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HIST2101
HIST 2101 Victorian England: Aristocracy and Democracy, 1865-1901

Victorian England: Aristocracy and Democracy, 1865-1901, 2021/22, Semester 2
Dr Katherine Rawling
k.d.b.rawling@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

This reading list is divided by weekly topic and then further separated into Required Reading (compulsory set reading for tutorials) and Recommended Further Reading (to be consulted for assignments and revision).

Week 1: Orientations

David Cannadine, Victorious Century: The United Kingdom, 1800-1906 (London: Penguin, 2018) Prologue, pp.1-9

Malcolm Pearce and Geoffrey Stewart, British Political History, 1867-2001: Democracy and Decline (London, New York: Routledge, 2002) 3rd edn, ‘Introduction: Britain in 1867’, pp.1-20

Martin Pugh, The Making of Modern British Politics (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1982, 1993, 2002)

Martin Pugh, State and Society: A Social and Political History of Britain since 1870 (London:  Bloomsbury, 2012) 4th Edn. [Available as e-book].

F.M.L. Thompson, The Rise of Respectable Society: a social history of Victorian Britain, 1830-1900 (London: Fontana, 1988).

 

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Week 2: The Decline of Aristocratic Government

Required Reading: 

On the Second Reform Act (1867):

Robert Blake, The Conservative Party from Peel to Thatcher, (London: Methuen, 1985) Chapter 4   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

OR

Jonathan Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain, (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993) pp. 207–217   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

AND

On the decline of aristocratic government:

David Cannadine, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy (New York: Vintage, 1999), Prologue pp.8-32 [Available as e-book]  

Recommended Further Reading:

Asa Briggs, Victorian People : A Reassessment of Persons and Themes, 1851-67. (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1973) (Chapters on Lowe, Bright and Disraeli) [Available as e-book]

Maurice Cowling, 1867: Disraeli, Gladstone and Revolution: The Passing of the Second Reform Bill (Cambridge: CUP, 1967) Chapters 7 and 9

John Davis and Duncan Tanner, ‘The Borough Franchise after 1867’, Historical Research, 69 (1996), pp. 306-627.

Ben Griffin, The politics of gender in Victorian Britain: masculinity, political culture, and the struggle for women's rights (Cambridge: CUP, 2012), Chapter 8: The instability of the 1867 settlement, the secret ballot and women's suffrage, pp.229-249. [Available as e-book].

W.L. Guttsman, ‘The Changing Structure of the British Political Elite, 1886-1935’, The British Journal of Sociology, 2:2 (1951), pp.122-134. 

Catherine Hall, Keith McClelland and Jane Rendall (eds.), Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race, Gender and the Reform Act of 1867 (Cambrdige, 2000)

Royden Harrison, Before the Socialists: Studies in Labour and Politics (Aldershot: Gregg Revivals, 1994) Chapters 3 and 4

Henry C.G. Matthew, The Gladstone Diaries (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968-1994), pp. 120–142

Jonathan Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain, (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), Chapters 10, 11, 12

Richard Shannon, Gladstone, (London: Penguin, 1999-2000) vol. 2, Chapters 1 and 2

Francis B. Smith, The Making of the Second Reform Bill (Cambridge: CUP, 1966) esp. Chapters 5 and 6

Robert Saunders, ‘The Politics of Reform and the Making of the Second Reform Act, 1848-1867’, The Historical Journal, 50 (2007), pp. 571-591

James Winter, ‘The Cave of Adullam and Parliamentary Reform’, The English Historical Review, 81 (1966), pp. 38-55

 

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Week 3: Socialism and Working-Class Cultures

Required Reading:

Ross McKibbin, ‘Why was there no Marxism in Great Britain? ’, English Historical Review. 99:391 (1984), pp.297-331  

AND

Henry Pelling, ‘The Concept of a Labour Aristocracy’, in idem, Popular Politics and Society in Late Victorian Britain   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

Recommended Further Reading:

John Foster, Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution : Early Industrial Capitalism in Three English Towns, (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1968) chapter 7 [Available as e-book]

Eric J. Hobsbawm, Labouring Men: Studies in the History of Labour (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1968) chapter 15   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

David Howell, British Workers and the Independent Labour Party, 1888-1906, (Manchester: MUP, 1983) esp. chapters 1 and 2

Jon Lawrence, 'Popular Radicalism and the Socialist Revival in Britain', Journal of British Studies, 31:2 (1992), pp. 163-186.

Henry Pelling, Social geography of British elections,1885-1910 (for reference)

Robert Roberts, The Classic Slum: Salford Life in the First Quarter of the Century (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1990) First pub. 1971.

Jonathan Rose, The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001)

Michael Savage, The Dynamics of Working-Class Politics: The Labour Movement in Preston, 1880-1914 (Cambridge: CUP, 1987)

Gareth Stedman Jones, Outcast London : A Study in the Relationship Between Classes in Victorian Society (Oxford: Clarendon, 1971)

Gareth Stedman Jones, Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History, 1832-1982 (Cambridge: CUP, 1983)

E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (1963)

Paul Thompson, Socialists, Liberals and Labour : The Struggle for London, 1885-1914, (London: Routledge, 1967) esp. chapters 1–4

 

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Week 4: The Transformation of the Liberal Party

Required Reading:

John R. Vincent, The Formation of the British Liberal Party, pp. 211–235   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

And on Irish Home Rule:

David Hempton and Myrtle Hill, Evangelical Protestantism in Ulster society, 1740-1890, (London: Routledge, 1992) Chapter 9 'Home Rule and the Protestant Mind 1860-1890' [Available as e-book]

Recommended Further Reading:

On Gladstone:

David Lorenzo, ‘Gladstone, Religious Freedom and Practical Reasoning’, History of Political Thought, 26:1 (2005), pp. 90-119

Henry C.G. Matthew, The Gladstone Diaries (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968-1994), Chapters 5-8.

Henry C.G. Matthew, ‘Disraeli, Gladstone and the Politics of mid-Victorian Budgets’, The Historical Journal. 22:3 (1979), 615-643

Roland Quinault, ‘Gladstone and Slavery’, The Historical Journal, 52:2 (2009), pp. 363-383

D. M. Schreuder, ‘Gladstone and Italian Unification, 1848-70: The Making of a Liberal?’, The English Historical Review, 85:336 (1970), pp. 475-501

Richard Shannon, Gladstone, vol. 1, ch. 1; vol. 2, Epilogue    Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

 

On the Liberal Party:

D. Bebbington, 'Nonconformity and Electoral Sociology, 1867-1918', Historical Journal, 27:3 (1984), pp.633-656.

Michael Bentley, The Climax of Liberal politics: British Liberalism in Theory and Practice, 1868-1918, (London: Edward Arnold, 1987) chs 4 and 6

David A. Hamer, Liberal Politics in the Age of Gladstone and Rosebery: A Study in Leadership and Policy, (Oxford: Clarendon, 1972) chs. 3, 4 and 8

Jonathan Parry, Democracy and Religion: Gladstone and the Liberal Party, 1867-1875, esp. Chapter 3

Jonathan Parry, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain, (London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), Chapter 11

Malcolm Pearce and Geoffrey Stewart, British Political History, 1867-2001: Democracy and Decline (London, New York: Routledge, 2002) 3rd edn, ‘The Gladstonian Liberal Party 1868-1895, pp.28-64

On Irish Home Rule:

J.C. Beckett, The making of modern Ireland 1603-1923, chs 18–21 (General)

OR

F.S.L. Lyons, Ireland since the Famine, Pt. II (General)

Robert Foster, Modern Ireland 1600-1972, chs. 14 o 17   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 27/01/2021) 

Edward D. Steele, Irish land and British politics : tenant-right and nationality, 1865-1870, (Cambridge: CUP, 1974) ch. 1 [See online course readings folder] Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Edward D. Steele, ‘Gladstone, Irish Violence and Conciliation’ in A. Cosgrove and D. McCartney, Studies in Irish history : presented to R. Dudley Edwards (Dublin: University College, 1979)

Anthony T.Q. Stewart, The Narrow Ground: The Roots of Conflict in Ulster, (Aldershot: Gregg Revivals, 1993) chs 4 and 5

David Hempton, Religion and Political Culture in Britain and Ireland, from the Glorious Revolution to the Decline of Empire, (Cambridge: CUP, 1996) ch. 5  [Available as e-book]

W.C. Lubenow, 'Irish Home Rule and the Social Basis of the Great Separation in the Liberal Party in 1886', Historical Journal, 28:1 (1985), pp.125-142

  

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Week 5: Professionals and Intellectuals

Required Reading:

Noel Annan, ‘The Intellectual Aristocracy of Late Victorian England’, in J.H. Plumb (ed.), Studies in social history : a tribute to G.M. Trevelyan Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

OR

Noel Annan, The Dons : Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses, (London: Harper Collins, 1999)  Appendix   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva [See online course readings folder]

AND

William Whyte, ‘The Intellectual Aristocracy Revisited', Journal of Victorian Culture, 10:1 (2005), pp. 15-45

Recommended Further Reading:

Peter Allen, ‘A Victorian Intellectual Elite: Records of the Cambridge Apostles, 1820-1877’, Victorian Studies, 33:1 (1989), pp.99-123.

David Cannadine, G. M. Trevelyan: A Life in History, (London: Penguin, 1997) pp. 1–14, 26–38, 59–65 and 95–105

David Cannadine, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, (New York: Vintage, 1999), Chapter 6 [Available as e-book]

Stefan Collini, Public Moralists : Political Thought and Intellectual Life in Britain, 1850-1930 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991).

Thomas Heyck, The Transformation of Intellectual Life in Victorian England, (London: Croom Helm, 1982) Chapters 6–8

Harold Perkin, The Rise of Professional Society, (New York: Routledge, 2002) Chapter 1 and 4 [Available as e-book] 

Geoffrey Searle, A New England? : Peace and War, 1886-1918, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004) Chapter 16

Adrian Wooldridge, Measuring the Mind : Education and Psychology in England, c.1860-c.1990, (Cambridge: CUP, 1994) Chapter 7 [Available as e-book]  

 

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Week 6: 'New Imperialism' and The British Empire

Required Reading

Duncan Bell, The Idea of Greater Britain: Empire and the Future of World Order, 1860-1900 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007), Chapter 1 Introduction Building Greater Britain (Available as e-book]  

AND

Keith McClelland and Sonya Rose, 'Citizenship and Empire, 1867-1928' in At Home with the Empire: metropolitan culture and the imperial worldSonya Rose and Catherine Hall eds. (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), pp.275-297.  [Available as e-book]

AND

Antoinette Burton, 'Rules of Thumb: British history and ‘imperial culture’ in nineteenth and twentieth-century Britain', Women's History Review, 3:4 (1994), pp. 483-501  

OR

Antoinette Burton, 'New Narratives of Imperial Politics in the Nineteenth Century' in  At Home with the Empire: metropolitan culture and the imperial worldSonya Rose and Catherine Hall eds. (Cambridge: CUP, 2006), pp. 212-229  

 

Recommended Further Reading:

Annie Coombes, Reinventing Africa: Museums, material culture, and popular imagination in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994)

Anna Davin, 'Imperialism and Motherhood', History Workshop, 5:5 (1978), pp.9-65

Cecily Devereux, 'New Woman, New World: Maternal Feminism and the New Imperialism in the White Settler Colonies, Women's Studies International Forum, 22:2 (1999), pp.175-184

Catherine Hall, ed, Cultures of Empire: Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Reader (Manchester: MUP, 2000)

Stephen Howe, The New Imperial Histories Reader (London: Routledge, 2010)  

Peter Mandler, 'Race and Nation in mid-Victorian Thought', in Stefan Collini et al, History, Religion and Culture: British Intellectual History, 1750-1950 (Cambridge: CUP, 2000)

Sonya Rose and Catherine Hall, eds, At Home with the Empire: metropolitan culture and the imperial world (Cambridge: CUP, 2006) any of the chapters.

Mona L. Russell, 'The New Woman, Her New Clothes, and Her New Education: Missionary Encounters and Consuming the Exotic', Journal of World History, 32:4, (2021), pp. 631-653 

Sarah Stockwell, The British Empire: Themes and Perspectives (Oxford: Blackwell, 2008) 

 

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Week 7: The 'New' Woman

Required Reading:

Sarah Grand, ‘The New Aspect of the Woman Question’, The North American Review, 158:448 (1894), pp.270-276.  

AND

Gillian Sutherland, In Search of the New Woman: Middle Class Women and Work in Britain, 1870-1914 (Cambridge: CUP, 2015) Chapter 1: A sort of bogey who no-one has ever seen.     

AND YOUR CHOICE OF EITHER

Tracy Collins, 'Athletic Fashion, 'Punch' and the Creation of the New Woman', Victorian Periodicals Review, 43:3 (2010), pp. 309-335.  

Cecily, Devereux, 'New Woman, New World: Maternal Feminism and the New Imperialism in the White Settler Colonies, Women's Studies International Forum, 22:2 (1999), pp.175-184  

Eilidh Macrae, 'The Scottish Cyclist and the New Woman: Representations of Female Cyclists in Scotland, 1890-1914, Journal of Scottish Historical Studies, 35:1 (2015), pp.70-91  

Mona L. Russell, 'The New Woman, Her New Clothes, and Her New Education: Missionary Encounters and Consuming the Exotic', Journal of World History, 32:4, (2021), pp. 631-653  

Recommended Further Reading:

Jennifer Davey, 'Women and Politics' in The Oxford Handbook of Modern British Political History, 1800-2000 eds. David Brown, Gordon Pentland, Robert Crowcroft (Oxford: OUP, 2018), n.p.    

Leonore Davidoff, ‘The Family in Britain’, in F.M.L. Thompson (ed.), The Cambridge social history of Britain 1750-1950, vol. 2

Eric J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Empire, ch. 8  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Gertrude Himmelfarb, The de-moralization of society : from Victorian virtues to modern values, chs 3 & 4

Harold Perkin, The Rise of professional Society, pp. 79–80, 97–9

K. Theodore Hoppen, The mid-Victorian generation, 1846-1886, ch. 10

Pat Jalland, Women, marriage and politics 1860-1914 (General)

J. Perkin, Women and marriage in nineteenth-century England, esp. pp. 50–75  

Sally Ledger, The New Woman: Fiction and Feminism at the Fin de Siecle (Manchester: MUP, 1997)

Patricia Marks, Bicycles, Bangs and Bloomers: The New woman in the Popular Press (Lexington, KY: 1990) [Available as e-book]

R.J. Morris, ‘Men, Women and Property: The Reform of the Married Women’s property Act 1870’, in F.M.L. Thompson (ed.), Landowners, capitalists, and entrepreneurs : essays for Sir John Habakkuk 

Anne Summers, 'A Home from Home: Women's Philanthropic Work in the Nineteenth Century' in Fit work for Women ed. Sandra Burman (London: Croom Helm, 1979), pp.33-63

Amanda Vickery, ed., Women, Privilege and Power: British Politics, 1750 to the Present (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001)

  

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Week 8: Religion and Secularisation

Required Reading:

Callum Brown, ‘Did Urbanisation Secularise Britain? ’, Urban History Yearbook., (1988), pp. 1–14  

AND

Jeremy Morris, ‘The Strange Death of Christian Britain: Another Look at the Secularisation Debate’ The Historical Journal, 46:4 (2003), pp.963-976  

AND

Sarah Williams, ‘The Language of Belief: An Alternative Agenda for the Study of Victorian Working-Class Religion’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 1:2 (1996), pp.303-317  

Recommended Further Reading:

Clyde Binfield, So down to prayers : studies in English nonconformity, 1780-1920, (London: Totowa, 1977) Chapter 7,  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Callum Brown, The Death of Christian Britain: Understanding Secularisation 1800-2000, chs. 1, 2, 3 & 7

Jeffrey Cox, The English churches in a secular society : Lambeth, 1870-1930, (New York ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1982) chs. 1, 3 & 4

Simon Green, Religion in the age of decline : organisation and experience in industrial Yorkshire, 1870-1920, chs. 2, 4, 6 and 8

David Hempton, Religion and political culture in Britain and Ireland, from the Glorious Revolution to the decline of empire, ch. 6 

Ian Hesketh, Of apes and ancestors : evolution, Christianity, and the Oxford debate (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009)

E.R. Wickham, Church and people in an industrial city, chs. 3 & 4

J Vernon Jensen, ‘Return to the Wilberforce-Huxley Debate’, The British journal for the History of Science, 21:2 (1988) pp.161-179

Patrick Joyce, Work, Society and Politics,, ch. 7 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

KD Snell, The Sunday-School Movement in England and Wales: Child Labour, Denominational Control and Working-Class Culture, Past and Present, 164 (1999), pp.122-168

S. C. Williams, Religious Belief and Popular Culture in Southwark, c. 1880-1939 (Oxford: 1999) ch. 3

 

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Week 9: The 'Discovery' of Poverty

Required Reading:

Charles Booth, Labour and Life of the People vol.1 East London (London : Williams and Norgate, 1889-1891), chapter 5 Poverty, pp. 3-27 and 131-155 [Digitised version available through Library 

AND

Seth Koven, Slumming: Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006) Introduction pp.1-22 [Available as e-book]  

Recommended Further Reading:

Françoise Baillet, ‘Drawing the Line. Visual Representations of the Labouring and Lower Classes in the Mid-Victorian Illustrated Press’,  Etudes anglaises,70:4 (2017), pp.406-505

George R. Boyer, ‘The Evolution of Unemployment Relief in Great Britain’, in The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, vol. 34 (2004)

Asa Briggs, ‘The Welfare State in Historical Perspective’, European journal of sociology., vol. 2, 1961 OR Briggs, Collected Essays, vol. 2, ch. 9   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva    

M. Bruce, The Coming of the Welfare State, chs 3 & 4 (General)

W.L. Burn, The age of equipoise : a study of the mid-Victorian generation, ch. 4

S. Checkland, British public policy 1776-1939 : an economic, social and political perspective, chs 4 to 8

Roger Davidson, ‘Treasury Control and Labour Intelligence in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain’, in The Historical Journal, vol. 28 (1985)

D. Fraser, The Evolution of the British Welfare State (General)

Jose Harris, ‘Political Thought and the Welfare State 1870-1940: An Intellectual Framework for British Social Policy’, in Past and Present, 135 (1992), pp. 116-141

Gertrude Himmelfarb, Poverty and compassion : the moral imagination of the late Victorians, Books 1–3

Elizabeth T Hurren, ‘Protesting about Pauperism: Poverty, Politics and Poor Relief in Late Victorian England, 1870-1900’, (Woodbridge : Boydell, for the Royal Historical Society, 2007)

Steven King, Women, Welfare and Local Politics: "We Might be Trusted" (Brighton: Sussex Academic, 2010) 

Donna Loftus, ‘Work, Poverty and Modernity in Mayhew’s London’, Journal of Victorian Culture, 19:4 (2014), pp.507-519

Donna Loftus, ‘Investigating work in Late Nineteenth-Century London’, History Workshop Journal, 71:71 (2011), pp.173-193

O. MacDonagh, Early Victorian Government, chs 1, 3, 4, 6 and 8

Henry Pelling, Popular Politics and Society in late Victorian Britain, ch. 1   OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 27/01/2021) 

Michael E. Rose, The Relief of Poverty, 1834-1914 (Macmillan; London and Basingstoke, 1972)

G. R. Searle, A New England? Peace and War 1886-1918 (Oxford, 2004), chapter 15, part 5 (on pastoralism).

Anne Summers, 'A Home from Home: Women's Philanthropic Work in the Nineteenth Century' in Fit work for Women ed. Sandra Burman (London: Croom Helm, 1979), pp.33-63

Pat Thane, ‘The Working Class and State Welfare’, The historical journal. (1984)

 

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Week 10: New Money and Plutocracy

 David Cannadine, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy, (New York: Vintage, 1999), Chapters 7 and 8 [Available as e-book]  

Christopher Herbert, ‘Filthy Lucre: Victorian Ideas of Money’, Victorian Studies, 44:2 (2002), pp.185-213

William D. Rubinstein, Men of Property: The Very Wealthy in Britain since the Industrial Revolution (London: Croom Helm, 1981), chapters 2-6.

William D. Rubinstein, Elites and the Wealthy in Modern British History: Essays in Social and Economic History (Brighton: Harvester, 1987)    

G. R. Searle, ‘The Edwardian Liberal Party and Business’, The English Historical Review, 98:386 (1983), pp.28-60.

Michael Thompson, ‘The Landed Aristocracy and Business Elites in Victorian Britain’, Publications de l'École Française de Rome, 107 :1 (1988) pp.267-279

 

 

This list was last updated on 19/01/2022