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Module Reading List - Hist 2105

Medieval Romans and the shape of Afro-Eurasia today, 2021/22, Semester 2
Rebecca Darley
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 


Good Background Studies

[These are all excellent introductions to the Byzantine Empire and any one of them can provide you with an overview to support this module. For the best combination of price, readability and coverage, I personally prefer Stathakopoulos.]

Cameron, A., 2006. The Byzantines, The Peoples of Europe. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.

Herrin, J., 2008. Byzantium: the surprising life of a medieval empire. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Sarris, P., 2015. Byzantium: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

*Stathakopoulos, D., 2014. A Short History of the Byzantine Empire, I.B.Tauris Short Histories. I.B. Tauris, London.

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Week 1: Constantine to Constantine

Compulsory Readings:

Eusebius was bishop of Caesarea, a Christian prior to Constantine’s legalisation of the religion. He knew Constantine personally and his Ecclesiastical History and Life of Constantine provide an invaluable insight into Constantine’s court and Empire, but one with some quite particular agenda. Please read chapters 21-39 (some of the chapters are very short). A. Cameron and S. Hall (1999) Life of Constantine by Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea, Oxford: the Clarendon Press. (An older translation of the Life of Constantine is also available in full online here: . Content note: This extract includes discussion of torture, rape, suicide, infanticide and massacre. These descriptions are not particularly detailed and, as we will see in class, were probably not true, but if you prefer not to engage with this content, please skip sections 32-36. 

Georgios Sphrantzes was a courtier and close friend of Constantine XI, who served with him throughout his reign and during the siege of Constantinople. Sphrantzes himself was able to escape to the west after the fall of the city, after a period spent as an Ottoman slave. He was able to recover his wife from slavery but his children both died as Ottoman slaves, both before turning 15. In 1472 Sphrantzes took monastic vows and seems to have spent his later years writing a Chronicle form the creation of the world, but focussed on the last dynasty of Byzantium, the Palaiologans. This Chronicle ends in 1477, when Sphrantzes is assumed to have died, but the work was taken up and expanded some time later by Makarios Melissenos (also known as Pseudo-Sphrantzes). You will therefore see reference to the ‘Minor’ and ‘Major’ chronicles of Sphrantzes, and older scholarship will present both as works by Sphrantzes, but it is now known that he was the author only of the ‘Minor’ Chronicle. M. Philippides (1980) The Fall of the Byzantine Empire: A Chronicle by George Sphrantzes, 1401-1477Amherst: University of Massachusetts. Sections of Sphrantzes Chronicle are available online here. Please read all of them. Content note: This extract includes reference to slavery.   

Additional Readings:

Primary Textual Sources:

These are not the only primary textual sources available but provide some of the core material currently available in English translation and a point of comparison with Eusebius and Sphrantzes (above).

Constantine I:

Lactantius: Like Eusebius, Lactantius knew Constantine I personally, and had lived through the persecution of Christians prior to Constantine’s reign. His writings, mainly aimed at asserting the superiority of Christianity over traditional Roman beliefs, provide an alternative narrative of Constantine’s life to that of Eusebius, with important questions focussing on what each writer chose to focus on, and why. The most detailed account of Constantine’s rise to power can be found in Lactantius’s Concerning the Deaths of the Persecutors (De mortibus persecutorum). De mortibus persecutorum by Lactantius, ed. and trans. J. L. Creed (1980) Oxford: The Clarendon. (A free electronic translation can also be found here:  

Note, though, that this is a very old translation, published in 1782, produced in the context of very different attitudes to Christian rulership and religious persecution, as well as before much of the extensive and detailed study which has since been directed towards Greek usage and written styles in the literary milieu of Late Antiquity.

Constantine XI:

Chalkokondyles: Laonikos Chalkokondyles was educated in Mistra (in modern Greece), where Constantine XI was appointed Despot (one of the highest ranks in the Byzantine Empire) before his accession to the throne. Chalkokondyles was personally involved in the imperial court and knew the emperor. In the 1450s he set out to imitate Herodotus (an ancient Greek writer who had composed one of the first works of history in the fifth century BCE), in writing his Histories of the great clash of Asian and European empires, apparently intending it to conclude, as Herodotus’ account had, with a European victory. Events, however, altered this narrative and his work provides one of the most detailed accounts of the late Palaiologan period. A. Kaldellis (2014) Laonikos Chalkokondyles: The Histories (2 vols.), Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Medieval Library with Harvard University Press. (Sections of Chalkokondyles’ Histories are online here:  

Secondary Reading:

N.B. The Late Roman/Late Antique/Early Medieval/Early Byzantine/Early Christian world of Constantine I has been the subject of much more intensive study than the Late Byzantine/Late Medieval/Early Modern/Palaiologan world of Constantine XI. Beyond this reading list you will find innumerable books and articles on Constantine I’s rise to power, Christian leanings, foundation of Constantinople and economic and political strategies, of which the works here are a selection and starting point. On Constantine XI there is far less literature available beyond the works listed here, and especially in English. In the case of both Constantines, their lives have become the basis for legend and cult of personality as well as historical research. Read with particular care, especially studies concerning Constantine I’s Christianity and Constantine XI’s ‘Greekness’. Some are excellent. Some are not. Here at least is a fairly safe start!

Special Secondary Reading:

Recommended, but not compulsory, for reading before the first session to provide additional background information about both emperors.

D. Nicol (1992) The Immortal Emperor: The Life and Legend of Constantine Palaiologos, Last Emperor of the Romans, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter Three. 

N. Lenski (2012) The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, revised ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 3  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Constantine I:

T. Barnes (2011) Constantine: dynasty, religion, and power in the later Roman Empire, Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.

T. Barnes (2009) ‘Was there a Constantinian Revolution? [Review article]’ Journal of Late Antiquity 2.2, 374-384.

A. Cameron (2005) ‘The reign of Constantine, AD 306-337’ in A. Bowman, A. Cameron and P. Garnsey (eds) The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 12: The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-3372nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 90-109.

R. Flower (2012) ‘Visions of Constantine’, Journal of Roman Studies 102, 287-305.

M. Humphries (2008) ‘From usurper to Emperor: The Politics of Legitimation in the Age of Constantine’ Journal of Late Antiquity 1.1, 82-100.

N. C. Lieu and D. Montserrat (1998) Constantine: history, historiography and legendLondon: Routledge.

R. Rees (2004) Diocletian and the TetrarchyEdinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Useful for getting an idea of the circumstances in which Constantine I rose to power.

D. Wright (1987) ‘The true face of Constantine the Great’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41, 493-507.

Constantine XI:

S. Bendall (1991) ‘The coinage of Constantine XI’ Revue numismatique, Ser. 6, 33, 134-42.

A. Bryer (2009) ‘The Roman Orthodox world, 1393-1492’ in J. Shepard (ed.) The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c.500–1492, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 852-80.

M. Klopf (1970) ‘The Army in Constantinople at the Accession of Constantine XI’ Byzantion, 40, 385-92.

A. Laiou (2009) ‘The Palaiologoi and the world around them, 1261-1400 in J. Shepard (ed.) The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c.500–1492, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 803-33.

A. Laiou (173) ‘The Byzantine aristocracy in the Palaeologan period: a story of arrested development’, Viator 4, 131-51.

R. G. Ousterhout (1991) ‘Constantinople, Bithynia, and regional developments in later Palaeologan architecture’ in J. Solbadan and M. Doula (eds) The Twilight of Byzantium. Aspects of Cultural and Religious History in the Late Byzantine Empire, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 75-110.

I. A. Papadrianos (1965) ‘The Marriage-arrangement between Constantine XI Palaeologus and the Serbian Mara’, Balkan studies 6, 131-38.

R. Bozkurt (1980) ‘Sultan Mehmet II and the conquest of Constantinople’, Revue internationale d'histoire militaire 46, 61-70. 

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Week 2: Justinian's Mediterranean

Compulsory Readings:

Primary Sources:

Procopius, History of the Wars, Books I and II, ed. and trans. H. B. Dewing, 1914., Loeb Classical Library. William Heinemann, London, Book 1, Chapter 1, pp. 3-9. Available online here.  

At least the introduction and four chapters from Prokopios’s Secret History. It is not a very long text, so if you can manage all of it, all the better. If you can only manage four chapters, try to select four scattered widely through the work. Procopius, Secret History, ed. and trans. R. Atwater, Ann Arbor Paperbacks. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI. Available online here.

Secondary Sources:

A. Saranits (2009) ‘War and Diplomacy in Pannonia and the Northwest Balkans during the Reign of Justinian: The Gepid Threat and Imperial Responses’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 63, 15-40.  

R. D. Scott ‘Malalas, The Secret History, and Justinian's Propaganda’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39, 99-109.  

Additional Readings:

P. Charanis (1961) ‘The Transfer of Population as a Policy in the Byzantine Empire’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 3, 140-154. 

J. A. S. Evans (1996) The age of Justinian: the circumstances of imperial powerLondon: Routledge.

J. A. S. Evans (1970) ‘Justinian and the Historian Procopius’, Greece and Rome 17, 218-223.

G. Fisher (2004) ‘A New Perspective on Rome's Desert Frontier’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 336, 49-60.

G. Greatrex (2013) ‘The date of Procopius' Buildings in the light of recent scholarship’, Estudios Bizantinos 1, 13-29.  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MH 15/02/2022) 

G. Greatrex (2003) ‘Recent work on Procopius and the composition of Wars VIII’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 27, 45-67.

G. Greatrex (1995) ‘The composition of Procopius' Persian Wars and John the Cappadocian’, Prudentia 27, 1-13.

G. Greatrex (1994) ‘The dates of Procopius' works’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 18, 101-114.

A. D. Lee (2013) From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565 : the transformation of ancient Rome, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

M. Maas (ed.) (2005) The Cambridge companion to the age of Justinian, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

C. F. Pazdernik (2000) Procopius and Thucydides on the Labors of War: Belisarius and Brasidas in the Field, Transactions of the American Philological Association 130, 149-187.

J. Teall (1965) ‘The Barbarians in Justinian's Armies’, Speculum 40, 294-322.

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Week 3: Heraclius and the Rise of Islam

Compulsory Readings:

Primary Source:

The Qur'an. Please read Sura 28 (History/al-Qasas) in this English translation:  

Secondary Sources:

El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria, ‘Muḥammad and Heraclius: A Study in Legitimacy’, Studia Islamica, 89, 1999, 5–21 < 

C. Hillenbrand (2005) ‘Muhammad and the rise of Islam’ in P. Fouracre (ed.) New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 1: c. 500-c.700, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 317-345.  

Spain Alexander, Suzanne, ‘Heraclius, Byzantine Imperial Ideology, and the David Plates’, Speculum, 52.2 (1977), 217–37  

Additional Readings:

H. Berg (ed.) (2003) Method and theory in the study of Islamic origins, Leiden: Brill.

P. Crone (1987) Meccan trade and the rise of Islam Princeton: Princeton University Press.

P. Crone and M. Cook (1977) Hagarism: the making of the Islamic world, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

F. Donner (1981) The early Islamic conquests, Princeton: Princeton University Press. 

G. Fisher (2011) ‘Kingdoms or dynasties: Arabs, history and identity before Islam’,  Journal of Late Antiquity 4, 245-267. 

Greatrex, Geoffrey, and Samuel N. C Lieu, eds., The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars: A Narrative Sourcebook, 2 vols (London: Routledge, 2008), ii.

J. Howard-Johnston (2010) Witnesses to a World in Crisis. Historians and Histories of the Middle East in the Seventh Century, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howard-Johnston, James, ‘Armenian Historians of Heraclius: An Examination of the Aims, Sources and Working-Methods of Sebeos and Movses Daskhurantsi’, in The Reign of Heraclius (610-641): Crisis and Confrontation, ed. by Gerrit J Reinink and Bernard H Stolte, Reprinted (Leuven: Peeters, 2002), pp. 41–62.

R. Hoyland (1997) Seeing Islam as others saw it: a survey and evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian writings on early Islam, Princeton: Darwin Press.

B. J. Johns (2003) ‘Archaeology and the history of early Islam: the first seventy years’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 46, 411-496.

Kaegi, Walter Emil, Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)

W. E. Kaegi (1992) Byzantium and the early Islamic conquests, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

H. Kennedy (2001) The Armies of the Caliphs: military and society in the early Islamic state, Routledge: London.

MacMaster, Thomas J., ‘The Pogrom That Time Forgot: The Ecumenical Anti-Jewish Campaign of 632’, in Inclusion and Exclusion in Mediterranean Christianities, 400-800, ed. by Yaniv Fox and Erica Buchberger, Cultural Encounters in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, 25 (Turnhout: Brepols, 2019), pp. 217–35 <>

G. Reinink (1992) ‘Ps-Methodius: a concept of history in response to the rise of Islam’ in A. Cameron and L. Conrad (eds) The Byzantine and early Islamic Near East, I: problems in the literary source material, Princeton NJ: Darwin Press, 149-187.

T. Sizgorich (2004) ‘Narrative and Community in Islamic Late Antiquity’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 185, 9-42. 

Trilling, James, ‘The Soul of the Empire: Style and Meaning in the Mosaic Pavement of the Byzantine Imperial Palace in Constantinople’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 43 (1989), 27–72.

M. Whittow (2010) ‘The late Roman/early Byzantine Near East’ in M. Cook and C. Robinson (eds) The New Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 72-97.

Zouberi, Joan, ‘The Role of Religion in the Foreign Affairs of Sasanian Iran and the Later Roman Empire (330-630 A.D.)’, Historia i Świat, 6 (2017), 121–32  

Zuckerman, Constantin, ‘Heraclius in 625’, Revue Des Études Byzantines, 60.1 (2002), 189–97 <>  


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Week 4: Manzikert and a New World Order

Compulsory Readings:

Please start here:

Mallett, Alex, ‘Manzikert’, Encyclopedia of Islam (Koninklijke Brill NV) < 

Then reading these:

Beihammer, Alexander, ‘Orthodoxy and Religious Antagonism in Byzantine Perceptions of the Seljuk Turks (Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries)’, Al-Masāq, 23.1 (2011), 15–36 < 

Hillenbrand, Carole, ‘The Heritage of Manzikert: The Myth of National Identity’, in Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007)  

Then read this primary source extract:

Extracts from Theodoros Skoutariotes, Michael Psellos and Michael Attaleiates on the reigns of emperors around the time of Manzikert:  

Additional Readings:

Anderson, Glaire, ‘Islamic Spaces and Diplomacy in Constantinople (Tenth to Thirteenth Centuries C.E.)’, Medieval Encounters, 15.1 (2009), 86–113 <>  

Angold, Michael, ‘The Byzantine State on the Eve of the Battle of Manzikert’, Byzantinische Forschungen, 16 (1991), 9–34.  

Bryer, Anthony, and Michael Ursinus, eds., Manzikert to Lepanto: The Byzantine World and the Turks 1071-1571. Papers given at the Nineteenth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Birmingham, March 1985, Byzantinische Forschungen, 16 (Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1991)  

Edwards, Robert W., ‘Bagras and Armenian Cilicia: A Reassessment’, Revue Des Études Arméniennes, 17 (1983), 415–55   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MH 15/02/2022) 

Gaffney, Vince, Murgatroyd, Phil, Craenen, Bart, and Thoedoropoulos, Georgios, ‘Only Individuals: Moving the Byzantine Army to Manzikert’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Supplement, 122 (2013), 25–43

Hamdani, Abbas, ‘Byzantine-Fatimid Relations before the Battle of Manzikert’, Byzantine Studies, 1 (1974), 169–79   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MH 15/02/2022) 

Nicolle, David, Manzikert 1071: The Breaking of Byzantium (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)  

Treadgold, Warren T., Byzantium and Its Army 284–1081 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995)  

Hillenbrand, Carole, Turkish Myth and Muslim Symbol: The Battle of Manzikert (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013). This contains a range of valuable chapters, including translations of various primary sources, especially from Muslim perspectives.  

Murgatroyd, Philip, Bart Craenen, Georgios Theodoropoulos, Vincent Gaffney, and John Haldon, ‘Modelling Medieval Military Logistics: An Agent-Based Simulation of a Byzantine Army on the March’, Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 18.4 (2012), 488–506 <>  

Sakel, Dean, ‘Again on the Historia Imperatorum – and on the Mantzikert Campaign’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 110.1 (2017) <>

Stephenson, Paul, ‘Byzantium Transformed, c. 950-1200’, Medieval Encounters, 10.1–3 (2004), 185–210 <


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Week 5: Tax, Coinage and Law

Compulsory Readings:

Please read two extracts from the Institutes of Justinian (which can be found here: Please read the short first section of Book I, entitled 'Justice and Law', and then section XVII of Book III, entitled 'Buying and Selling'. 

M. Maas (1986) ‘Roman History and Christian Ideology in Justinianic Reform Legislation’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 40, 17-31.  

Spend some time looking at this online exhibition of Byzantine coins, thinking about how and why Byzantine emperors presented themselves on coins and what the coins are made of:  

Additional Readings:


Banaji, Jairus, ‘Precious Metal Coinages and Monetary Expansion in Late Antiquity’, in Dal Denarius al Dinar: L’oriente El La Moneta Romana (Atti dell’ incontro di studio (Rome): Istituto Italiano di Numismatica, 2006), pp. 265–303   

Barnish, S J B, ‘Taxation, Land and Barbarian Settlement in the Western Empire’, Papers of the British School at Rome, 54 (1986), 170–95  

Brand, Charles M, ‘Two Byzantine Treatises on Taxation’, Traditio: Studies in Ancient Medieval History, Thought and Religion, 25 (1969), 35–60  

Day, John, ‘A Note on Monetary Mechanisms, East and West’, in The Economic History of Byzantium from the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century, ed. by Angeliki E. Laiou, English, 3 vols (Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks, 2002), iii, 967–72

Lefort, Jacques, ‘The Rural Economy, Seventh–Twelfth Centuries’, in The Economic History of Byzantium from the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century, ed. by Angeliki E. Laiou, trans. by Sarah Hanbury Tenison, 3 vols (Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2002), i, 231–310 

MacCoull, Leslie S. B., ‘Taxpayers and Their Money in Sixth-Century Egypt: Currency in the Temseu Skordon Codex’,  Journal of Late Antiquity, 8.1 (2015), 97–113 <>  

Oikonomides, Nicolas, ‘The Role of the Byzantine State in the Economy’, in The Economic History of Byzantium from the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century, ed. by Angeliki E. Laiou, trans. by John Solman, English, 3 vols (Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks, 2002), iii, 973–1058 

Prigent, Vivien, ‘The Mobilisation of Fiscal Resources in the Byzantine Empire (Eighth to Eleventh Centuries)’, in Diverging Paths? The Shapes of Power and Institutions in Medieval Christendom and Islam, ed. by John Hudson and Ana Rodríguez López, The Medieval Mediterranean, 101 (Leiden: Brill, 2014), pp. 182–229

Setton, Kenneth Meyer, ‘On the Importance of Land Tenure and Agrarian Taxation in the Byzantine Empire, from the Fourth Century to the Fourth Crusade’, American Journal of Philology, 74 (1953), 225–59

Whittow, Mark, ‘The Middle Byzantine Economy (600–1204)’, in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c.500‒1492, ed. by Jonathan Shepard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 465–92 


Grierson, Philip, Byzantine Coins, ed. by Philip Grierson, 1st edn (London: Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1982)  

Hendy, Michael F., Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy, c. 300-1450 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985)  

Morrisson, Cécile, ‘Byzantine Money: Its Production and Circulation’, in The Economic History of Byzantium from the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century, ed. by Angeliki E. Laiou, trans. by Sarah H. Tenison, English, 3 vols (Washington, D.C: Dumbarton Oaks, 2002), iii, 909–66 

Zavagno, Luca, ‘Betwixt the Greeks and the Saracens: Coins and Coinage in Cyprus in the Seventh and the Eighth Century’, Byzantion, 81 (2011), 448–83

Major collections and online resources:

Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection (Washington D.C.):

Barber Institute of Fine Arts (Birmingham): 

Information about the collection:  

Individual coin entries:

Main catalogues:

  • DOC 1-5 (Dumbarton Oaks Catalogues)

Bellinger, A. R. (1966) Catalogue of the Byzantine coins in the Dumbarton Oaks collection and in the Whittemore collection, Anastasius I to Maurice, 491-602volume 1, Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Grierson, P. (1968) Catalogue of the…, Phocas to Theodosius III, 602-717, volumes 2.1, 2.2

Grierson, P. (1973) Catalogue of the…, Leo III to Nicephorus III, 717-1081volumes 3.1, 3.2

Hendy, M. (1999) Catalogue of the…, Alexius I to Michael VIIIvolumes 4.1, 4.2

Grierson, P. (1999) Catalogue of the…, Michael VIII to Constantine XIvolumes 5.1, 5.2

  • MIB and MIBE (Moneta Imperii Byzantini and Money of the Incipient Byzantine Empire)

Hahn, W. and Meitlich, A. (2000) Money of the incipient Byzantine Empire (Anastasius I – Justinian I, 491-565), Wien: Institut für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte.  

Hahn, W. (1973) Moneta Imperii Byzantini, 3 vols, Vienna: Veröffentlichungen der Österriechische Akademie der Wissenschaften. 

  • RIC (Roman Imperial Coinage)

Carson, R. A. G., Kent, J. P. C. and Burnett, A. M. (1994) The Roman Imperial Coinage, vol. 10, The Empire divided and the fall of the western parts, A.D. 395-491, London: Spink.


W. Ashburner (1912) ‘The Farmer's Law (Continued)’, The Journal of Hellenic Studies 32, 68-95. Jstor. Much of this article is concerned with manuscript transmission and technicalities of translation which you do not need to worry about (though you are welcome to if you want to), but it also includes a full translation of the text.

J. Beaucamp (2007) ‘Byzantine Egypt and imperial law’ in R. Bagnall (ed.) Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 271-287.

G. T. Dennis (2001) ‘Death in Byzantium’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers55, 1-7.

E. H. Freshfield (1930) ‘The Official Manuals of Roman Law of the Eighth and Ninth Centuries’, The Cambridge Law Journal 4.1, 34-50. 

P. Garnsey and C. Humfress (2001) The Evolution of the Late Antique World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 4 ‘Law and Legal Practice’.  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MH 17/02/2022) 

J. Harries (1999) Law and Empire in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, especially chapter 3. 

C. Humfress (2006 published 2007) ‘Cracking the Codex. Late Roman Law in Practice’. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 49, 251-64. A version can be downloaded from: (accessed 13/09/2016).

H. De Jong (2013) ‘The application of natura in Byzantine law’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 106, 683-712. 

A. E. Laiou (2011) ‘Law, justice and Byzantine historians: ninth to twelfth centuries’ in A. E. Laiou, Women, Family and Society in Byzantium, Aldershot: Variorum Reprints, Pt. VI, 151-185.

A. E. Laiou-Thomadakis and S. Dieter (eds) (1994) Law and Society in Byzantium, Ninth-Twelfth Centuries. Proceedings of the Symposium on Law and Society in Byzantium, 9th-12th Centuries, May 1-3, 1992, Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection.  

R. J. Macrides (1992) ‘Bad Historian or Good Lawyer? Demetrios Chomatenos and Novel 131’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers46, 187-196. 

R. J. Macrides (1988) ‘Killing, Asylum, and the Law in Byzantium’, Speculum 63.3, 509-538.

R. Morris (1976) The Powerful and the Poor in Tenth-Century Byzantium: Law and Reality’, Past and Present 73, 3-27. 

M. L. Rautman (2006) Daily Life in the Byzantine Empire, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Chapter 6

A. M. Riggsby (2010) Roman law and the legal world of the Romans, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

A. Rio (ed.) (2011) Law, custom, and justice in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages : proceedings of the 2008 Byzantine Colloquium, London: Centre for Hellenic Studies.   

B. H. Stolte (2005) ‘Balancing Byzantine Law’, Fontes minores (Byzanz) 11, 57-75.  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MH 17/02/2022) 

J. C. Tate (2008/2009) ‘Christianity and the Legal Status of Abandoned Children in the Later Roman Empire’, Journal of Law and Religion 24.1, 123-141.

Y. Vin and D. E. Kondratiev (2012) ‘Information Approach to Studying Byzantine Law and its Receptions’, Byzantinoslavica 70, 76-96.  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (MH 17/02/2022) 

D. Wagschal (2015) Law and legality in the Greek East: the Byzantine canonical tradition, 381 - 883Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Additional resources:

This site provides an online English translation of the Justinianic Codex. It is paralleled by a Latin version, which can be found here:

The Internet Medieval Sourcebook provides a full text of the Institutes of Justinian:

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Week 6: Iconomachy and the Triumph of Orthodoxy

Compulsory Readings:

John of Damascus, Apologia against those who decry holy images, Part II : From St. John Damascene. On Holy Images. Translated by Mary H. Allies. London: Thomas Baker, 1898, made available by the Internet Medieval Sourcebook:  

L. Brubaker, Inventing Byzantine Iconoclasm (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2012), Chapter 2.  

Elsner, Jaś, ‘Iconoclasm as Discourse: From Antiquity to Byzantium’, The Art Bulletin, 94.3 (2012), 368–94  

Additional Readings:

Primary sources:

Leslie Brubaker and John Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (ca. 680-850): The Sources, an Annotated Survey, with a Section on the Architecture of Iconoclasm by Robert Outerhout (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001).

Theophanes and Harry Turtledove, The Chronicle of Theophanes: An English Translation of Anni Mundi 6095-6305 (A.D. 602-813), with Introduction and Notes, ed. by Edward Peters and Henry Charles Lea, 1st edn (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982).(The most important narrative source for Byzantine iconoclasm).

Secondary sources:

Alexakis, Alexander, ‘The “Dialogue of the Monk and Recluse Moschos Concerning the Holy Icons”, An Early Iconophile Text’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 52 (1998), 187–224

Jan N. Bremmer, ‘Iconoclast, Iconoclastic, and Iconoclasm: Notes Towards a Genealogy’, Church History and Religious Culture, 88.1 (2008), 1–17.

Peter Brown, The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, AD 200-1000, 2nd edn (Oxford, 2003), Blackwell.

Leslie Brubaker and John Haldon, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era c. 680-850: A History (Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

Leslie Brubaker, ‘Icons and Iconomachy’, in A Companion to Byzantium, ed. by Liz James (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2010), pp. 323–337. A very useful summary of the chronology of Byzantine Iconoclasm.

Brubaker, Leslie, ‘Byzantine Art in the Ninth Century: Theory, Practice, and Culture’, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies, 13.1 (1989), 23–94 <>  

Bryer, Anthony, and Judith Herrin, eds., Iconoclasm: Papers given at the Ninth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, March 1975 (Birmingham: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, 1977)  

Flood, Barry Finbarr, ‘Between Cult and Culture: Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum’, The Art Bulletin, 84.4 (2002), 641–59  

James, Liz, ‘“Pray Not to Fall into Temptation and Be on Your Guard”: Pagan Statues in Christian Constantinople’, Gesta, 35.1 (1996), 12–20  

King, G. R. D., ‘Islam, Iconoclasm, and the Declaration of Doctrine’, in Late Antique and Medieval Art of the Mediterranean World, ed. by Eva R. Hoffman, Blackwell Anthologies in Art History, 5 (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007), pp. 213–24  

Griffith, Sidney H., ‘Theodore Abū Qurrah’s Arabic Tract on the Christian Practice of Venerating Images’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 105.1 (1985), 53–73

Mauskopf Deliyannis, Deborah, ‘Agnellus of Ravenna and Iconoclasm: Theology and Politics in a Ninth-Century Historical Text’, Speculum, 71.3 (1996), 559–76

Thomas F X Noble, Images, Iconoclasm and the Carolingians (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009).

The Cambridge History of Christianity, Vol. 3: C. 600-1100, ed. by Thomas F. X. Noble and Julia M H Smith (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

Miri Rubin, Medieval Christianity in Practice (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009).

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Week 7: Psellos and the Macedonian 'Renaissance'

Compulsory Readings:

 Primary source:

Please read the Introduction and Book 2 of the Chronographia of Michael Psellos:  

Secondary sources:

Antonopoulou, Theodora, ‘“What Agreement Has the Temple of God with Idols?” Christian Homilies, Ancient Myths, and the “Macedonian Renaissance”’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 106.2 (2013) < 

Jeffreys, Michael, ‘Psellos in 1078’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 107.1 (2014) < 

Additional Readings:

Primary sources:

Kaldellis, Anthony, and Ioannis Polemis, Psellos and the Patriarchs: Letters and Funeral Orations for Keroullarios, Liechoudes, and Xiphilinos (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2015)  

Psellus, Michael, Anthony Kaldellis, David Jenkins, and Stratis Papaioannou, Mothers and Sons, Fathers and Daughters: The Byzantine Family of Michael Psellos, Michael Psellos in Translation (Notre Dame, Ind: University of Notre Dame Press, 2006)  

Secondary sources: 

Angold, Michael, ‘Belle Époque or Crisis? (1025–1118)’, in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c.500‒1492, ed. by Jonathan Shepard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 583–626  

Arabatzis, Georges, ‘Oblique Politics and Esotericism in Michael Psellos’, Peitho. Examina Antiqua, 7.1 (2016), 249–64 <>  

Barber, Charles and Jenkins, David, eds., Reading Michael Psellos (Leiden: Brill, 2006)  

Bollók, Ádám, ‘Comparing the Carolingian and Middle Byzantine Artistic Revivals: Mutual Exchange or Parallel Universes?’, in Center, Province and Periphery in the Age of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, ed. by Niels Gaul, Volker Menze, and Csanád Bálint, Mainzer Veröffentlichungen Zur Byzantistik, 15 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2018), pp. 55–70 <>  

Dennis, George T., ‘A Rhetorician Practices Law: Michael Psellos’, in Law and Society in Byzantium, 9th-12th Centuries, ed. by Angeliki E. Laiou and Dieter Simon (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1994), pp. 187–97 

Gadolin, Anitra, A Theory of History and Society, with Special Reference to the Chronographia of Michael Psellus: 11th Century Byzantium, Stockholm Studies in History of Literature, 11 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1970)  

Jeffreys, Michael, ‘Psellos and “His Emperors”: Fact, Fiction and Genre’, in History as Literature in Byzantium, ed. by Ruth Macrides (Farnham: Ashgate, 2010), pp. 73–92  

Lauritzen, Frederick, ‘Nations and Minorities in Psellos’ “Chronographia” (976–1078)’, Studia Ceranea, 9 (2019), 319–31 <>  

Littlewood, Antony, ‘The Midwifery of Michael Psellos: An Example of Byzantine Literary Originality’, in Byzantium and the Classical Tradition: University of Birmingham, Thirteenth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, 1979, ed. by Margaret Mullett and Roger Scott (Birmingham: Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Birmingham, 1981), pp. 136–42

Magdalino, Paul, ‘The Bath of Leo the Wise and the “Macedonian Renaissance” Revisited: Topography, Iconography, Ceremonial, Ideology’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 42 (1988), 97 <>  

Maguire, Henry, ‘Epigrams, Art, and the “Macedonian Renaissance”’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 48 (1994), 105 <>  

Markopoulos, Athanasios, ‘Voices from the Center: Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos and the Macedonian Dynasty in Contemporary Historiography. With an Appendix: Three Letters from Romilly J. H. Jenkins to Gyula Moravcsik’, in Center, Province and Periphery in the Age of Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, ed. by Niels Gaul, Volker Menze, and Csanád Bálint, Mainzer Veröffentlichungen Zur Byzantistik, 15 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2018), pp. 22–38 <>  

Markopoulos, Athanasios, ‘Constantine the Great in Macedonian Historiography: Models and Approaches’, in History and Literature of Byzantium in the 9th and 10th Centuries (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), p. XV: 159-170  

McCartney, Elizabeth, ‘The Use of Metaphor in Michael Psellos’ Chronographia’, in Byzantine Narrative: Papers in Honour of Roger Scott, ed. by John Burke, Byzantina Australiensia, 16 (Leiden: Brill, 2006), pp. 84–91 <>  

Pizzone, Aglae, ‘“A Hand of Ivory”: Moving Objects in Psellos’ Oration for His Daughter Styliane. A Case Study’, Emotion Review, 13.4 (2021), 289–98 <>

Smythe, Dion C., ‘Experiencing Self: How Mid-Byzantine Historians Presented Their Experience’, in Experiencing Byzantium, ed. by Claire Nesbitt and Mark Jackson, 1st edn (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 251–68

Tougher, Shaun, ‘Imperial Families: The Case of the Macedonians (867–1056)’, in Approaches to the Byzantine Family, ed. by Leslie Brubaker and Shaun Tougher (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), pp. 303–26 

Treadgold, Warren, The Middle Byzantine Historians (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013)  

Treadgold, Warren T., ‘The Macedonian Renaissance’, in Renaissances before the Renaissance, 1984, pp. 75–98  

Walker, Jeffrey, ‘These Things I Have Not Betrayed: Michael Psellos’ Encomium of His Mother as a Defense of Rhetoric’, Rhetorica: A Journal of the History of Rhetoric, 22.1 (2004), 49–101  

Zulian, G., ‘Reconstructing the Image of an Empress in Middle Byzantine Constantinople: Gender in Byzantium, Psellos’ Empress Zoe and the Chapel of Christ Antiphonites’, Rosetta, 2 (2007), 32–55  

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Week 8: Byzantine Palestina and the Post-Colonial Past

Compulsory Readings:

Please read this first:

D. Reynolds, 'Post-colonial Reflections and the Challenge of Global Byzantium', L. Brubaker, R. Darley and D. Reynolds (eds), Global Byzantium: proceedings of the 50th Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies (London: Routledge, expected 2022). Pagination TBC.   


Assi, S. ‘The Original Arabs: The Invention of the Bedouin Race in Ottoman Palestine’, International Journal of Middle East Studies 50.2 (2018), 213-232.  

McClure, J. ‘A New Politics of the Middle Ages: A Global Middle Ages for a Global Modernity’, History Compass 13 (2015), 610–619.  

Additional Readings:

Primary sources:

Stewart, A. Wilson, C. The Letters of Paula and Eustochium to Marcella, about the Holy Places (A.D. 386)(London, 1889).

Stewart, A., Wilson, C. Of the Holy Places Visited by Antoninus Martyr (circa 560-570 A.D.) (London, 1896) 

Secondary sources:

Aharoni, Y., Evenari, M., Shenan, L, and Tadmor, N. ‘The Ancient Desert Agriculture of the Negev V: An Israelite Agricultural Settlement at Ramat Matred’, Israel Exploration Journal 10 (1960), 23–36, 97–111.

Ashcroft, B., Griffiths, G., Tiffin, H. Postcolonial studies: the key concepts (London, 2013).

Broshi, M. ‘The Population of Western Palestine in the Roman-Byzantine Period’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 236 (1979), 1-10. 

Challis, D. The Archaeology of Race: The Eugenic Ideas of Francis Galton and Flinders Petrie (London, 2014).

Clarke, M. ‘Global South: what does it mean and why use the term?’, Global South Political Commentaries, University of Victoria, (accessed 01/11/21).  

Cohen, R. Saving the Holy Sepulchre: how rival Christians came together to rescue their holiest shrine (Oxford, 2008).  

El-Haj, N. (2002). Producing (Arti) Facts: Archaeology and Power during the British Mandate of Palestine. Israel Studies 7.2, 33-61.

Ellenblum, R. The Collapse of the Eastern Mediterranean: Climate Change and the Decline of the East, 950–1072 (Cambridge, 2012).

Halevi, M. ‘The Politics behind the Construction of the Modern Church of the Annunciation in Nazareth’, The Catholic Historical Review 96. 1 (2010), 27–55.

Heng, G. ‘The Global Middle Ages: An Experiment in Collaborative Humanities, or Imagining the World, 500 –1500 C.E.’, English Language Notes 47 (2009), 205–216.

Hingley, R. ‘Post-colonial and global Rome: the genealogy of empire’ in Globalisation and the Roman World, Pitts, M. and Versluys, M. J. (eds) (New York, 2014), 32–46.

Katz, I., Kark, R. ‘The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and Its Congregation: Dissent over Real Estate’, International Journal of Middle East Studies 37. 4 (2005),509–534.

Loomba, A. Colonialism/Postcolonialism (London : 1998).

Wagoner, Phillip B. ‘Precolonial Intellectuals and the Production of Colonial Knowledge’, Comparative Studies in Society and History 45 (2003), 783–814.

Yiftachel, O. 'Epilogue: Studying Naqab/Negev Bedouins – Toward a Colonial Paradigm?', Hagar: Studies in Culture, Polity and Identities 8.2 (2008), 83-108.  

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Week 9: Obvious Enemies? Byzantium, Islam and the Christian West

Additional Readings:

Ballan, Mohammad, ‘Fraxinetum: An Islamic Frontier State in Tenth-Century Provence’, Comitatus, 41 (2010), 23–76 <>  

Beihammer, Alexander, ‘Strategies of Identification and Distinction in the Byzantine Discourse on the Seljuk Turks’, in Visions of Community in the Post-Roman World: The West, Byzantium and the Islamic World, 300-1100, ed. by Walter Pohl, Clemens Gantner, and Richard E. Payne (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012), pp. 499–510  

Bonner, Michael David, Arab-Byzantine Relations in Early Islamic Times (Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum, 2004)  

Brubaker, Leslie, ‘Representation c. 800: Arab, Byzantine, Carolingian’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, 19 (2009), 37–55  

Decker, Michael, ‘Export Wine Trade to West and East’, in Byzantine Trade, 4th-12th Centuries: The Archaeology of Local, Regional and International Exchange. Papers of the Thirty-Eighth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, St John’s College, University of Oxford, March 2004, ed. by Marlia Mundell Mango (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009), pp. 239–52 

Dols, Michael, ‘Insanity in Byzantine and Islamic Medicine’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 38.Symposium on Byzantine Medicine ( (1984), 135–48  

Dumézil, Bruno, Stefan Esders, Yitzhak Hen, Pia Lucas, and Tamar Rotman, eds., ‘Private Records of Official Diplomacy: The Franco-Byzantine Letters in the Austrasian Epistolar Collection’, in The Merovingian Kingdoms and the Mediterranean World: Revisiting the Sources (Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2019), pp. 55–62 <>  

El-Cheikh, Nadia M., ‘Describing the Other to Get at the Self: Byzantine Women in Arabic Sources (8th-11th Centuries)’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 40.2 (1997), 239–50  

Goffart, Walter A, ‘Rome, Constantinople, and the Barbarians’, American Historical Review, 86.2 (1981), 275–306  

Haldon, John, and Hugh Kennedy, ‘The Arab-Byzantine Frontier in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries: Military Organisation and Society in the Borderlands’, in The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East, by Hugh Kennedy, Variorum Collected Studies, 860 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), p. VIII: 79-116  

Herrin, Judith, ‘Constantinople, Rome and the Franks in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries’, in Byzantine Diplomacy: Papers from the Twenty-Fourth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Cambridge, March 1990, ed. by Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin (Aldershot: Variorum, 1992), pp. 91–107  

Hudson, John, and Ana Rodríguez López, eds., Diverging Paths? The Shapes of Power and Institutions in Medieval Christendom and Islam, The Medieval Mediterranean, 101 (Leiden: Brill, 2014)  

Jarrett, Jonathan, ‘Nests of Pirates? “Islandness” in the Balearic Islands and La-Garde-Freinet’, Al-Masāq, Not the Final Frontier: The World of Medieval Islands, 31.2 (2019), 196–222 <>  

Kennedy, Hugh, ‘Byzantine-Arab Diplomacy in the Near East from the Islamic Conquests to the Mid Eleventh Century’, in Byzantine Diplomacy: Papers from the Twenty-Fourth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Cambridge, March 1990, ed. by Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin (Aldershot: Variorum, 1992), pp. 133–43  

Korobeinikov, D. A., ‘Raiders and Neighbours: The Turks (1040–1304)’, in The Cambridge History of the Byzantine Empire c.500‒1492, ed. by Jonathan Shepard (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 692–728  

Lilie, Ralph-Johannes, ‘The Byzantine-Arab Borderland from the Seventh to the Ninth Centuries’, in Borders, Barriers, and Ethnogenesis: Frontiers in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, ed. by Florin Curta (Turnhout: Brepols, 2006), pp. 13–22  

Metcalfe, Alex, ‘Orientation in Three Spheres: Medieval Mediterranean Boundary Clauses in Latin, Greek and Arabic’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (Sixth Series), 22 (2012), 37–55  

Osborne, John, ‘Politics, Diplomacy and the Cult of Relics in Venice and the Northern Adriatic in the First Half of the Ninth Century’, Early Medieval Europe, 8.3 (1999), 369–86 <>  

Pomerantz, Maurice A., and Evelyn Birge Vitz, eds., In the Presence of Power: Court and Performance in the Pre-Modern Middle East (NYU Press, 2017)  

Redford, Scott, ‘Thirteenth-Century Rum Seljuq Palaces and Palace Imagery’, Ars Orientalis, 23.Pre-Modern Islamic Palaces (1993), 219–36  

Schenkewitz, Kyle A., ‘Encountering the Saracen Other: Anastasios of Sinai and the Arab Conquest’, ed. by Ronald A. Simkins and Zachary B. Smith, Journal of Religion and Society, Supplement 18 (2019), 34–44  

Shepard, Jonathan, ‘Byzantine Diplomacy, A.D. 800–1204: Means and Ends’, in Byzantine Diplomacy: Papers from the Twenty-Fourth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, Cambridge, March 1990, ed. by Jonathan Shepard and Simon Franklin (Aldershot: Variorum, 1992), pp. 41–71  

Versteegh, Kees, ‘The Arab Presence in France and Switzerland in the 10th Century’, Arabica, 37 (1990), 359–88  

Whitten, Sarah, ‘Franks, Greeks, and Saracens: Violence, Empire, and Religion in Early Medieval Southern Italy’, Early Medieval Europe, 27.2 (2019), 251–78 <>

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Week 10: India in the Byzantine World View

Compulsory Readings:

R. Darley, 'India in the Byzantine World View', L. Brubaker, R. Darley and D. Reynolds (eds), Global Byzantium: proceedings of the 50th Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies (London: Routledge, expected 2022). Pagination TBC.   

Darley, Rebecca, ‘The Tale of the Theban Scholastikos, or Journeys in a Disconnected Sea’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 12.2 (2019), 488–518  

Yoshiko Reed, Annette, ‘Beyond the Land of Nod: Syriac Images of Asia and the Historiography of “the West”’, History of Religions, 49.1 (2009), 48–87  

Additional Readings:

Andrade, Nathanael, The Journey of Christianity to India in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019)  

Choksy, Jamsheed K, ‘Sailors, Soldiers, Priests, and Merchants: Reappraising Iran’s Early Connections to Ceylon’, Iranica Antiqua, 48 (2013), 363–91  

Liu, Xinru, The Silk Road in World History (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2010) 

Mayerson, Philip, ‘A Confusion of Indias: Asian India and African India in the Byzantine Sources’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 113.2 (1993), 169–74  

Mayerson, Philip, ‘The Island of Iotabê in the Byzantine Sources: A Reprise’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 287, 1992, 1–4 <>  

Nappo, Darius, ‘Roman Policy in the Red Sea between Anastasius and Justinian’, in Connected Hinterlands: Proceedings of Red Sea Project IV, Held at the University of Southampton (September 2008), ed. by Lucy Blue, John Cooper, Thomas Ross, and Julian Whitewright (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2009), BAR Intern, 71–77

Seland, Eivind Heldaas, ‘Trade and Christianity in the Indian Ocean during Late Antiquity’, Journal of Late Antiquity, 5.1 (2012), 72–86

Sidebotham, Steven E., ‘Northern Red Sea Ports and Their Networks in the Late Roman/Byzantine Period’, in Byzantine Trade, 4th-12th Centuries: The Archaeology of Local, Regional and International Exchange. Papers of the Thirty-Eighth Spring Symposium of Byzantine Studies, St John’s College, University of Oxford, March 2004, ed. by Marlia Mundell Mango (Farnham: Ashgate, 2009), pp. 329–52  

Xuefei Han and Lin Ying, ‘Daqin Lamp-Trade of the Indian Ocean in Late Antiquity’, World History Studies, 5.2 (2018), 28–56

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Week 11: Conclusion

Additional Readings:

The following readings are not directly related to the lecture. My lecture will take a look back over the module, and consider future directions. These are a selection of readings by Byzantinists about ways of thinking about (or re-thinking) the Byzantine Empire, which might be interesting for taking your interest further or bringing Byzantium into dialogue with other topics in your degree.

Cameron, Averil, ‘Thinking with Byzantium’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 6, 21 (2011), 39–57 <>  

Fowden, Garth, Before and after Muḥammad: The First Millennium Refocused (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016)  

Graff, David Andrew, The Eurasian Way of War: Military Practice in Seventh-Century China and Byzantium, Asian States and Empires, 11 (London: Routledge, 2016) 

Haldon, John F., The Empire That Would Not Die: The Paradox of Eastern Roman Survival, 640-740 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016)  

Magdalino, Paul, Byzantium in the Year 1000 (Leiden: Brill, 2003)  

Maraschi, Andrea, ‘Learning from the Past to Understand the Present: 536 AD and Its Consequences for Man and the Landscape from a Catastrophist Perspective’, Ceræ: An Australasian Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 6 (2019), 23–44  

Whittow, Mark, The Making of Byzantium, 600-1025 (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1996) 

This list was last updated on 19/01/2022