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PIED5548M
Module Reading List

The Responsibility to Protect, 2021/22, Semester 1
Professor Jason Ralph
J.G.Ralph@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

 Syllabus:

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Part One: Theory and History

The teaching in part one encompasses a one-hour lecture and a one-hour discussion right after the lecture. The lecturing component is meant to introduce the key concepts to the students, which will then be discussed in more detail with reference to assigned readings.

  1. R2P as a Response to the Humanitarian Intervention Conundrum of the 1990s (27.09.21)
  2. R2P as a ‘complex’, ‘contested’, ‘hollow’ norm (04.10.21)
  3. R2P in Libya and Syria (11.10.21)
  4. R2P as ‘Atrocity Prevention’ (18.10.21)
  5. R2P and the International Criminal Court I (25.10.21)
  6. Reading and Presentation / Essay Planning Week. No class (01.11.21)
  7. R2P and the International Criminal Court II (08.11.21)
  8. Where does responsibility lie? From ‘general’ to ‘special’ responsibilities (15.11.21)

Part Two: Practice. Analysis and reporting on ongoing situations

Part two will involve group presentations on three aspects of an ongoing crisis situation (as defined by the Global Centre’s ‘populations at risk’ webpage). The three aspects a group is expected to analyse and report on are as follows: what has been done to protect vulnerable populations? What is being done to protect vulnerable populations? What should be done to protect vulnerable populations and by whom? Each aspect of the presentation will be followed by questions from the wider group, including the seminar tutor. Students will be expected to use power-point (or similar) software to deliver their presentations. The case studies listed below are indicative and can be changed after discussion in class.

  1. What has been / is being / should be done to protect? e.g. Myanmar / Xinjiang (22.11.21)
  2. What has been / is being / should be done to protect? e.g. CAR / Ethiopia (29.11.21)
  3. What has been / is being / should be done to protect? e.g. Afghanistan / Yemen (06.12.21)
  4. Conclusions, Revision, Essay / Report Planning (13.12.21)

The key textbook is available as e-books on-line via the library homepage:

Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne, The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).  

Other key texts are:

Key Journal

Global Responsibility to Protect 

Websites

International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/

Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (GR2P) http://www.globalr2p.org/

Asia-Pacific Centre for RtoP https://r2pasiapacific.org/

European Centre for RtoP https://ecr2p.leeds.ac.uk/

Office of the Special Advisor on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect https://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/    

Social Media

I have been and will be tweeting relevant sources under #PIED5548. I encourage you to do so, especially as sources relate to Part Two case studies.

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Week 1: 1. R2P as a Response to the Humanitarian Intervention Conundrum of the 1990s

The lecture provides an overview of 'the problem': the humanitarian impulse in the context of political and legal pluralism.

The seminar readings discusses the problem and outlines international society's attempt to create 'a solution': the Responsibility to Protect

Seminar questions

  1. Why is humanitarian intervention so controversial?
  2. Do you think states have a responsibility to protect?

Seminar Readings

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Week 2. R2P as a ‘complex’ or ‘hollow’ norm.

The lecture provides a more in-depth analysis of the RtoP including its developments since its endorsement in 2005, as well as theoretical interpretations. Each group presents to the class for 5 minutes. Name the author(s) and article(s) and explain 3- 5 key points to the class from each reading.

Seminar readings

Group A. What do you understand by R2P’s pillars and how does this impact on complexity of implementation?

Ed Luck’s report Implementing R2P http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/files/SGRtoPEng.pdf

Welsh, J. (2013) ‘Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 4. 2013, pp. 365 – 396.  

Group B. What does it mean to call R2P a norm? Is it a ‘western’ norm? How has R2P been ‘localized’?

Kai Michael Kenkel and Felippe De Rosa,’ Localization and Subsidiarity in Brazil’s Engagement with the Responsibility to Protect’ Global responsibility to protect. 2 (4) 2015, 325–349.  

Cristina G. Stefan On non-Western norm shapers: Brazil and the Responsibility while Protecting, European Journal of International Security 2 (1) 2017 88-110  

Brian Job and Anastasia Shesterinina (2014) China as a Global Norm Shaper. Institutionalization and Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect In Implementation and World Politics. How International Norms Change Practice ed. Alexander Betts and Phil Orchard. Oxford University Press.  

Group C.  Why does Hehir claim R2P is a ‘hollow’ norm

Aidan Hehir, (2017) Why is it that we keep falling’? The RtoP as a hollow norm’. In Aidan Hehir and Robert Murray (Eds), Human Rights in the 21st Century, pp. 184 – 197.  

Aidan Hehir (2018) Hollow Norms and the Responsibility to Protect Palgrave Macmillan.  

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Week 3: R2P in Libya and Syria

Seminar readings

Group A. Was UN Security Council Resolution 1973 (2011) an indicator of R2P’s growing influence?

Aidan Hehir, ‘Libya and The Responsibility to Protect: Resolution 1973 as Consistent with the Security Council’s Record of Inconsistency’, International security., 38 (1) 2013 137-15  

See responses by Dunne and Gelber, and counter response by Hehir in Global Responsibility to Protect, 6(3) 326-349 and 7 (2) 211–233.  

Aidan Hehir, Assessing the influence of the Responsibility to Protect on the UN Security Council during the Arab Spring Cooperation and conflict 51 (2) 2016, 166-183  

Group B. What was the diplomatic fallout from the Libya intervention?

Jason Ralph and Adrian Gallagher “Legitimacy Faultlines in International Society. The Responsibility to Protect and Prosecute after Libya”, Review of International Studies 41 (3) 2015, 553-573.  

Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, The new politics of protection? Côte d’Ivoire, Libya and the responsibility to protect. International Affairs 87 (4) 2011 825–850.  

Group C. What lay behind the Security Council’s failure during the early Syria crisis?

Jason Ralph and Jess Gifkins (2017) ‘The purpose of Security Council Practice. Contesting competence claims in the normative context created by the Responsibility to Protect’ European Journal of International Relations 23 (3) 630–653.  

Jason Ralph (2018) ‘What should be done? Pragmatic constructivist ethics and the Responsibility to Protect’, International Organization, 72 (1) 2018 … especially 2nd and 3rd sections pp.184-202.  

Jason Ralph Benedict Docherty, Xavier Mathieu, (2020) ‘R2P and the Arab Spring. Norm Localisation and the US response to the early Syria crisis’, Global Responsibility to Protect 12 (3) 246-270.  

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Week 4. R2P as ‘Atrocity Prevention’

All:

Report of the UN Secretary-General, Responsibility to protect: State responsibility and prevention, 2013, pp. 1-17 https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/754122?ln=en     

Group A: a responsibility to prevent?

Welsh, J. (2016), The Responsibility to Prevent: Assessing the Gap between Rhetoric and Reality’, Cooperation and conflict 51(2) 216-232  

Jeremy Moses, (2019) ‘A pacifist ethos for the Responsibility to Protect: detaching prevention from intervention’, International Politics, 56 (2) 228–242  

Aidan Hehir (2012) ‘The Responsibility to Prevent: The Last Refuge of the Unimaginative?’, in Hehir, The responsibility to protect : rhetoric, reality and the future of humanitarian intervention Palgrave pp.87-118.  

Group B: cases of prevention in practice.

Naomi Kikoler, (2016) ‘Guinea: An Overlooked Case of the Responsibility to Prevent in Practice’, in in Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed The Responsibility to Prevent. Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention OUP 304 – 323.  

Serena K Sharma, (2016) ‘The 2007-2008 Post Election Crisis in Kenya: A Case of Escalation Prevention’, in Serena K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed The Responsibility to Prevent. Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention OUP 280 – 303.  

Group C: Why did prevention strategies fail in Myanmar?

Eglantine Staunton and Jason Ralph, (2020) ‘The Responsibility to Protect norm cluster and the challenge of atrocity prevention. An analysis of the European Union’s strategy in Myanmar’, European Journal of International Relations 26 (3) 660-686.  

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Week 5. R2P and the International Criminal Court I

Seminar Readings

Group A. How might the prosecution help prevent atrocity crimes?

Dan Saxon (2016) ‘The International Criminal Court and the Prevention of Crimes’ K. Sharma and Jennifer Welsh (Ed): The Responsibility to Prevent. Overcoming the Challenges of Atrocity Prevention OUP online.  

Group B. How might the prosecution help prevent atrocity crimes?

Jo, H., & Simmons, B. (2016). Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity? International Organization, 70(3), 443-475  

Group C. Why was the International Criminal Court created in 1998?

Schabas William A. (2011) An Introduction to the International Criminal Court. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

All: Can the ICC Prosecutor exercise jurisdiction in the following cases?

  • - a British soldier accused of war crimes in Iraq
  • - an Ethiopian soldier accused of war crimes in Somalia
  • - a Russian soldier accused of war crimes in Ukraine
  • - an Australian soldier accused of war crimes in Afghanistan
  • - an American solider accused of war crimes in Bosnia
  • - a French soldier accused of war crimes in Mali
  • - a Chinese soldier accused of war crimes in India

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Week 6. Assessment Preparation Week

There is no class this week. You can use this week to begin research on your presentation in part two of the module, which could form the basis of your end of term report. You can also start thinking about your essay and the plan, which I will give feedback on from week 8.

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Week 7. R2P and the International Criminal Court II

Group A: What has been the P5’s relationship to the ICC?

Forsythe, David P. (2012) “The UN Security Council and Response to Atrocities: International Criminal Law and the P-5” Human rights quarterly. Vol. 34, Issue 3, pp. 840-863.  

Ralph, J. (2005) ‘International Society, the International Criminal Court, and American foreign policy’ Review of International Studies 31(1), 27-44.  

Group B: What has been the ICC’s role in some of the cases we have examined?

Mark Kersten (2020) Justice in Conflict. The Effects of the International Criminal Court's Interventions on Ending Wars and Building Peace Oxford University Press.  

Group C: What has driven the African ‘backlash’ against the ICC?

Beresford, A., & Wand, D. (2020). Understanding bricolage in norm development: South Africa, the International Criminal Court, and the contested politics of transitional justice. Review of International Studies, 46(4), 534-554  

García Iommi, Lucrecia (2020) ‘Whose Justice? The ICC ‘Africa problem’ International relations Vol.34 (1), 105-129.  

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Week 8. Where does responsibility lie? From ‘general’ to ‘special’ responsibilities.

Group A. How do we identify the responsibility to protect human rights?

David Miller, (2001) ‘Distributing responsibilities’, Journal of Political Philosophy 9: 4 453–471.  

David Miller, (2009) ‘The responsibility to protect human rights’, in Lukas H. Meyer, ed., Legitimacy, justice and public international law Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 232–51.  

Group B: What is meant by the term ‘special’ responsibility?

Mlada Bukovansky, Ian Clark, Robyn Eckersley, Richard Price, Christian Reus-Smit and Nicholas J. Wheeler, Special responsibilities: global problems and American power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012)  

Tim Dunne, ‘Distributing duties and counting costs’, Global Responsibility to Protect 5: 4, 2013, pp. 443–65  

Group C: How might we identify a ‘special’ responsibility to protect?

Jason Ralph and James Souter, 'A special responsibility to protect: the UK, Australia and the rise of Islamic State', International affairs., 91, 4, 2015, 709-723  

Alise Cohen, Capable and Culpable? The United States, RtoP, and Refugee Responsibility-Sharing, Ethics and international affairs ISSN: 0892-6794, 31, 1, 2017, pp. 71-92.  

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Weeks 9-11. What has been / is being / should be done to protect?

Working in small groups you will present to the tutor and class a study of a particular situation involving vulnerable populations and address these three questions. Draw on what you have learned from part one of the module, as well as the discussion in week 8 to identify who – if anyone – has a special responsibility to protect. You will be expected to use power point (or some other presentation tool) to improve your presentation to the class. After the presentation you will answer questions from the tutor and the class. It advised that the presentation for the basis of your end of term report. Case study topics will be finalized by week 7. In identifying vulnerable populations you can take a lead from the page ‘Populations at Risk’ on the Global Centre for R2P’s webpage https://www.globalr2p.org/populations-at-risk/

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Week 12. Conclusions, Revision, Essay / Report Planning

General discussion including advice on essay plans and reports.

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Further reading

Don’t forget there is a specialist journal – Global Responsibility to Protect – that is very relevant to this module. You should consult it, as well as the Oxford Handbook on R2P, as part of your research. The list below is indicative of other sources that speak to the topics we will cover.

Those tending to be more sceptical and critical of R2P

Hehir, Aidan. The responsibility to protect : rhetoric, reality and the future of humanitarian intervention (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 2012).

Hehir, Aidan, Hollow norms and the responsibility to protect ISBN: 9783319905358 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018)

Robert A. Pape, ‘When Duty Calls: A Pragmatic Standard for Humanitarian Intervention’, International security. Vo. 37. No. 1. (Summer 2012), pp. 41-80.

Robert W. Murray ‘Humanitarianism, Responsibility or Rationality? Evaluating Intervention as State Strategy pp. 15-34, in Hehir and Murray (ed) Libya, the responsibility to protect and the future of humanitarian intervention

Robert Murray, The Challenges that Face R2P Implementation in W. Andy Knight and Frazer Egerton, Routledge handbook of the responsibility to protect (Oxford University Press, 2012) chapter 5.

Theresa Reinold, ‘The Responsibility to Protect-Much ado about Nothing? Review of international studies. (32, S1, 2010, 55-78), 55.

Valentino, B. (2006) The Perils of Limited Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the 1990s. Wisconsin International Law Journal 24(3), pp. 723-740.

Cunliffe, P.'The doctrine of the 'responsibility to protect' as a practice of political exceptionalism'. European journal of international relations. ISSN: 1354-0661, 23(2), 2017. pp. 446- 486.

Phillip Cunliffe, (ed) Critical perspectives on the responsibilty to protect : interrogating theory and practice, Routledge, 2011

Kuperman AJ (2008) The moral hazard of humanitarian intervention: Lessons from the Balkans. International studies quarterly. 52(1): 49–80.

Kuperman AJ (2003) Transnational causes of genocide, or how the West exacerbates ethnic conflict. in: Thomas RGC (ed.) Yugoslavia unraveled : sovereignty, self-determination, intervention. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 55–85.

Kuperman AJ (2004a) Humanitarian hazard: Revisiting doctrines of intervention. Harvard international review 26(1): 64–68.

Kuperman AJ (2004b) Provoking genocide: A revised history of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Journal of genocide research. 6(1): 61–84.

Kuperman AJ (2009a) Rethinking the responsibility to protect. Whitehead journal of diplomacy and international relations Winter/Spring: 33–43.

Kuperman AJ (2009b) Darfur: Strategic victimhood strikes again? Genocide Studies and Prevention 4(3): 281–303.

Rauchhaus RW (2005) Conflict management and the misapplication of moral hazard theory. Ethnopolitics.ISSN: 1744-9057; 1744-9065 4(2): 215–224.

David Chandler, The Responsibility to Protect? Imposing the Liberal Peace‘. International peacekeeping. 11(1), (2004) pp. 59-81.

David Chandler (2009) ‘Unravelling the Paradox of ‘The Responsibility to Protect’’ Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. 20 (2009), 27–39.

Tara McCormack (2010) The Responsibility to Protect and the End of the Western Century, Journal of intervention and statebuildingISSN: 1750-2977, volume 4, issue 1, pp 69 – 82.

Those tending to be more optimistic about R2P’s influence and/or supportive of it

Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, ‘On the Limits of Moral Hazard Theory: The Responsibility to Protect, Armed Conflict, and Mass Atrocities’, European journal of international relations., Vol. 18, No. 3., 2011, pp. 539-571.

Gareth Evans and Ramesh Thakur, Robert A. Pape, ‘Correspondence: Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect’, International security. Vol. 37. No. 4 (Spring 2013), pp. 199-214, 199-200.

Welsh, Jennifer ‘Taking Consequences Seriously: Objections to Humanitarian Intervention’, in J. M. Welsh (ed.), Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006),

Welsh, Jennifer ‘Norm Contestation and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 4. 2013, pp. 365 – 396.

Tim Dunne, Distributing Duties and Counting Costs, Global responsibility to protect. vol. 5, No. 4, 2013, pp. 443-465

Alex Bellamy, ‘A Responsibility to Protect or a Trojan Horse?  The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq’, Ethics and international affairs, 19 (2) 2005.

Cristina Badescu and Thomas Weiss, “Misrepresenting R2P and Advancing Norms: An Alternative Spiral? ” International studies perspectives., Vol. 11, Issue 4, 2010.

Cristina Badescu and Linnea Bergholm. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Conflict in Darfur: The Big Let-down,” Security dialogue., Vol. 40, Issue 3, 2009.

Ramesh Thakur, ‘In Defence of the Responsibility to Protect’, International journal of human rights. vol. 7. No. 3. 2003. Pp. 160-178.

On the approaches of states and organisations

Justin Morris, ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the Great Powers: The Tensions of Dual Responsibility’, Global responsibility to protect. 2-4, 2015, 398–421

Ekaterina Stepanova, ‘Russia’, in the Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, pp. 409 – 429 (e-book).

Andrew Garwood-Gowers, China's “Responsible Protection” Concept: Reinterpreting the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes’, Asian Journal of International Law 6 (1) 2016 , pp. 89-118

Jason Ralph ‘The Responsibility to Protect and the rise of China: Lessons from Australia’s role as a ‘pragmatic’ norm entrepreneur’, International relations of the Asia-Pacific. 17.1 (2017), 35-65

David Capie, ‘The Responsibility to Protect norm in Southeast Asia: framing, resistance and the localization myth’, The Pacific review. 25: 1 2012, pp. 75–93.

Edward Newman and Cristina Stefan, ‘Normative Power Europe? The EU's Embrace of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ in a Transitional International Order Journal of Common Market Studies July 2019,

Jason Ralph Mainstreaming the Responsibility to Protect UNA-UK Report 2014.

Jason Ralph ‘UK and the Responsibility to Protect’ R2P Briefs Asia-Pacific Centre for R2P https://r2pasiapacific.org/files/2775/r2pbrief_2015_uk_r2p.pdf

Chloe Gilgan ‘Human Rights Localisation in Liberal States: The UK’s Responsibility to Protect as Regime Change and Political Transition in Syria’ International Journal of Human Rights forthcoming 2021.

The UK Foreign Affairs Committee has held several influential inquiries in this area. Read them and the evidence from civil society groups here:

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmfaff/868/86802.htm

https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmfaff/1005/100502.htm

https://committees.parliament.uk/committee/78/foreign-affairs-committee/news/119049/committee-launches-new-inquiry-on-xinjiang-detention-camps/

Jason Ralph, Jess Gifkins and Samuel Jarvis, ‘The UK’s Special Responsibilities at the United Nations. Diplomatic Practice in Normative Context’, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 22 (2) 2020 164-81.

Belloni, R. (2014), ‘Civil Society and the Responsibility to Protect’, Global Society, 28(2), pp. 158–79.

On the influence of R2P during the ‘Arab Spring crises’

Libya

Jennifer Welsh,Civilian Protection in Libya: Putting Coercion and Controversy back into RtoP’, Ethics and international affairs 25 (3) 2011 255-262

Simon Chesterman, ‘Leading from behind’: The Responsibility to Protect, the Obama Doctrine, and Humanitarian Intervention after Libya’, Ethics and international affairs Vol. 25. No. 3 (2011) pp. 279–285

Luke Glanville, ‘Gaddafi and Grotius: Some Historical Roots of the Libya Intervention’, Global responsibility to protect. 5 (3) 2013, 342-361.

Marie-Eve Loiselle , ‘ The Normative Status of the Responsibility to Protect After Libya’ , Global responsibility to protect. 5 (3). 2013, 317-341.

Williams, P. and Bellamy, A. ‘Principles, Politics, and Prudence: Libya, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Use of Military Force’, Global governance : a review of multilateralism and international organizations. 18 (2012), 273–297

Ian Hall, ‘Tilting at Windmills? The Indian Debate over The Responsibility to Protect after UNSC Resolution 1973’, Global responsibility to protect., 5 (1) 2013, 84-108.

Bajoria, J. (2011) Libya and the Responsibility to Protect. Council on Foreign Relations. Available online [Accessed: 14 May 2012].

Hallams, E. and Schreer, B. (2012) Towards a „post-American‟ alliance? NATO burden-sharing after Libya. International affairs. 88(2), pp. 313-327.

Weiss, T. (2011) RtoP Alive and Well after Libya. Ethics and international affairs 25(3), pp. 287-292.

A Cubuckcu, , A. The responsibility to protect: Libya and the problem of transnational solidarity. Journal of human rights 12, 1 (2013), pp. 40–58.

Von Eggert, K. (2012) „Why Russia is standing by Syria‟, BBC News, 15 June 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18462813 [Accessed: 19 June 2012].

UN (2012) Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Libya. UN Human Rights Council. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session19/A.HRC.19.68.pdf - 2012-06-18 [Accessed: 19 June 2012].

Cameron, D., Sarkozy, N. and Obama, B. (2011) „The Bombing continues until Gaddafi goes‟, The Times., 15April 2011.

President Barack Obama, Remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya, National Defense University Washington, D.C. (March 28 2011) https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/28/remarks-president-address-nation-libya

http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/28/remarks-president-address-nation-libya  Accessed 19 December 2012 

Harold Hongju Koh, ‘Statement Regarding Use of Force in Libya’ American Society of International Law Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, ( March 26, 2011), https://2009-2017.state.gov/s/l/releases/remarks/159201.htm Accessed 19 December 2012

Syria

Derek Averre, Lance Davies, ‘Russia, humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: the case of Syria’ International affairs.ISSN: 0020-5850, 91 (1) 2015, 813-834

Aidan Hehir, Assessing the influence of the Responsibility to Protect on the UN Security Council during the Arab Spring Cooperation and conflict 51 (2) 2016, 166-183 

Tocci, Nathalie, On Power and Norms: Libya, Syria and the Responsibility to Protect, Global responsibility to protect. 8 (1) 2016, pp. 51-75

Welsh, Jennifer. 2016. The Responsibility to Protect after Libya & Syria. Daedalus 145 (4), 75-87.

  1. Morris, ‘Libya and Syria: the spectre of the swinging pendulum’, International affairs. , 2013, 89(5), 1265-1283.

Robert Murray, (ed) ‘RtoP, Syria and Humanitarianism in Crisis’, E-International Relations, January 2014, E-book with contributions from world leading RtoP scholars. http://www.e-ir.info/2014/01/20/edited-collection-r2p-syria-and-humanitarianism-in-crisis/

Jess Gifkins, ‘The UN Security Council Divided: Syria in Crisis’, Global responsibility to protect. Vol. 4. No. 3. (2012) pp. 377-393, 391.

Micael D. Swaine, ‘Chinese views of the Syrian Conflict’, China Leadership Monitor, No. 39. https://carnegieendowment.org/files/Swaine_CLM_39_091312_2.pdf Accessed 24.09.2021.     

Nesam McMillan and David Mickler, ‘From Sudan to Syria: Locating ‘Regime Change’ in R2P and ICC, Global responsibility to protect., vol. 5. No. 3., 2013. Pp. 283-316.

Zifcack Spencer, ‘Is the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine Dead? ’ The Doctrine’s Standing in the Wake of Syrian Massacre’, in Vasila Sancin and Masa Kovic Dine Responsibility to protect in theory and practice : papers presented at the Responsibility to Protect in Theory and Practice Conference, Ljubljana, April 11-12, 2013 (GV Zalozba, 2013), 253-290

Raymond Hinnebusch, ‘Syria: From Authoritarian Upgrading to Revolution’, International affairs. Vol. 88. No. 1 (2012) pp. 95-113, 95.

Paul Rogers,‘The Jihadist Element in Syria and its Implications’, The Oxford Research Group (28 August 2012) - Available online: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/153655/12-08.pdf

War Child, ‘What is Happening in Syria? ’, (6 March 2012) http://www.warchild.org.uk/news/whats-happening-syria? gclid=CNqjr4Po4rQCFWbKtAoda2kAWw#_edn2    

Samuel Charap, ‘Russia, Syria and the Doctrine of Intervention’, Survival : global politics and strategy. Vol. 55. No. 1. (2013) pp. 35-41.

Robert G. Rabil, Syria, the United States, and the war on terror in the Middle East (Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006).

Richard Dicker, ‘Holding The Security Council to Account on Syria’, The Progressive (29 January 2013) https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/01/29/holding-security-council-account-syria Accessed 18 February 2013.

Volkan Şeyşane and Çiğdem Çelik ‘R2P and Turkish Foreign Policy: Libya and Syria in Perspective Authors’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, 2-4, 2015, 376–397 (22)

On R2P as ‘Atrocity Prevention’

Ban Ki- Moon: Report: Early Warning, Assessment, and the Responsibility to Protect 2010   

http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/N1045020%281%29.pdf   

Aidan Hehir, ‘The Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide: Adding Value to the UN’s Mechanisms for Preventing Intra-State Crises?’ Journal of genocide research. ISSN: 1462-3528 (13, 3. 2011, 271 – 286).

Witold Mucha ‘The Next Spring is Certain to Come – and Certain to be Missed’ Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. Pp. 382-406.

Stephen McLoughlin, ‘Rethinking the Structural Prevention of Mass Atrocities’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. , pp. 407-429

Bridget Conly-Zilkic, ‘Who is the subject of Atrocities Prevention?’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4. 430-452

Manus I. Midlarsky, ‘International Affinity and the Prevention of Genocide’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, Vol. 6. No. 4, pp. 453-482.

Deborah Mayersen, ‘Rethinking approaches to Prevention under the Responsibility to protect’, Global responsibility to protect. ISSN: 1875-9858; 1875-984X, vol. 6. No. 4., pp. 483-507.

On criminal justice as a tool of atrocity prevention

Contarino, Michael and Selena Lucent. (2009) “Stopping the Killing: The International Criminal Court and Juridical Determination of the Responsibility to Protect”, Global responsibility to protect. 1, pp. 560-583.

Contarino, Michael and Melinda Negron-Gonzales. (2013). “The International Criminal Court” (Chapter 18) in Gentian Zyberi (ed.) An institutional approach to the responsibility to protect . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 411-436.

Contarino, Michael, Melinda Negron-Gonzales and Kevin T. Mason. (2012) “The International Criminal Court and Consolidation of the Responsibility to Protect as an International Norm”. Global responsibility to protect. 4, pp. 275-308.

Holvoet, Mathias and Medlir Mema. (2014). “The International Criminal Court and the Responsibility to Protect” (Chapter 2) in Daniel Fiott and Joachim Koops (eds.) The responsibility to protect and the third pillar: legitimacy and operationalization

Jason Ralph (ed.) ‘Symposium: International Criminal Justice and the Responsibility to Protect’ special issue of Criminal Law Forum 26 (1) 2015 Jason Ralph ‘The International Criminal Court’ Alex Bellamy and Tim Dunne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016).

On the creation and operation of ICC

Bosco, David. Rough justice: the International Criminal Court in a world of power politics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

Bass, G. (2000) Stay the hand of vengeance: the politics of war crimes tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bassiouni, M.C. (1997) ‘From Versailles to Rwanda in Seventy-Five Years: The Need to Establish a Permanent International Criminal Court’, Harvard human rights journal. 10, pp.11-62.

Birdsall, A. (2007) 'Creating a more 'just' order - the Ad Hoc International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia' Cooperation and conflict , vol. 42, No. 4 pp. 397-418

Broomhall, B. (2003) International justice and the International Criminal Court : between sovereignty and the rule of law . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cassese, A. (2002), ‘From Nuremberg to Rome: International Military Tribunals to the International Criminal Court’ in Antonio Paolo Cassese, Paolo Gaeta and J.R.W.D. Jones (eds.) The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. A Commentary Vol.I and II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Edgar, A.D. (2002) ‘Peace, Justice and Politics: The International Criminal Court, “New Diplomacy” and the UN system’, in A.F. Cooper, J. English, and R. Thackur (eds.) Enhancing global governance : towards a new diplomacy? United Nations University Press.

Iommi, Lucrecia García (2020) ‘Al-Bashir didn't start the fire. Diversity, low contestedness, and the adoption of the Rome statute of the International Criminal Court’ Cambridge review of international affairs, 34 (1), 105-136.

Kerr. R. (2004) The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: an exercise in law, politics, and diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lee, R.S. (eds.) (1999) The International Criminal Court : the making of the Rome Statute--issues, negotiations, results The Hague, Boston : Kluwer Law International.

McGoldrick, D. Rowe, P. and Donnelly, E. (eds.) (2004) The permanent International Criminal Court : legal and policy issues Oxford: Hart.

Ralph, Jason (2007) Defending the Society of States. Why America opposes the International Criminal Court and its vision of World Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.244.

Ralph, Jason (2005) ‘International Society, The International Criminal Court, and American Foreign Policy’, Review of International Studies, 31 (1) 27-44. 

Ralph, Jason (2004) ‘Review Article: International Society and the International Criminal Court’, International Journal of Human Rights 8 (2) 235-247. 

Ralph, Jason (2003) ‘Between Cosmopolitan and American Democracy: understanding American opposition to the International Criminal Court’, International Relations 17 (2) 195-212. 

Ratner, S.R. and Abrams, J.S. (2001) Accountability for human rights atrocities in international law : beyond the Nuremberg legacy . Oxford : Oxford University Press.

Sadat, Leila N. (2002) The International Criminal Court and the transformation of international law : justice for the new millennium. Transnational Publishers.

Sadat, Leila N. and Carden, S.R. (2000) ‘The new International Criminal Court. An Uneasy Revolution’, Georgetown Law Journal 88, pp.381-474.

Schabas, William A (2006) The UN international criminal tribunals : the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schiff. B. N. (2008) Building the International Criminal Court Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Serena K Sharma, The Responsibility to Protect and the International Criminal Court. Protection and Prosecution in Kenya (Routledge 2016),

R2P researchers like to mark moments in time

Jennifer Welsh, ‘R2P’s Next Ten Years: Deepening and Extending the Consensus’, in The Oxford Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect, pp. 984 – 1000

R2P at 15 Special Issue of Global Responsibility to Protect. The Adolescent: R2P at Fifteen

 

This list was last updated on 08/09/2021