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Module Reading List

Environment & Development Case Study: from theory to practice, 2021/22, Semester 2
Susannah Sallu
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue
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Core texts: 

Adams, W.M. (2019) Green Development Environment and Sustainability in a Developing World. Routledge.

Desai, V. and Potter, R. (2006) Doing development research. Sage, London

Ebneyamini, S. and Moghadam, M.R.S. (2018) Toward Developing a Framework for Conducting Case Study Research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods 17: 1-11 URL:

Harrison, H., Birks, M., Franklin, R. and Mills, J. (2017) Case study research: foundations and methodological orientations. Forum Qualitative Social Research 18(1): 19. URL:

Wilson, G., Furniss, P. and Kimbowa, R. (2010) Environment development and sustainability: perspectives and cases from around the world. Oxford University Press.  

Yin, R.K. (2018) Case study research and applications: design and methods. Sage, London. Available online through University of Leeds library.

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Other texts: 

(note, this is a reference list to use as a starting point for your wider independent reading. You are expected to conduct relevant independent reading alongside lectures as well as assignment-related research. Some of these texts may be helpful. There is a lot of research that has been done in the East Usambara and the Eastern Arc Mountains, some of these resources present just a sample of that. As such, you will be expected to do your own searches for relevant material, including past student project work)

Ashley, C., Goodwin, H. and Roe, D. (2001) Pro-Poor Tourism Strategies: Expanding Opportunities for the Poor. URL:

Bevan, D. (1993) Agriculture and the policy environment: Tanzania and Kenya. OECD. 

Brockington, D. (2002) Fortress conservation: the preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. African Issues.

Burgess, N.D. et al. (1997) Biodiversity and conservation of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya. Journal of East African History 87(1/2) Special Issue.

Chambers, R. (1997) Whose reality counts: putting the last first. ITDG Publishing, London.

Conte, C.A. (1999) The forest becomes desert: forest use and environmental change in Tanzania's West Usambara mountains. Land Degradation and Development 10(4): 291–309.

Ellis, F. (2000) Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ellis, F. and Freeman, H.A. (2005) Rural livelihoods and poverty reduction policies. Routledge.

Frances, E. (2002) Making a living: changing livelihoods in rural Africa. Routledge.

Franzel, S. and Scherr, S.J. (2002) Trees on the farm: assessing the adoption potential of agroforestry practices in Africa. CABI & ICRAF.

Hall, J.M., Gillespie, T.W. and Mwangoka, M. (2011) Comparison of Agroforests and Protected Forests in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Environmental Management 48:237–247. DOI 10.1007/s00267-010-9579-y. URL:

Hamilton, A.C. and Bensted-Smith, R. (Eds.) (1989) Forest conservation in the East Usambara mountains. IUCN.

Homewood, K. (2005) Rural resources & local livelihoods in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan.

Kaczan, D., Swallow B.M., Adamowicz, W.L. and Vihemäki, H. (2012) Designing an incentive programme to reduce on-­farm deforestation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. World Agroforestry Centre Working Paper 145 URL:

Kessy, J.F. (1998) Conservation and utilization of natural resources in the East Usambara forest reserves: conventional views and local perspectives. Wageningen Agricultural University. URL:

Laws, S., Harper, C. and Marcus, R. (2003) Research for development. Sage, London.

Leonard, C., Mwangoka, M., Mkongewa, V., Doggart, N. and Vihemäki, H. (2010) Assessment of the biological values of different land cover types in the East Usambara Mountains of Tanzania TFCG Technical Paper No. 23. DSM, Tz. URL:

Mansourian, S., Sumbi, P., Bonifasi, E., Meshack, C., Malungu, I., Vallauri, D. (2019) Lessons learnt from 10 years of restoration of coastal and sub-montane tropical forests: The East Usambara Landscape (Tanzania). WWF Field Series. URL:

Mbaga-Semgalawea, Z. and Henk, F. (2000) Household adoption behaviour of improved soil conservation: the case of the North Pare and West Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Land Use Policy 17(4): 321-336.

Milledge, S. et al. Local perceptions of the impacts of wildlife trade regulation on livelihoods: a case study from Tanzania. URL:

Mikkelsen, B. (2005) Methods for development work and research: a new guide for practitioners. Sage, London.

Morgan-Brown, T., Jacobson, S.K., Wald, K. and Child, B. (2010) Quantitative Assessment of a Tanzanian Integrated Conservation and Development Project Involving Butterfly Farming. Conservation Biology 24 (2): 563–572.

Mpanda, M., Munjuga, M., Reyes, T., Said, A., Rutatina, F., Kimaro, A., van Noordwijk, M. (2014) Allanblackia, butterflies and cardamom: sustaining livelihoods alongside biodiversity conservation on the forest-agroforestry interface in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 23(1-2): 127-142.

Msuya, Tuli S ; Kideghesho, Jafari R ; Mosha, Theobald C. E (2010) Availability, Preference, and Consumption of Indigenous Forest Foods in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 49(3): 208-227.

Mwanyoka, I.R. (2005) Payment for water services as a mechanism for watershed management: the case of the Sigi River Catchment, Tanga, Tanzania. WWF Tanzania. URL:

Neumann, R.P. (2002) Imposing wilderness: struggles over livelihood and nature preservation in Africa. Berkeley.

Newmark, W.D. (2002) Conserving biodiversity in East African forests: a study of the East African mountains. Springer.

Patrick, D.A., Shirk, P., Vonesh, J.R., Harper, E.B. and Howell, K.M. (2011) Abundance and roosting ecology of Chameleons in the East Usambara mountains of Tanzania and the potential effects of harvesting. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(3):422−431. URL:

Pfund, J-L., Watts, J.D., Boissie, M., Boucard, A., Bullock, R.M., Ekadinata, A., Dewi, S., Feintrenie, L., Levang, P., Rantala, S., Sheil, D., Sutherland, T.C.H. and Urech, Z.L. (2011) Understanding and Integrating Local Perceptions of Trees and Forests into Incentives for Sustainable Landscape. Environmental Management 48:334–349. DOI 10.1007/s00267-011-9689-1. URL:

Potter, P.W. (2006) Challenging nature: local knowledge, agroscience, and food security in Tanga region, Tanzania. Chicago.

Powell, B., Bezner Kerr, R., Young, S.L., Johns, T. (2017) The determinants of dietary diversity and nutrition: ethnonutrition knowledge of local people in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 13(1): 23-23.

Powell, B., Maundu, P., Kuhnlein, H.V, Johns, T. (2013) Wild Foods from Farm and Forest in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 52(6): 451-478.

Rantala, S., Bullock, R., Mbegu, M.A. and German, L.A. (2012) Community-Based Forest Management: What Scope for Conservation and Livelihood Co-Benefits? Experience from the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 31(8): 777-797. DOI:10.1080/10549811.2012.725155.

Rantala, S., Lyimo, E., Powell, B., Kitalyi, A. and Vihemäki, H. (2011) Challenges and opportunities for collaborative landscape governance in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. ICRAF Working Paper 127 & CIFOR Working Paper nr 61. Nairobi & Bogor. URL:

Rennie, J.K. (1996) Participatory research for sustainable livelihoods: a guidebook for field projects. IISD.

Reyes, T., Luukkanen, O., Quiroz, R. (2006) Small Cardamom: Precious for People, Harmful for Mountain Forests: Possibilities for Sustainable Cultivation in the East Usambaras, Tanzania. Mountain Research and Development 26(2): 131-137.

Reyes, T., Luukkanena, O. and Quirozb, R. (2010) Conservation and Cardamom Cultivation in Nature Reserve Buffer Zones in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 29(6-8): 696-715. 

Reyes, T., Quiroz, R. and Msikula, S. (2005) Socio-economic Comparison Between Traditional and Improved Cultivation Methods in Agroforestry Systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Environmental Management 36(5): 682–690 DOI: 10.1007/s00267-004-7269-3. 

Roe, D. (Ed.) The MDGs and Conservation. Managing Nature’s Wealth for Society’s Health. IIED. URL:

Roe, D. et al. (2002) Making a killing or making a living? Wildlife trade, trade controls and rural livelihoods. Biodiveristy and Livelihoods issues. No.6. IIED. URL:

Schmidt, L.,Munjuga, M., Matunda, B.I., Ndangalasi, H.J.,Theilade, I. (2019) Constraints in the adoption of Allanblackia stuhlmannii (Engl.) Engl. as agroforestry tree in East Usambara, Tanzania. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 28 (3): 160-175.

Stocking, M. and Perkin, S. (1992) Conservation-with-Development: An Application of the Concept in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New 17(3): 337-349.

Swiderska, K., Roe, D., Siegele, L. and Greig-Gran, M. (n.d.) The Governance of Nature and the Nature of Governance: Policy that works for biodiversity and livelihoods. IIED. URL:

Vihemeki, H. (2009) Participation or further exclusion? Contestations over forest conservation and control in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Helsinki. URL:

Wardell, D. A. (1992) Forest Boundary Planting in Forest Management and Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania's East Usambara Mountains. ODI Report. URL:

Woodcock, K.A. (1992) Changing roles in natural forest management: stakeholders' roles in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Ashgate.

Yanda, P.Z., Munishi, P.K.T. (2007) Hydrologic and Land Use/Cover Change Analysis for the Ruvu River (Uluguru) and Sigi River (East Usambara) Watersheds. A range of resources on Building the Business Case found at URL:

This list was last updated on 03/08/2021