore of Seville)

Luxorius, ‘Poems’, trans. in Morris Rosenblum, Luxorius: A Latin Poet Among the Vandals (New York City: Columbia University Press, 1961), pp. 109–69 (facing-page Latin and English)

Jordanes, The Gothic History of Jordanes in English Version, trans. by Charles C. Mierow (Princeton, NY: Princeton University Press, 1915, reprinted Cambridge, MA: Speculum Historiale, 1960 and Merchantville, NJ: Evolution Publishing, 2006)

Material Culture

Katherine Reynolds Brown, Migration Art, A.D. 300–800 (New York, N.Y: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995) <https://www.metmuseum.org/art/metpublications/Migration_Art_AD_300_800> [accessed 17 October 2012]

Philip Grierson and Mark Blackburn, Medieval European Coinage, with a Catalogue of the Coins in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, I: The Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th Centuries) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986)

Secondary Works

General/comparative

*Ian Wood, ‘Entrusting Western Europe to the Church, 400–750’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6, 23 (2013), 37–73

Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium and the Islamic World, 300-1100, ed. by Walter Pohl, Clemens Gantner and Richard Payne (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012): for a much wider perspective

Guy Halsall, ‘From Roman Fundus to Early Medieval Grand Domaine: Crucial Ruptures between Antiquity and the Middle Ages’, Revue belge de philologie et d’histoire, 90.2 (2012), 273–98

*Ian Wood, The Transformation of the Roman West (Leeds: ARC Humanities Press, 2018)

*Yitzhak Hen, Roman Barbarians: The Royal Court and Culture in the Early Medieval West (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007)

Michael Kulikowski, ‘Drawing a Line Under Antiquity: Archaeological and Historical Categories of Evidence in the Transition from the Ancient World to the Middle Ages’, in Paradigms and Methods in Early Medieval Studies, ed. by Celia Chazelle and Felice Lifshitz (New York City, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2007), pp. 171–84

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005): immense, but start with the bolded references in the index

*Regna and gentes: The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World, ed. by Walter Pohl and Helmut Reimitz (Leiden: Brill, 2003): important papers on almost all kingdoms

Walter Goffart,  The Narrators of Barbarian History (A.D. 550-800): Jordanes, Gregory of Tours, Bede, and Paul the Deacon (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988): bracing alternative reading of key sources

Pierre Riché, Education and Culture in the Barbarian West, Sixth through Eighth Centuries, trans. by John J. Contreni (Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University Press, 1976): still a standard work

The Ostrogoths and Italy

A Companion to Ostrogothic Italy, ed. by Jonathan Arnold, M. Shane Bjornlie and Kristina Sessi (Leiden: Brill, 2016)

*Shane Bjornlie, ‘Law, Ethnicity and Taxes in Ostrogothic Italy: A Case for Continuity, Adaptation and Departure’, Early Medieval Europe, 22 (2014), 138–70

Michael Shane Bjornlie, Politics and Tradition between Rome, Ravenna and Constantinople: A Study of Cassiodorus and the Variae 527-554 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013)

*Jonathan J. Arnold, ‘Theoderic’s Invincible Mustache’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 6 (2013), 152–83

Sean Lafferty, ‘Law and Order in the Age of Theoderic the Great (c. 493–526)’, Early Medieval Europe, 20 (2012), 260–90

Shane Bjornlie, ‘What Have Elephants to Do with Sixth-Century Politics? A Reappraisal of the “Official” Governmental Dossier of Cassiodorus’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 2 (2009), 143–71

John Moorhead, Theoderic in Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992)

The Franks

Helmut Reimitz, ‘After Rome, before Francia: Religion, Ethnicity, and Identity Politics in Gregory of Tours’ Ten Books of Histories’, in Making Early Medieval Societies: Conflict and Belonging in the Latin West, 300-1200, ed. by Kate Cooper and Conrad Leyser (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), pp. 58–79

Michael Kulikowski, ‘Sundered Aristocracies, New Kingdoms, and the End of the Western Empire’, and Simon T. Loseby, ‘Lost Cities: The End of the Civitas-System in Frankish Gaul’, both in Gallien in Spätantike und Frühmittelalter, ed. by Diefenbach and Müller, as above, pp. 79–90 and 223–52 respectively

*Walter Goffart, ‘Frankish Military Duty and the Fate of Roman Taxation’, Early Medieval Europe, 16 (2008), 166–90

*Guy Halsall, ‘Childeric’s Grave, Clovis’ Succession and the Origins of the Merovingian Kingdom’, in Society and Culture in Late Antique Gaul: Revisiting the Sources, ed. by Ralph W. Mathisen and Danuta Shanzer (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001), pp. 116–33, reprinted in Halsall, Cemeteries and Society in Merovingian Gaul: Selected Studies in History and Archaeology, 1992–2009 (Leiden: Brill, 2010), pp. 169–87

Guy Halsall, ‘Female Status and Power in Early Merovingian Central Austrasia: The Burial Evidence’, Early Medieval Europe, 5 (1996), 1–24

*William M. Daly, ‘Clovis: How Barbaric, How Pagan?’, Speculum, 69 (1994), 619–64

Ian N. Wood, The Merovingian Kingdoms 450-751 (London: Longman, 1994)

The Iberian Peninsula

*Damián Fernández, Aristocrats and Statehood in Western Iberia, c. 300-600 C.E.: Empire and After (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017)

Guy Halsall, ‘Ethnicity and Early Medieval Cemeteries’, Arqueología y Territorio Medieval, 18 (2011), 15–27 <http://disciplinas.stoa.usp.br/pluginfile.php/263298/mod_resource/content/0/Guy_Halsall-libre.pdf> [last modified 23 February 2015 as of 10 December 2016]

*Juan Antonio Quirós Castillo, ‘Early Medieval Landscapes in North-West Spain: Local Powers and Communities, Fifth-Tenth Centuries’, Early Medieval Europe, 19 (2011), 285–311

Jamie Wood, ‘Elites and Baptism: Religious “Strategies of Distinction” in Visigothic Spain’, in Elite and Popular Religion, ed. by Kate Cooper (= Studies in Church History, 42 (2006)), pp. 3–17

*Roger Collins, Visigothic Spain 409-711 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004)

The Vandals

*Jonathan Conant, Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439-700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 19‒195

Roland Steinacher, ‘Who is the Barbarian? Considerations on the Vandal Royal Title’, in Post-Roman Transitions: Christian and Barbarian Identities in the Early Medieval West, ed. by Walter Pohl and Gerda Heydemann (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 437–86

Andrew Merrills, ‘The Secret of My Succession: Dynasty and Crisis in Vandal North Africa’, Early Medieval Europe, 18 (2010), 135–59

*Andrew Merrills and Richard Miles, The Vandals (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010)

*Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa, ed. by Andrew Merrills (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004)

The Burgundians

Ian N. Wood, ‘The Burgundians and Byzantium’, in Western Perspectives on the Mediterranean: Cultural Transfer in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, 400-800 AD, ed. by Andreas Fischer (London: Bloomsbury, 2014), pp. 1–16

*Ian N. Wood, ‘The Political Structure of the Burgundian Kingdom’, in Chlodwigs Welt: Organisation von Herrschaft um 500, ed. by Mischa Meier and Steffan Patzold (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2014), pp. 383–96

Albrecht Diem, ‘Who is Allowed to Pray for the King? Saint-Maurice d'Agaune and the Creation of a Burgundian Identity’, in  Post-Roman Transitions: Christian and Barbarian Identities in the Early Medieval West, ed. by Walter Pohl and Gerda Heydemann (Turnhout: Brepols, 2013), pp. 47–88

*Patrick Amory, ‘Names, Ethnic Identity, and Community in Fifth- and Sixth-Century Burgundy’, Viator, 25 (1994), 1–30

Great Britain

James Gerrard, ‘Crisis, Whose Crisis? The Fifth Century in South-Western Britain’, Archaeological Review from Cambridge, 26 (2011), 65–78 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva    

*Martin Grimmer, ‘Invasion, Settlement or Political Conquest: Changing Representations of the Arrival of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain’, Journal of the Australian Early Medieval Association, 3 (2007), 169–86

Heinrich Härke, ‘Invisible Britons, Gallo-Romans and Russians: Perspectives on Culture Change’, in Britons in Anglo-Saxon England, ed. by Nick Higham (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2007), pp. 57–67

Bryan Ward-Perkins, ‘Why Did the Anglo-Saxons Not Become More British?’, English Historical Review, 115 (2000), 513–33

Christopher Snyder, An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons, A.D. 400-600 (Stroud: Tempus, 1998)

*Nicholas Higham, Rome, Britain and the Anglo-Saxons (London: Seaby, 1992)

The Balkans

Danijel Dzino, ‘Post-Roman Dalmatia: Collapse and Regeneration of a Complex Social System’, in Imperial Spheres and the Adriatic: Byzantium, the Carolingians and the Treaty of Aachen (812 ed. by Mladen Ančić, Jonathan Shepard, and Trpimir Vedriš (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018), pp. 155–73

Hrvoje Gračanin, ‘Late Antique Dalmatia and Pannonia in Cassiodorus’ Variae’, Millennium, 13.1 (2016), 211–74    

Danijel Dzino, Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia (Leiden: Brill, 2010)

Neil Christie, ‘Towns and People on the Middle Danube in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages’, in Towns in Transition: Urban Evolution in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Neil Christie and S. T. Loseby (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1996), pp. 71–98

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Week 10. New Rome vs. old Rome

While in the West Rome’s control may have dropped away to almost nothing over the fifth century, nothing of the kind occurred in the East, where despite theological disputes and the odd rebellion the empire arguably finished the fifth century stronger than it began it. Over the sixth, moreover, it showed real signs of a comeback under the reforming Emperor Justinian I, who recovered Africa and Italy for his empire. Was this empire, so often called Byzantine in modern writing, still the Roman one as its rulers claimed? If so, what was the status of the kings it fought in the west, and was that new? How did the eastern emperors make good their claims to be the rulers of a continuing Empire, and how much did they have to change to make that work, if indeed it did?

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Week 10 is a reading week, with no tutorial, so this list is only advisory

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Background Reading

*Fiona Haarer, Justinian: Empire and Society in the Sixth Century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2020)

Peter Sarris, Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500-700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 125–204

*Andrew Louth, ‘Justinian and his Legacy (500–600)’, in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c. 500-1492, ed. by Jonathan Shepard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 99–129

Judith Herrin, The Formation of Christendom (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987), pp. 15–128

Robert Browning, Justinian and Theodora (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971, 2nd ed. 1987)

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Further Reading

Primary Sources

Texts

The Novels of Justinian: A Complete Annotated English Translation, ed. by Peter Sarris, trans. by David Miller, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018)

The Codex of Justinian: A New Annotated Translation, with Parallel Latin and Greek Text Based on a Translation by Justice Fred H. Blume, ed. by Bruce W. Frier and others, trans. by Fred H. Blume (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016)

Procopius, Wars, Anecdota and Buildings, trans. as Procopius, ed. and trans. by H. B. Dewing, 7 vols (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914‒40, online ed. 2014), i‒vii, or (Wars and Anecdota) as:

        Prokopios, The Wars of Justinian, trans. by H. B. Dewing and rev. by Anthony Kaldellis (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2014);

        Prokopios, The Secret History, with Related Texts, ed. and trans. by Anthony Kaldellis (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2010)

        Procopius, Secret History, trans. by Richard Atwater (Chicago, IL: Covici, 1927; reprinted New York City, NY: Covici Friede, 1934 and Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961) <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/procop-anec.asp> [last modified March 1996 as of 8 July 8 2017]

Three Political Voices from the Age of Justinian: Agapetus, Advice to the Emperor; Dialogue on Political Science; Paul the Silentiary, Description of Hagia Sophia, ed. and trans. by Peter N. Bell (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2009)

Material Culture

Emma Wegner, ‘Hagia Sophia, 532–37’, in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–) <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/haso/hd_haso.htm> [last modified 30 November 2016 as of 08 December 2016]

Philip Grierson, Byzantine Coinage (London: Methuen, 1982), pp. 43–83

Richard Krautheimer, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965), pp. 149‒98

Secondary Works

*The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, ed. by Michael Maas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005): helpful ‘scene-setting’ chapter by Maas followed by diverse essays

Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘Roman Identity in the Sixth Century’, in Ethnicity and Culture in Late Antiquity, ed. by Geoffrey Greatrex and Stephen Mitchell (London: Duckworth, 2000), pp. 267–92

Politics

Alexander Sarantis, ‘Diplomatic Relations between the Eastern Roman Empire and the “Barbarian” Successor States, 527–565’, History Compass, 16.11 (2018), e12498

Alexander Sarantis, ‘War and Diplomacy in Pannonia and the Northwest Balkans during the Reign of Justinian: The Gepid Threat and Imperial Responses’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 63 (2009), 15–40

Brian Croke, ‘Justinian under Justin: Reconfiguring a Reign’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 100 (2007), 13–56

Michael Whitby, ‘The Violence of the Circus Factions’, in Organised Crime in Antiquity, ed. by Keith Hopwood (London: Duckworth, 1999), pp. 229–53

Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘The Nika Riot: A Reappraisal’, Journal of Hellenic Studies, 117 (1997), 60–86, reprinted in Justinian, ed. by Mischa Meier (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung, 2011), pp. 174–215, and in the Formation of Classical Islam, 1: Late antiquity on the eve of Islam, ed. by Averil Cameron (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 59–86

*James A. S. Evans, The Age of Justinian: The Circumstances of Imperial Power (London: Routledge, 1996)

Law and Society

Peter Bell, Social Conflict in the Age of Justinian: Its Nature, Management, and Mediation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)

Adriaan J. B. Sirks, ‘The Colonate in Justinian’s Reign’, Journal of Roman Studies, 98 (2008), 120–43

Religious Policy

*Fergus Millar, ‘Rome, Constantinople and the Near Eastern Church under Justinian: Two Synods of C.E. 536’, Journal of Roman Studies, 98 (2008), 62–82, reprinted in Millar, Empire, Church and Society in the Late Roman Near East: Greeks, Jews, Syrians and Saracens (Leuven: Peeters, 2015), pp. 3–32

Simon Corcoran, ‘Anastasius, Justinian, and the Pagans: A Tale of Two Law Codes and a Papyrus’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 2 (2009), 183–208

The Economy

Constantin Zuckerman, ‘Silk "Made in Byzantium": A Study of Economic Policies of Emperor Justinian’, in Constructing the Seventh Century, ed. by Zuckerman (Paris: Association des Amis du Centre d’Histoire et Civilisation de Byzance, 2013), pp. 323–50

*Peter Sarris, Economy and Society in the Age of Justinian (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Plague

Mischa Meier, ‘The “Justinianic Plague”: The Economic Consequences of the Pandemic in the Eastern Roman Empire and Its Cultural and Religious Effects’, trans. by Steve Robbie, Early Medieval Europe, 24.3 (2016), 267–92

Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541–750, ed. by Lester K. Little (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007)

Peter Sarris, ‘The Justinianic Plague: Origins and Effects’, Continuity and Change, 17 (2002), 169–82

The Problem of Procopius, and other Sources

Lieve van Hoof and Peter van Nuffelen, ‘The Historiography of Crisis: Jordanes, Cassiodorus and Justinian in Mid-Sixth-Century Constantinople’, Journal of Roman Studies, 107 (2017), 275–300

Sviatoslav Dmitriev, ‘John Lydus’ Political Message and the Byzantine Idea of Imperial Rule’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 39.1 (2015), 1–24

Geoffrey Greatrex, ‘Perceptions of Procopius in Recent Scholarship’, Histos, 8 (2014), 76–121 <http://research.ncl.ac.uk/histos/documents/2014A03GreatrexPerceptionsofProcopius.pdf> [accessed 13 March 2016]

Hartmut G. Ziche, ‘Abusing Theodora: Sexual and Political Discourse in Procopius’, Byzantiaka, 30 (2012), 311–23 <http://histsociety.web.auth.gr/30-ps-2 ziche, offprint.pdf> [accessed 25 January 2017]

Leslie Brubaker, ‘Sex, Lies and Textuality: The “Secret History” of Prokopios and the Rhetoric of Gender in Sixth-Century Byzantium’, in Gender in the Early Medieval World: East and West, 300-900, ed. by Brubaker and Julia M. H. Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 83–101

*Averil Cameron,  Procopius and the Sixth Century (Berkeley: California University Press, 1985)

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Week 11 Tutorial. Pirenne and Periodization

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Questions to consider

We have seen in this module that huge religious changes were not enough to topple the Roman Empire, and that even losing control of half of its territory twice over didn’t alter some of its fundamental structures. On the other hand it’s fair to ask if what we have circa 700 CE was still the Roman Empire in any way that resembled the Empire of 100. But how can such a thing be judged? In the 1920s a Belgian historian, Henri Pirenne, argued that the true measure of imperial continuity was its trading economy and that this lasted until the Islamic conquests and was then fundamentally disrupted. So, what kind of voyages were made in the Mediterranean in this period, for what purpose? Did the rise of Islam really cause economic disconnection in the late antique Mediterranean? And what differences did such contacts make to the societies at either end of them?

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Required reading

Primary material

‘Chilperic II confirms to the monastery of Corbie charters of Chlothar III and Childeric II concerning the toll revenues at Fos and from a way-station for the monastery’s envoys’, unpublished translation by Jonathan Jarrett from Die Urkunden der Merowinger, ed. by Theo Kölzer, Martina Hartmann and Andrea Stieldorf, 2 vols (Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 2001), I, pp. 424–26 (no. 171), on Minerva   

Secondary orientation

Bonnie Effros, ‘The Enduring Attraction of the Pirenne Thesis’, Speculum, 92 (2017), 184–208 

Mark Whittow, ‘Early Medieval Byzantium and the End of the Ancient World’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 9.1 (2009), 134–53  

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Background reading

*Simon Loseby, ‘The Mediterranean Economy’ and Stéphane Lebecq, ‘The Northern Seas (Fifth to Eighth Centuries)’, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, volume 1: c. 500- c. 700, ed. by Paul Fouracre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 605–38 and 639–59 respectively

Chris Wickham, Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 693–831

Michael McCormick, The Origins of the European Economy: Communications and Commerce, c. 700- c. 9000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Bryan Ward-Perkins, ‘Specialised Production and Exchange’, in The Cambridge Ancient History, volume 14: Late Antiquity. Empire and Successors, AD 425-600, ed. by Averil Cameron, Ward-Perkins and Michael Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 346–91

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Additional reading

Primary material

Mark Handley, Dying on Foreign Shores: Travel and Mobility in the Late-Antique West (Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2011), pp. 117–38 (Appendix)

Hygeburg, Hodœporicon, trans. as Huneburc of Heidenheim, ‘The Hodoepericon of St. Willibald’, in The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany, being the Lives of SS. Willibrord, Boniface, Leoba and Lebuin together with the Hodoepericon of St. Willibald and a Selection from the Correspondence of St. Boniface (London: Sheed and Ward, 1954, reprinted 1981), pp. 153‒80, ed. Paul Halsall as ‘Huneberc of Heidenheim: The Hodoeporican of St. Willibald, 8th Century’, in Internet Medieval Sourcebook, ed. by Paul Halsall <https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/basis/willibald.asp> [last modified 21 January 2020 as of 2 December 2020], and rev. as ‘The Hodoeporicon of Saint Willibald’, in Soldiers of Christ: Saints and Saints’ Lives from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and Thomas Head (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995), pp. 141‒64: a voyage from England to the Holy Land and back c. 730; the Noble & Head version is best but Halsall has it online

Secondary orientation

Jean-Michel Carrié, ‘The Historical Path of “Late Antiquity”: From Transformation to Rupture’ in Rita Lizzi Testa (ed.), Late Antiquity in Contemporary Debate (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 2017), pp 173–214

*Henri Pirenne, Mohammed and Charlemagne, trans. by Bernard Miall (London: Allen and Unwin, 1938): where it all starts, and still worth reading, as long as you know there’s this debate…

Economic change

Andrei Gandila, ‘Going East: Western Money in the Early Byzantine Balkans, Asia Minor and the Circumpontic Region (6th-7th c.)’, Rivista italiana di numismatica e scienze affini, 117 (2016), 129–88 OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (CRH 03/08/2021)   

Guiseppe Cacciaguerra, Antonino Facello and Luca Zambito, ‘Continuity and Discontinuity in Seventh-Century Sicily: Rural Settlement and Economy’, in The Long Seventh Century: Continuity and Discontinuity in an Age of Transition, ed. by Alessandro Gnasso (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 199–234

Jonathan Conant, Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, 439-700 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 67‒129

Salvatore Cosentino, ‘A Longer Antiquity? Cyprus, Insularity and the Economic Transition’, Cahiers du Centre d’études chypriotes, 43 (2013), 93–102

Richard Hodges, Dark Age Economics: A New Audit (London: Duckworth, 2012)

*Handley, Dying on Foreign Shores, as above

Alessia Rovelli, ‘Coins and Trade in Early Medieval Italy’, Early Medieval Europe, 17.1 (2009), 45–76

*Michael McCormick, ‘Discovering the Early Medieval Economy’, Chris Wickham, ‘Rethinking the Structure of the Early Medieval Economy’, and Angeliki E. Laiou, ‘The Early Medieval Economy: Data, Production, Exchange and Demand’, in The Long Morning of Medieval Europe: New Directions in Early Medieval Studies, ed. by Jennifer R. Davis and McCormick (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), pp. 13‒18, 19–31 and 99–104

Helena Hamerow, ‘Agrarian Production and the Emporia of Mid Saxon England, ca. AD 650-850’, in Post-Roman Towns, Trade and Settlement in Europe and Byzantium, ed. by Joachim Henning, 3 vols (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2007), i, 219–32

‘Origins of the European Economy: A Debate with Michael McCormick’, ed. by Edward James, Early Medieval Europe, 12 (2003), 258–324: set responses to McCormick, Origins of the European Economy, as above

The Long Eighth Century: Production, Distribution and Demand, ed. by Ingrid L. Hansen and Chris Wickham (Leiden: Brill, 2000)

The Sixth Century: Production, Distribution, and Demand, ed. by Richard Hodges and William Bowden (Leiden: Brill, 1998)

Stéphane Lebecq, ‘Routes of Change: Production and Distribution in the West (5th-8th Century)’, in The Transformation of the Roman World AD 400-900, ed. by Leslie Webster and Michelle P. Brown (London: British Museum Press, 1997), pp. 67–78

*Simon T. Loseby, ‘Marseilles: A Late Antique Success Story?’, Journal of Roman Studies, 82 (1992), 165–85

Adriaan Verhulst, ‘The Decline of Slavery and the Economic Expansion of the Early Middle Ages’, Past & Present, 133 (1991), 195–203

I. Hrbek, ‘Africa in the Context of World History’, in Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century, ed. by M. El Fasi (London: Heinemann, 1988), pp. 1–30 <https://www.sahistory.org.za/sites/default/files/archive_files/general_history_africa_iii.pdf> [accessed 21 April 2021]

*Philip Grierson, ‘Commerce in the Dark Ages: A Critique of the Evidence’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5, 9 (1959), 123–40, reprinted in Grierson, Dark Age Numismatics: Selected Studies (London: Variorum, 1979), chapter II: still important despite age

The Pirenne thesis specifically (an attempt at a full English-language bibliography, not all recommended)

Mark Whittow, ‘Pirenne, Muhammad, and Bohemond: Before Orientalism’, in Crusading Europe: Essays in Honour of Christopher Tyerman, ed. by G. E. M. Lippiatt and Jessalynn L. Bird (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 17–49

José Cristobal Carvajal López, ‘Islamization and Trade in the Arabian Gulf in the Age of Mohammad and Charlemagne’, in Encounters, Excavations and Argosies: Essays for Richard Hodges, ed. by John Moreland, John Mitchell and Bea Leal (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2017), pp. 73–90

Richard W. Unger, ‘Commerce, Communication, and Empire: Economy, Technology and Cultural Encounters’, Speculum, 90 (2015), 1–27: what Effros thought needed replacing!

Emmet Scott, Mohammed & Charlemagne Revisited: The History of a Controversy (Nashville, TN: New English Review Press, 2011): Islamophobe revisionism

Kenneth Stunkel, ‘Mohammed and Charlemagne (Henri Pirenne, 1862–1935)’, in Fifty Key Works of History and Historiography, by Stunkel (London: Routledge, 2011), pp. 132–35

Gene W. Heck, Muhammad, Charlemagne, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2006), pp. 1–65 and 161–91: liberal capitalist pro-Islamic revisionism

Paolo Squatriti, ‘Mohammed, the Early Medieval Mediterranean, and Charlemagne’, Early Medieval Europe, 11 (2002), 263–279: review of scholarship and recent work

Ildar Garipzanov, ‘The Coinage of Tours in the Merovingian Period and the Pirenne Thesis’, Revue belge de numismatique et de sigillographie, 147 (2001), 79–118 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

*Simon T. Loseby, ‘Marseille and the Pirenne thesis, II: “Ville Morte”’, in Hansen and Wickham, Long Eighth Century, as above, pp. 167–94

*Richard Hodges, ‘Henri Pirenne and the Question of Demand in the Sixth Century’, Simon Loseby, ‘Marseille and the Pirenne Thesis, I: Gregory of Tours, the Merovingian Kings and “un Grand Port”’ and Chris Wickham, ‘Overview: Production, Distribution and Demand’, all in Hodges and Bowden, The Sixth Century, as above, pp. 3–14, 203–29 and 279–92; Hodges’s paper reprinted in Goodbye to the Vikings? Re-Reading Early Medieval Archaeology, by Richard Hodges (London: Duckworth, 2006), pp. 19–27

Bernard S. Bachrach, ‘Pirenne and Charlemagne’, in After Rome's Fall: Narrators and Sources of Early Medieval History. Essays Presented to Walter Goffart, ed. by Alexander Callander Murray (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998), pp. 214–31

D. Michael Metcalf, ‘The Beginnings of Coinage in the North Sea Coastlands: A Pirenne-like Hypothesis’, in Twelfth Viking Congress: Developments around the Baltic and North Sea in the Viking Age, ed. by Björn Ambrosiani and Helen B. Clarke (Stockholm: Riksantikvarieämbetet, 1994), pp. 196–214

Richard Hodges, ‘In the Shadow of Pirenne: San Vincenzo al Volturno and the Revival of Mediterranean Commerce’, in La Storia dell’alto medioevo italiano (VI-X secolo) alla luce dell’archeologia, ed. by Riccardo Francovich and Ghislaine Noyé (Firenze: All’insegna del giglio, 1994), pp. 109–28

Kenneth W. Frank, ‘Pirenne Again: A Muslim Viewpoint’, History Teacher, 26 (1993), 371–83

Raymond van Dam, ‘The Pirenne Thesis and Fifth-Century Gaul’, in Fifth-Century Gaul: A Crisis of Identity?, ed. by John F. Drinkwater and Hugh Elton (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 321–33

Adriaan Verhulst, ‘The Origins of Towns in the Low Countries and the Pirenne Thesis’, Past & Present, 122 (1989), 3–35, reprinted in Verhulst, Rural and Urban Aspects of Early Medieval Northwest Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1992), chapter X

*David Whitehouse, ‘Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis’, in Medieval Archaeology, ed. by Charles Redman (Binghampton, NY: State University of New York, 1989), pp. 4–21

Samuel J. Barnish, ‘The Transformation of Classical Cities and the Pirenne Debate’, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2 (1989), 385–99, <http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/conant/barnish.pdf> [last modified 20 October 2004 as of 18 January 2022]

*Richard Hodges and David Whitehouse, Mohammed, Charlemagne and the Origins of Europe: Archaeology and the Pirenne Thesis (London: Duckworth, 1983): still excellent

*Peter R. L. Brown, ‘“Mohammed and Charlemagne” by Henri Pirenne’, Daedalus, 103 (1974), 25–33, reprinted in Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity, by Brown (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 63–79

Bryce Lyon, The Origins of the Middle Ages: Pirenne’s challenge to Gibbon (New York City, NY: Norton, 1972)

Andrew Ehrenkreutz, ‘Another Orientalist’s Remarks Concerning the Pirenne Thesis’, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 15 (1972), 90–104, reprinted in Ehrenkreutz, Monetary Change and Economic History in the Medieval Muslim World, ed. by Jere L. Bacharach (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1992), chapter III, and in The Expansion of the Early Islamic State, ed. by Frederick McGraw Donner (Princeton: Darwin, 2008), pp. 101–12

Paul Craig Roberts, ‘The Pirenne Thesis – Economics or Civilizations: Towards Reformulation’, Classica et mediaevalia, 25 (1964), 297–315

The Pirenne Thesis: Analysis, Criticism, and Revision, ed. by Alfred F. Havighurst, 3rd ed. (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1976; 1st ed. 1957)

Anne Riising, ‘The Fate of Henri Pirenne’s Theses on the Consequences of the Islamic Expansion’, Classica et mediaevalia, 13 (1952), 87–130, reprinted in Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam beim Übergang vom Altertum zum Mittelalter, ed. by Paul Egon Hübinger (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchhandlung, 1968), pp. 178–222

Sture Bolin, ‘Muhammed, Karl den store och Rurik’, Scandia, 12 (1939), 181‒222, trans. as ‘Mohammed, Charlemagne and Ruric,’ Scandinavian Economic History Review, 1 (1952), 5–39, repr. in Hübinger, Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam, as above, pp. 223‒65

Daniel C. Dennett, ‘Pirenne and Muhammad’, Speculum, 23 (1948), 165–90, reprinted in Hübinger, Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam, as above, pp. 120–59

*Roberto S. López, ‘Mohammed and Charlemagne: A Revision’, Speculum, 18 (1943), 14–38, reprinted in Hübinger, Bedeutung und Rolle des Islam, as above, pp. 65–104

This list was last updated on 07/03/2022