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HIST3740 Seminar Reading Programme: Semester 1 / Main Module Bibliography 2021-22

Alliance Without Backbone: Germany, its Allies and Satellites Before and During World War Two, 2021/22, Semester 1, 2
Dr G T Waddington



Week 1: Introduction

Objective: To provide a general introduction to the module and enhance student awareness and understanding of the following: 

General information on aims and objectives, content, teaching methods, seminar times, required materials, method of assessment, assignments, feedback arrangements and essay titles; bibliography; seminar format, reading programme, presentations, seminar documents and gobbets; primary sources and dissertations.

Week 2: The Setting: The Historiographical Context / The Great Powers and Hitler’s foreign policy ‘programme’, 1919-1933

All students: 

I. Kershaw, 'Nazi Foreign Policy: Hitler's "programme" or "expansion without object"' in his The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation   

G. L. Weinberg, ‘The World through Hitler’s Eyes’ in his Germany, Hitler and World War II. Essays in Modern German and World History.Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library

C. Goeschel, 'Biography, Political Leadership and Foreign Policy Reconsidered: the Cases of Mussolini and Hitler', European Review of International Studies, vol. 4, no. 2/3, 2017, link here:

Group reading:

Group A: J. Hiden, ‘National Socialism and Foreign Policy 1919-1933’, in P. Stachura (ed.) The Nazi Machtergreifung. Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE .

Group B: G. Stoakes, ‘The Evolution of Hitler’s Ideas on Foreign Policy 1919-1925’, in P. Stachura (ed.) The Shaping of the Nazi stateAvailable as an Online Course reading in the VLE

Group C: G. T. Waddington, Hitler, the West and the European world balance of power 1925-37. Article in progress. Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE .

Group D: G. Stoakes, Hitler and the quest for world dominion, pp. 64-87. Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE 

Week 3: Hitler, Germany and the Western Powers, 1933-39

All students:

A. Hillgruber, ‘England’s Place in Hitler’s Plans for World Dominion’, Journal of contemporary history., vol. 9, no. 1, January 1974

C. Leitz, ‘"Getting onto closer terms with the gangsters': France, Britain and Nazi Germany’ in his Nazi foreign policy, 1933-1941: the road to global warAvailable as ebook in The Brotherton Library 

Group reading:

Group A: Hauser, O, 'The year 1937 : the decisive turning-point in British-German relations. In Keen, M, Historical studies X : papers read before the eleventh Irish Conference of Historians, pp.132-146 Available as an Online Course reading in the VLE.

Group B: G. L. Weinberg, ‘Hitler and England 1933-1945: Pretense and Reality’ in his Germany, Hitler, and World War II : essays in modern German and world history. Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library 

Group C: G. T. Waddington, 'Hassgegner: German Views of Great Britain in the later 1930s', Historyvol. 81, no. 261, January 1996

Group D: K. Hildebrand, German foreign policy from Bismarck to Adenauer: the limits of statecraft, pp. 121-149. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Week 4 The Hossbach Conference and the Blomberg-Fritsch Crisis / FYP and assessed essay guidance

All students: 

J. Wright and P. Stafford, ‘A Blueprint for World War? Hitler and the Hossbach Memorandum’, History Today, link here: file:///C:/Users/User/Desktop/[21966850%20-%20Milit%C3%A4rgeschichtliche%20Zeitschrift]%20Hitler,%20Britain%20and%20the%20Ho%C3%9Fbach%20Memorandum.pdf   

Week 5: The formation of the Axis, 1933-1936

All students:

B. Sullivan, ‘From Little Brother to Senior Partner: Fascist Italian Perceptions of the Nazis and of Hitler’s Regime 1930-1936’, Intelligence and national security., vol 13, no. 1, 1998.

M. Knox, 'Conquest, Foreign and Domestic, in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany', Journal of Modern Historyvol. 56, no. 1, March 1984

Group reading:

Group A: E. M. Robertson, ‘Hitler and Sanctions, Mussolini and the Rhineland ’, European studies review, vol. 7, no. 4, 1977.

Group B: M. Knox, 'Fascism and Italian Foreign Policy: Continuity and Break' in his Common Destiny. Dictatorship, Foreign Policy and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germanypp. 113-147   

Group C: J. Gehl, Austria, Germany and the Anschluss, pp. 69-100. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Group D: G. T Waddington, 'Schreck and Schadenfreude; Hitler, German Alliance Priorities and the the Abyssinian Crisis, 1935-6’ from G. Bruce Strang, ed. Collision of Empires. Italy’s Invasion of Ethiopia and its International Impact Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Week 6: The Axis forged, 1936-1939

All students:

C. Goeschel, Mussolini and Hitler. The Forging of the Fascist Alliancepp. 60-164. Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library 

R. Mallett, Mussolini and the Origins of the Second World War, 1933-1940pp. 67-105. Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library 

Group reading:

Group A: H. Cliadakis, ‘Neutrality and War in Italian Policy 1939-40’, Journal of contemporary history., vol. 9, no. 3, 1974.

Group B: P. Baxa, 'Capturing the Fascist Moment: Hitler's Visit to Italy in 1938 and the Radicalisation of Fascist Italy', Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 42, no. 2, 2007

Group C: D. C. Watt, ‘The Rome-Berlin Axis 1936-40. Myth and Reality’, Review of Politics, vol. 22, no. 4, 1960

Group D: G. Stone, ‘The Interventionist Powers and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939.' Link here:

7. The Anti-Comintern Pact

All Students:

J. Fox: 'Agreement with Japan: The Wilhelmstrasse and von Ribbentrop's Anti-Comintern Pact Negotiations, 1935-6' from his Germany and the Far Eastern Crisis, 1931-38, pp. 175-208. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

C. Boyd, 'The Berlin-Tokyo Axis and Japanese Military Initiative', Modern Asian Studies, vol. 15, no 2, 1981

Group reading: 

Group A: J. W. Chapman, ‘A Dance on Eggs. Intelligence and the Anti-Comintern’, Journal of contemporary history, vol. 22, no. 2, 1987.

Group B: C. Boyd: 'The Role of Hiroshi Oshima in the Preparation of the Anti-Comintern Pact', Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 11, no. 1, 1977   

Group C: T. Nobuo, 'Fighting Behind the Scenes: Developments in German Far Eastern Policy, 1935-1936' in K. Akira, T. Nobuo and E. Pauer, eds, Japan and Germany. Two Latecomers to the World Stage, 1890-1945   

Group D: G. L. Weinberg, The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany. Volume II. Starting World War Two, 1937-1939, pp. 167-191  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 23/09/2020) 

Week 8: Germany and the USSR 1933-1941

All students:

G. L. Weinberg, 'German diplomacy toward the Soviet Union' in his Germany, Hitler and World War II. Essays in Modern German and World HistoryAvailable as ebook in The Brotherton Library

J. Förster, ‘Hitler turns to the East. German War Policy in 1940 and 1941’, in B. Wegner (ed.) From peace to war : Germany, Soviet Russia and the world, 1939-1941Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Group reading:

Group A: Z. Shore, 'Hitler's Opening Gambit: Intelligence, Encirclement and the Decision to ally with Poland', Intelligence and National Security, vol. 14, no. 3, 1999

Group B: E. L Presseisen, ‘Prelude to ‘Barbarossa. Germany and the Balkans, 1940-41’, The journal of modern history., vol. 32, no. 4,1960

Group C: G. T. Waddington, ‘Ribbentrop and the Soviet Union 1937-41’ in J. Erickson &  D. N. Dilks (eds) Barbarossa : the Axis and the AlliesAvailable as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Group D: H. W. Koch, ‘Hitler’s ‘Programme’ and the Genesis of ‘Operation Barbarossa’, The historical journal, vol. 26, no. 4, 1983

Week 9: The Tripartite Pact

All students:

'The Tripartite Pact of 27 September 1940: Fascist alliance or propaganda trick? ’, Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 32, no. 2, 1986  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Klaus P. Fischer, Hitler and Americapp. 99-167. Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library 

Group reading:

Group A: B. Martin, Japan and Germany in the modern world, pp. 242-261. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Group B: J. A. Yellen, 'Into the Tiger's Den; Japan and the Tripartite Pact, 1940', Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 51, no. 3, 2016

Group C: G. L. Weinberg, 'From Confrontation to Cooperation: Germany and the United States, 1917-1949' and 'Pearl Harbor: The German Perspective' in his Germany, Hitler, and World War II: essays in modern German and world history. Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library 

Group D: G. L. Weinberg, 'Hitler's Image of the United States' American Historical Review, vol. 69, no. 4, 1964

Week 10: France, Spain and the Peripheral Strategy / World Power, World Dominion or World Domination?

All students:

G. Schreiber, ‘The Mediterranean in Hitler’s Strategy in 1940: Programme and Military Planning’, in W. Deist, ed., The German military in the age of total war OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 23/09/2020) Available online here

M. Hauner, 'Did Hitler Want a World Dominion?', Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 13, no. 1, 1978

Group reading:

Group A: A. Hytier, Two years of French foreign policy: Vichy, 1940-1942., pp. 157-183. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

Group B: D. Wingeate-Pike, ‘Franco and the Axis Stigma’, Journal of contemporary history, vol. 17, no., 3, 1982.

Group C: N. J. Goda, ‘The Riddle of the Rock. A Reappraisal of German Motives for the Capture of Gibraltar in the Second World War’, Journal of contemporary history, vol. 28, no. 2, 1993

Group D: Paul Preston, 'The Myth of Hendaye 1940', Contemporary European History, vol. 1, no. 1, 1992

Week 11: The failure of the Axis war alliance

All students:

N.J Goda, 'The Diplomacy of the Axis, 1940-45' in The Cambridge History of the Second World War. Volume 2. Politics and Ideologypp. 276-300. Available as ebook in The Brotherton Library

R. Di Nardo, The Dysfunctional Coalition: The Axis Powers and the Eastern Front  in World War Two. The journal of military history,vol. 60, no. 4, 1996.

Group reading:

Group A: Brian R. Sullivan, '"The path marked out by history". The German-Italian Alliance 1939-1943' in J. R. Adelman, ed., Hitler and His Allies in World War IIpp. 116-151   

Group B: J. Sadkovich, 'The Italo-Greek War in Context: Italian Priorities and Axis Diplomacy', Journal of Contemporary History, vol. 28, no. 3, 1993

Group C: H. Dobson, 'The Failure of the Tripartite Pact: Familiarity breeding Contempt between Japan and Germany, 1940-45, Japan Forum, vol. 11, no. 2, 1999

Group D: K. Dreschler, 'Germany and Its Allies and the War against the Soviet Union, 1940-42', Soviet Union / Union Sovietique, vol. 18, nos 1-3, 1991  OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (HT 23/09/2020) 


Abbreviations used in citations of journal articles

AJPH The Australian journal of politics and history. CEH Central European history. DS Diplomacy and statecraft. EHQ European history quarterly. ESR European studies review. FA Foreign affairs. GH German history. HIST History. HJ The historical journal. HJFRT Historical journal of film, radio and television. HS Historical studies. HT History today. IA International affairs. IHR International history review. INS Intelligence and national security. JCH Journal of contemporary history. JMH The Journal of modern history. JMilH The journal of military history. JRUSI Journal of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies. JSMS The Journal of Slavic Military Studies MR Military review PSQ Political science quarterly. PP Past & present. SS Soviet studies. SU/US Soviet Union = Union Soviétique. WH War in history. WS War & society.


Boog, H., et al., Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 4, The attack on the Soviet Union.

Boog, H., et al., Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 6, The global war : widening of the conflict into a world war and the shift of the initiative 1941-1943

Carr, W., Arms, autarky and aggression : a study in German foreign policy, 1933-1939

Deist, W., et al., Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 1, The build-up of German aggression

Fest, J., The face of the Third Reich

Frend, W. H. C., ‘Hitler and His Foreign Ministry 1937-39’ HIST, 1957.

Haffner, S., The meaning of Hitler

Haigh, R., et al., The years of triumph? : German diplomatic and military policy 1933-41

Hildebrand, K., The foreign policy of the Third Reich

Hildebrand, K., The Third Reich

Hillgruber, A., Germany and the two World Wars

Irving, D., The war path : Hitler's Germany 1933-9

Irving, D., Hitler's war 1939-1942

Jaeckel, E., ‘Hitler wages War’ in his Hitler in history

Koch, H. W., ed., Aspects of the Third Reich

Kroener, B., et al., Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 5/1, Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1939-1941

Leitz, C., Nazi foreign policy, 1933-1941 : the road to global war

Leitz, C., Nazi Germany and neutral Europe during the second world war

Maier, K. A., et al., Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 2, Germany's initial conquests in Europe

Noakes, J and Pridham G., Nazism, 1919-1945 : a documentary reader

Poole, De Witt C., ‘Light on Nazi Foreign Policy’, Foreign Affairs, 1946-7, online

Rich, N., Hitler's war aims. Vol. 1. Ideology, the Nazi State and the Course of Expansion

Rich, N., Hitler's war aims. Vol. 2. The Establishment of the New Order

Robertson, E. M., Hitler's pre-war policy and military plans, 1933-1939

Schreiber, G., et al., Germany and the Second World War. Vol. 3, The Mediterranean, south-east Europe, and north Africa, 1939-1941 : from Italy's declaration of non-belligerence to the entry of the United States into the war

Weinberg, G. L., Germany, Hitler, and World War II : essays in modern German and world history G-9.2WEI

Weinberg, G. L., The foreign policy of Hitler's Germany : diplomatic revolution in Europe 1933-36

Weinberg, G. L., The foreign policy of Hitler's Germany : starting World War II, 1937-1939


Hiden, J., ‘National socialism and foreign policy 1919-33’, in Stachura, P., ed., The Nazi Machtergreifung

Hiden, J., and Farquharson, J., Explaining Hitler’s Germany. Historians and the Third Reich, copy available from the tutor

Kershaw, I., ‘Nazi Foreign Policy: Hitler’s “programme” or “expansion without object”?’ in his The Nazi dictatorship : problems and perspectives of interpretation

Lukacs, J., ‘Statesman and Strategist’ in his The Hitler of history

Watt, D. C., ‘The debate over Hitler's foreign policy : problems of reality or faux problèmes?’ in Hildebrand, K. and Pommerin, R., eds, Deutsche Frage und europäisches Gleichgewicht : Festschrift für Andreas Hillgruber zum 60. Geburtstag


Bracher, K. D., ‘The Structure of National Socialist Foreign Policy’ in his The German dictatorship : the origins, structure and effects of National Socialism

Craig, G. A., ‘The German Foreign Office from Neurath to Ribbentrop’ in Craig, G. and Gilbert, F., The Diplomats, 1919-1939

Hill, L. E., ‘The Wilhelmstrasse in the Nazi Era’, PSQ, 1967, online

Jacobsen, H-A, ‘The structure of Nazi foreign policy 1933-1945’ in Leitz, C., ed., The Third Reich : the essential readings

Seabury, Paul, ‘Ribbentrop and the German Foreign Office’, PSQ, 1951, online

Seabury, Paul, The Wilhelmstrasse : a study of German diplomats under the Nazi regime


Bullock, A., Hitler and Stalin : parallel lives

Bullock, A., Hitler : a study in tyranny

Fest, J., Hitler

Hitler, A., Hitler's secret book

Hitler, A., Mein Kampf

Jaeckel, E., ‘The Outlines of Foreign Policy’ in his Hitler's world view : a blueprint for power. A Blueprint for Power copy available from the tutor

Kershaw, I., Hitler, 1889-1936 : hubris

Kershaw, I., Hitler, 1936-45 : nemesis

Matthias, E., ‘The Western Powers in Hitler’s World of Ideas’ in Nichols, A. and Matthias, E., eds, German democracy and the triumph of Hitler : essays in recent German history

Stoakes, G., ‘“More Unfinished Business?” Some Comments on the Evolution of the Nazi Party Foreign Policy Programme, 1919-24’, ESR, 1978

Stoakes, G., ‘The evolution of Hitler's ideas on foreign policy 1919-1925’ in Stachura, P., ed., The Shaping of the Nazi state.

Stoakes, G., Hitler and the quest for world dominion

Turner, jnr, H. A., ed., Hitler : memoirs of a confidant

Waddington, G. T., Hitler, the West and the European world balance of power 1925-37

Watt, D. C., Introduction to Hitler, A., Mein Kampf. English. Trans. R. Manheim

Weinberg, G. L., Introduction to Hitler, A., Hitler's second book

Weinberg, G. L., ‘National Socialist Organisation and Foreign Policy Aims in 1927’ in his Germany, Hitler, and World War II : essays in modern German and world history

Weinberg, G. L., ‘The World through Hitler’s Eyes’ in his The foreign policy of Hitler's Germany : diplomatic revolution in Europe 1933-36

Smith, W. D., The ideological origins of Nazi imperialism


Adamthwaite, A., The making of the Second World War

Aster, S., 1939 : the making of the Second World War

Bell, P., The origins of the second world war in Europe

Boyce, R. and Maiolo, J., eds, The origins of World War Two : the debate continues

Boyce, R. and Robertson, E. M., eds, Paths to war : new essays on the origins of the Second World War

Craig, G. and Gilbert, F., eds, The Diplomats, 1919-1939

Crozier, A., The causes of the Second World War

Douglas, R., The advent of war, 1939-40

Finney, P., The origins of the Second World War.

Hill, L. 'Three Crises 1938-1939’, JCH, 1968, online

Iriye, A., Pearl Harbor and the coming of the Pacific War : a brief history with documents and essays

Iriye, A., The origins of the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific

Kitchen, M., Europe between the wars : a political history

Marks, S., The ebbing of European ascendancy : an international history of the world, 1914-1945

Mason, T., et al., Debate : Germany, "domestic crisis" and war in 1939

Overy, R. J., Germany, "Domestic Crisis" and war in 1939

Parker, R. A. C., Europe 1919-45

Robertson, E. M., ed., The origins of the Second World War : historical interpretations

Ross, K, G. M., The great powers and the decline of the European states system 1914-1945

Taylor, A. J. P., The origins of the Second World War

Watt, D. C., How war came : the immediate origins of the Second World War, 1938-1939

Wiskemann, E., Europe of the dictators,1919-1945


Alvarez, D., ‘Axis Sigint Collaboration: A Limited Partnership’, INS, 1999

Arnold-Foster, M., The world at war

Baldwin, H. W., The crucial years, 1939-1941 : the world at war

Burkhart Mueller-Hillebrandt, General, and others, ‘Germany and Her Allies in World War Two: A Record of Axis Collaboration Problems’ in Detwiler, D et al., World War II German military studies : a collection of 213 special reports on the Second World War prepared by former officers of the Wehrmacht for the United States Army. Volume 20. Part VIII. Diplomacy, Strategy and Military Theory

Calvocoressi, P. and Wint, G., Total war : causes and courses of the Second World War. 2 Vols

Carr, W., Poland to Pearl Harbor : the making of the Second World War

Collier, B., A short history of the Second World War

Di Nardo, R., ‘The Dysfunctional Coalition: The Axis Powers and the Eastern Front in World War Two’, JMilH, 1996, online

DiNardo, R. L. and Hughes, D. J., ‘Germany and Coalition Warfare in the World Wars: A Comparative Study’, WH, 2001, online

Dockrill, S., From Pearl Harbour to Hiroshima : the Second World War in Asia and the Pacific, 1941-45

Douglas, R., New alliances 1940-41

Fuller, J. F., The Second World War, 1939-45 : a strategic and tactical history

Gilbert, M., The Second World War

Hillgruber, A., ‘Hitler’s Allies’, MR, 1961, copy available from tutor

Hinsley, F. H., Hitler's strategy

Jacobsen, H-A. and Smith, A., World War II, policy and strategy : selected documents with commentary

Keegan, J., The Second World War

Kitchen, M., A world in flames : a short history of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945

Lukacs, J., The duel : Hitler vs. Churchill, 10 May - 31 July 1940

Magenheimer, H., Hitler's war : German military strategy, 1940-1945

Mazower, M., Hitler’s New Order 1939-45. DS, 1996

Michel, H., The Second World War

Müller, R-D. and Ueberschär, G., Hitler's war in the East, 1941-1945 : a critical assessment

Parker, R. A. C., Struggle for survival : the history of the Second World War

van Creveld, M., ‘War Lord Hitler. Some Points Reconsidered’, ESR, 4

Wegner, B., ‘Facing Global War: Germany’s Strategic Dilemma after the Failure of “Blitzkrieg”’ in his From peace to war : Germany, Soviet Russia and the world, 1939-1941

Weinberg, G. L., A world at arms : a global history of World War II

Weinberg, G. L., World in the balance : behind the scenes of World War II

Wheatley, R., Operation Sealion


Duroselle, J-B., France and the Nazi threat : the collapse of French diplomacy, 1932-1939

Emmerson, J. T., The Rhineland crisis, 7 March 1936 : a study in multilateral diplomacy

Hauser, O., ‘The year 1937 : the decisive turning-point in British-German relations’, HS, 1978,

Hildebrand, K., ‘Hitler and France, 1933-36’ in his German foreign policy from Bismarck to Adenauer : the limits of statecraft

Hillgruber, A., ‘England's place in Hitler's plans for world dominion’, JCH, 1974,

Michalka, W., ‘From the anti-Comintern pact to the Euro-Asiatic bloc : Ribbentrop's alternative concept of Hitler's foreign policy programme’

Middlemas, K., Diplomacy of illusion : the British Government and Germany, 1937-39

Nicosia, F. R., The Third Reich and the Palestine question

Waddington, G. T., ‘“An idyllic atmosphere of complete and unruffled Anglo-German misunderstanding.” Aspects of the Operations of the Dienststelle Ribbentrop in Great Britain, 1934-38’, HIST, 1997, online

Waddington, G. T., ‘Fifth Arm or Fifth Column? Nazi Propaganda Activities in Britain’, Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, 1986

Waddington, G. T., ‘Hassgegner : German views of Great Britain in the later 1930s’, HIST, 1996,

Waddington, G. T., ‘Hitler, Ribbentrop, the NSDAP and the decline of the British Empire 1935-1938 : new documentation on Anglo-German relations in 1937’ [translation of ‘Hitler, Ribbentrop, die NSDAP und der Niedergang des Britischen Empire, 1935-1938’, Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Band 40, Heft 2, 1992]

Waddington, G. T., ‘Hitler, the West and the European world balance of power 1925-37

Waddington, G. T., ‘Preaching the gospel of reasonableness : Anglo-German relations, 1919-1939’ in Panayi, P., ed., Weimar and the Third Reich. Continuities and Discontinuities

Weinberg, G. L., ‘Hitler and England, 1933-1945: Pretense and Reality’ in his Germany, Hitler, and World War II : essays in modern German and world history

Wright, J. and Stafford, P., ‘Hitler, Britain and the Hossbach Memorandum’, copy available from the tutor


Alfieri, D., Dictators face to face

Badoglio, P., Italy in the Second World War : memories and documents

Bosworth, R. J. B., Mussolini

Burgwyn, H. J., Italian foreign policy in the interwar period, 1918-1940

Calvitt Clarke III, J., Russia and Italy against Hitler : the Bolshevik-Fascist rapprochement of the 1930s

Cassels, A., ‘Was there a Fascist foreign policy? : tradition and novelty’, IHR, 1983,

Cliadakis, H., ‘Neutrality and war in Italian policy 1939-40’, JCH, 1974,

Watt, D. C., ‘Hitler's visit to Rome and the May Weekend Crisis : a study in Hitler's response to external stimuli’, JCH, 1974

Deakin, F. W., The brutal friendship : Mussolini, Hitler and the fall of Italian fascism.

Delzell, C., ‘Pius XII, Italy and the Outbreak of World War Two’, JCH, 1967,

Farrell, N., Mussolini : a new life

Gehl, J., Austria, Germany, and the Anschluss, 1931-1938

Harvey, S., ‘The Italian War Effort and the Strategic Bombing of Italy’, HIST, 1985

Hibbert, C., Benito Mussolini : the rise and fall of Il Duce

Kallis, A., Fascist ideology : territory and expansionism in Italy and Germany, 1922-1945

Kent. P., ‘A Tale of Two Popes. Pius XI, Pius X and the Rome Berlin Axis’, JCH, 1988, online

Kindermann, G-K., Hitler's defeat in Austria, 1933-1934 : Europe's first containment of Nazi expansionism

Kirkpatrick, I., Mussolini : a study in power

Knox, M., ‘Conquest, Foreign and Domestic, in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany’, JMH, 1984, online

Knox, M., ‘Fascism: Ideology, Foreign Policy and War’, in Lyttleton, A., ed., Liberal and Fascist Italy, 1900-1945

Knox, M., ‘Fascist Italy Assesses its Enemies, 1939-1940’, in May, E. R., ed. Knowing one's enemies : intelligence assessment before the two world wars

Knox, M., ‘The Fascist Regime, its Foreign Policy and its Wars: An “Anti-Anti-Fascist Orthodoxy?”’ CEH, 1995

Knox, M., Common destiny : dictatorship, foreign policy, and war in fascist Italy and Nazi Germany

Knox, M., Mussolini unleashed, 1939-1941 : politics and strategy in fascist Italy's last war

Latour, C. F., ‘Germany, Italy and the South Tyrol’, HJ, 1965, online

Linsenmeyer, W., ‘Italian Peace Feelers before the Fall of Mussolini’, JCH, 1981, online

Lowe, C. J. and Marzari, A., Italian foreign policy, 1870-1940

Mack Smith, D., Mussolini

Mack Smith, D., Mussolini's Roman empire

Mackenzie, A. L., eds, The Republic besieged : civil war in Spain 1936-1939

Mallett, R., ‘The Anschluss Question in Italian Defence Policy, 1933-37’, INS, 2004, online

Mallett, R., Mussolini and the origins of the Second World War, 1933-1940

Mallett, R., The Italian Navy and Fascist expansionism, 1935-40

Marzari, F., ‘Projects for an Italian led Bloc of Neutrals, Sept-Dec. 1939’, HJ, 1970, online

Muggeridge, M., ed., Ciano's diary, 1937-1938

Muggeridge, M., ed., Ciano's diary 1939-1943

Muggeridge, M., ed., Ciano's diplomatic papers : being a record of nearly 200 conversations held during the years 1936-42

Neville, P., Mussolini

Petracchi, G., ‘Pinnochio, the Cat and the Fox. Italy between Germany and the Soviet Union, 1939-1941’ in Wegner, B, ed., From peace to war : Germany, Soviet Russia and the world, 1939-1941

Preston, P., ‘Mussolini’s Spanish Adventure: From Limited Risk to War’, in Preston, P. and Mackenzie, A.L., eds, The Republic besieged : civil war in Spain 1936-1939

Robertson, E. M., ‘Hitler and sanctions : Mussolini and the Rhineland’, ESR, 1977

Robertson, E. M., Mussolini as empire-builder : Europe and Africa, 1932-36

Sadkovich, J., ‘German military incompetence through Italian eyes’, WH, 1994

Sadkovich, J., ‘The Italo-Greek war in context : Italian priorities and axis diplomacy’, JCH, 1993

Sadkovich, J., ‘Understanding defeat : reappraising Italy's role in World War II’, JCH, 1989,

Sadkovich, J., 'Italian morale during the Italo-Greek War of 1940-1941', WS, 1994,

Sadkovich, J., The Italian Navy in World War II

Schmider, K., ‘The Mediterranean in 1940-41. Crossroads of Lost Opportunities?’ WS, 1997,

Schmitt, B., ‘Italian Diplomacy, 1939-1941’, JMH, 1955, online

Shanafelt, G. W. and Waddington, G. T., ‘Coalition War: Germany and her Allies, Austria-Hungary and Italy’ in Bourne, J., Liddle, P. and Whitehead, I., eds, The Great World War, 1914-45

Sullivan, B., ‘Fascist Italy’s Military Involvement in the Spanish Civil War’, JMilH, 1995, online

Sullivan, B., ‘From little brother to senior partner : Fascist Italian perception of the Nazis and of Hitler's regime, 1930-1936’, INS, 1998,

Tamanga, F., Italy's interests and policies in the Far East

Toscano, M., Alto Adige, South Tyrol : Italy's frontier with the German world

Toscano, M., The origins of the Pact of Steel

Trifkovic, S., ‘Rivalry between Germany and Italy in Croatia, 1942-1943’, HJ, 1993,

van Creveld, M., ‘25 October 1940 : a historical puzzle’, JCH, VI

von Plehwe, F. K., The end of an alliance : Rome's defection from the Axis in 1943

Watt, D. C., ‘The Rome-Berlin axis, 1936-1940 : myth and reality’, Review of Politics, 1960,

Wiskemann, E., The Rome-Berlin Axis : a history of the relations between Hitler and Mussolini

GERMANY AND JAPAN [see also the section on Germany and the USA]

Beasley, W. G., Japanese imperialism, 1894-1945

Bergamini, D., Japan's imperial conspiracy

Borg D. and Okamoto, S., eds, Pearl Harbor as history : Japanese-American relations, 1931-1941

Boyd, C,The extraordinary envoy : General Hiroshi Oshima and diplomacy in the Third Reich, 1934-1939 N-75.012BOY

Boyd, C., Hitler's Japanese confidant : General ¯Oshima Hiroshi and MAGIC intelligence, 1941-1945

Chapman, J. W., ‘A dance on eggs : intelligence and the 'anti-Comintern'’, JCH, 1987

Chapman, J., ‘Tricycle Recycled: Collaboration Among the Secret Intelligence Services of the Axis States 1940-41’, INS, 1992

Coox, A. D., ‘Japanese Foreknowledge of the German-Soviet War, 1941’, Soviet Studies, 1972, online

Crowley, J. B., Japan's quest for autonomy : national security and foreign policy, 1930-1938

Dülffer, J., ‘The tripartite pact of 27 September 1940 : fascist alliance or propaganda trick?’ AJPH, 1986

Duus, P., et al., The Japanese wartime empire, 1931-1945 (chapter 12)

Fox, J. P., Germany and the Far Eastern crisis 1931-1938 : a study in diplomacy and ideology

Hauner, M., India in Axis strategy : Germany, Japan, and Indian nationalists in the Second World War

Huizenga, J. ‘Yosuke Matsuoka and the Japanese-German alliance’

Ike, N., Japan's decision for war : records of the 1941 policy conferences

Iklé, F. W., German-Japanese relations, 1936-1940

Jones, F. C., ‘The Military Domination of Japanese Policy 1931-45’ in Howard, M, ed., Soldiers and governments : nine studies in civil-military relations.

Martin, B., Japan and Germany in the modern world

Maxon, Y. C., Control of Japanese foreign policy : a study of civil-military rivalry, 1930-1945

McKale, D., The Nazi Party in the Far East, 1931-45’, JCH, 1977

Meskill, J., Hitler & Japan : the hollow alliance

Morley, J., ed., Deterrent diplomacy : Japan, Germany, and the USSR, 1935-1940 : selected translations from Taiheiy¯o Sens¯o e no michi, kaisen gaik¯o shi

Morley, J., ed., The China quagmire : Japan's expansion on the Asian continent 1933-1941 : selected translations from Taiheiyō sensō e no michi : kaisen gaikō shi

Morley, J., ed., The Fateful choice : Japan's advance into Southeast Asia, 1939-1941 : selected translations from Taiheiyō sensō e no michi, kaisen gaikō shi

Nish, I., Japanese foreign policy, 1869-1942 : Kasumigaseki to Miyakezaka

Presseisen, E. L., Germany and Japan : a study in totalitarian diplomacy, 1933-1941

Shillony, B. A., Politics and culture in wartime Japan

Storry, R., Japan and the decline of the West in Asia, 1894-1943


Anon., ‘Around the non-Aggression Pact. Documents of German-Soviet Relations in 1939’, IA, 1989, online

Baird, J., ‘The Myth of Stalingrad’ JCH, 1969, online

Beloff, M., The foreign policy of the USSR : domestic factors

Cecil, R., Hitler's decision to invade Russia, 1941

Deutscher, I., Stalin : a political biography

Erickson, J. and Dilks, D., eds, Barbarossa : the Axis and the Allies

Ericson, E., Feeding the German eagle : Soviet economic aid to Nazi Germany, 1933-1941

Förster, J. and Mawdsley, E, ‘Hitler and Stalin in Perspective: Secret Speeches on the Eve of Barbarossa’, WH, 2004, online

Förster, J., ‘Hitler turns east : German war policy in 1940 and 1941’ in Wegner, B., ed., From peace to war : Germany, Soviet Russia and the world, 1939-1941

Gorodetsky, G., ‘Was Stalin planning to attack Hitler in June 1941?’ JRUSI, 1986,

Gorodetsky, G., ed., Soviet foreign policy, 1917-1991 : a retrospective

Gorodetsky, G., Grand delusion : Stalin and the German invasion of Russia

Haslam, J., ‘Soviet foreign policy, 1930-33 : the impact of the depression’, SU/US, 1991

Haslam, J., ‘Soviet-German Relations and the Origins of the Second World War: The Jury is Still Out’, JMH, 1997, online

Haslam, J., ‘The Soviet Union and the Czechoslovakian Crisis of 1938’, JCH, 1983, online

Haslam, J., The Soviet Union and the threat from the east, 1933-41 : Moscow, Tokyo and the prelude to the Pacific War

Hilger, G. and Meyer, A., The incompatible allies : a memoir-history of German-Soviet relations, 1918-1941

Hitchens, M. G., Germany, Russia, and the Balkans : prelude to the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact

Koch, H-W., ‘Hitler’s ‘Programme’ and the Genesis of ‘Operation Barbarossa’, HJ, 1983,

Koch, H-W., ‘The Spectre of a Separate Peace in the East : Russo-German ‘Peace Feelers’, 1942-44’, JCH, 1975, online

Krosby, P. H., Finland, Germany, and the Soviet Union, 1940-1941 : the Petsamo dispute

Leach. B. A., German strategy against Russia, 1939-1941

Leaman, J., ‘Treaty of Non-Aggression Between Germany and the USSR, August 1939’ [Review Article], GH, 1994

Lukacs, J., June 1941 : Hitler and Stalin

Manne, R., ‘Some British Light on the Nazi-Soviet Pact’, ESR, 11.

Nation, R. C., Black earth, red star : a history of Soviet security policy, 1917-1991

Neilson, K., ‘Stalin’s Moustache: The Soviet Union and the Coming of War’, DS, 2001

Raack, R., ‘Stalin’s Plans for World War Two’, JCH, 1991, online

Read, A. and Fisher, D., The deadly embrace : Hitler, Stalin and the Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939-1941

Roberts, G., ‘A Soviet bid for coexistence with Nazi Germany, 1935-1937 : The Kandelaki affair’, IHR, 1994, EBL High Demand - Article

Roberts, G., The Soviet Union and the origins of the Second World War : Russo-German relations and the road to war, 1933-1941

Roberts, G., ‘Military Disaster as a function of Rational Military Calculation. Stalin and 22 June 1941’, DS, 1993.

Roberts, G., ‘The Fall of Litvinov’, JCH, 1992, online

Roberts, G., ‘The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany’, SS, 1992, online 

Roberts, G., The unholy alliance : Stalin's pact with Hitler

Rossi, A., The Russo-German alliance, August 1939-June, 1941

Schmider, K., ‘No quiet on the eastern front : the Suvorov debate in the 1990s’, JSMS, 1997

Stolfi, R. H. S., Hitler's panzers east : World War II reinterpreted

Suvorov, V., ‘Who was planning to attack whom in June 1941, Hitler or Stalin?’ JRUSI, June 1985

Suvorov, V., ‘Yes, Stalin was planning to attack Hitler in June 1941’, JRUSI, June 1986

Suvorov, V., Icebreaker : who started the Second World War?

Ueberschär, G., ‘Hitler’s Decision to Attack the Soviet Union in Recent German Historiography’, SU/US, 1991

Ulam, A., Expansion and coexistence : Soviet foreign policy, 1917-73

van. Creveld, M., ‘The German Attack on the USSR: The Destruction of a Legend’, ESR, 1972

von Herwarth, J., Against two evils : memoirs of a diplomat-soldier during the Third Reich

Waddington, G. T., ‘Ribbentrop and the Soviet Union, 1937-1941’ in Erickson, J. and Dilks, D. N., eds., Barbarossa : the Axis and the Allies

Wegner, B, ed., From peace to war : Germany, Soviet Russia and the world, 1939-1941

Weinberg, G. L., ‘The Nazi-Soviet Pact’, FA, 1989, online

Weinberg, G. L., Germany and the Soviet Union, 1939-1941


Aron, R., The Vichy regime : 1940-44

Azema, J., From Munich to the Liberation, 1938-1944

Baudouin, P., The private diaries (March 1940 to January 1941)

Cobb, R., French and Germans, Germans and French : a personal interpretation of France under two occupations, 1914-1918/1940-1944

Cox, J. L., ‘The Background to the Syrian Campaign. May-June 1941. A Study in Franco-German Wartime Relations’, HIST, 1987

Ferro, M., Pétain

Griffiths, R., Marshal Pétain

Hytier, A. D., Two years of French foreign policy : Vichy, 1940-1942.

Melka, R. L., ‘Darlan Between Britain and Germany 1940-1’, JCH, 1973, online

Néré, J., The foreign policy of France from 1914 to 1945

Paxton, R. O., Vichy France : old guard and new order, 1940-1944

Warner, G., Pierre Laval and the eclipse of France.


Alpert, M., A new international history of the Spanish Civil War

Coverdale, T. F., Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War

Crozier, B., Franco : a biographical history.

Ellwood, S., Franco

Fusi, J. P., Franco : a biography

Goda, N. J., ‘Hitler's demand for Casablanca in 1940 : incident or policy?’, IHR, 1994

Goda, N. J., ‘The riddle of the rock : a reassessment of German motives for the capture of Gibralter in the Second World War’, JCH, 1993,

Leitz, C., ‘Hermann Goering and Nazi Germany’s Economic Exploitation of Nationalist Spain, 1936-39’, GH, 1996

Leitz, C., ‘Nazi Germany’s Struggle for Spanish Wolfram during the Second World War’, EHQ, 1995

Leitz, C., Economic relations between Nazi Germany and Franco's Spain, 1936-1945’ in Deist, W., ed., The German military in the age of total war

Payne, S. G., The Franco regime, 1936-1975

Pollack, B., The paradox of Spanish foreign policy : Spain's international relations from Franco to democracy

Preston, P., ‘Franco and Hitler. The Myth of Hendaye 1940’, CEH, 1992

Preston, P., Franco : a biography

Preston, P., The politics of revenge : fascism and the military in Twentieth-Century Spain

Puzzo, D. A., Spain and the great powers, 1936-1941.

  1. Schreiber, ‘The Mediterranean in Hitler's strategy in 1940 : programme and military planning’, in W. Deist (ed.) The German Military in the Age of Total War

Smyth, D., Diplomacy and strategy of survival : British policy and Franco's Spain, 1940-41

Templewood, Viscount, Ambassador on special mission

Wheatley, R., ‘Economic Influence of the Great Powers in the Spanish Civil War from the Popular Front to the Second World War’, IHR, 1983

Wheatley, R., Hitler and Spain : the Nazi role in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939

Willard, F. C., ‘The Spanish Civil War and the Coming of the Second World War’, IHR, 1987

Wingeate-Pike, D., ‘Franco and the axis stigma’, JCH, 1982, EBL High Demand - Article, online

GERMANY, EASTERN EUROPE AND THE BALKANS [see also the sections on Germany and the USSR/Italy]

Castellan, S., A history of the Romanians

Clissold, S., A Short history of Yugoslavia : from early times to 1966

Crampton, R. J., A short history of modern Bulgaria

Crampton, R. J., Eastern Europe in the twentieth century

Cruickshank, C., Greece, 1940-1941

Deletant, D., ‘A Balancing Act - Romania, 1919-40’, HT, 1992

Deringil, S., Turkish foreign policy during the Second World War : an "active" neutrality

Fenyo, M. D., Hitler, Horthy, and Hungary : German-Hungarian relations, 1941-1944

Garlicki, A., Józef Pilsudski, 1867-1935. Edited and translated by John Coutouvidis

Grenzenbach, W., Germany's informal empire in East-Central Europe : German economic policy toward Yugoslavia and Rumania, 1933-1939

Hoensch, J. K., A history of modern Hungary, 1867-1986

Jankovic, B. M., The Balkans in international relations

Jelavich, B., History of the Balkans

Juhasz, G., Hungarian foreign policy, 1919-1945

Leitz, C., ‘Arms as Levers. Matériel and Raw Materials in Germany’s Trade with Rumania in the 1930s’, IHR, 1997

Lipski, J., Diplomat in Berlin, 1933-1939 : papers and memoirs of Józef Lipski, Ambassador of Poland

Lungu, D. P., Romania and the great powers, 1933-1940

Macartney, C. A., Hungary : a short history

Morison, J., ed., Eastern Europe and the West : selected papers from the fourth World Congress for Soviet and East European Studies, Harrogate, 1990

Okey, R., Eastern Europe 1740-1980 : feudalism to communism

Presseisen, E. L., ‘Prelude to "Barbarossa" : Germany and the Balkans, 1940-1941’, JMH, 1960

Ranki, B., East Central Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries

Rothschild, J., East Central Europe between the two World Wars

Sakmyster, T. L., ‘Army Officers and Foreign Policy in Inter-War Hungary 1918-41’, JCH, 1975, online

Shore, Z., ‘Hitler's opening gambit : intelligence, encirclement and the decision to ally with Poland’, INS, 1999

Sinor, D., History of Hungary

van Creveld, M., ‘In the Shadow of Barbarossa. Germany and Albania January-March 1941’, JCH, 1972, online

van Creveld, M., Hitler's strategy, 1940-1941 : the Balkan clue

Wolff, R. L., The Balkans in our time

Zapantis, A. L., Hitler's Balkan campaign and the invasion of the USSR


Crowe, D. M., The Baltic States and the great powers : foreign relations, 1938-1940

Engle, E., The Winter War : the Russo-Finnish conflict, 1939-40.

Erfurth, W., The last Finnish war

Jakobsen, M., The diplomacy of the winter war : an account of the Russo-Finnish War, 1939-1940

Jutikkala, E., A history of Finland

Hiden, J. and Lane, T., eds, The Baltic and the outbreak of the Second World War

Nevakivi, J., The appeal that was never made : the Allies, Scandinavia and the Finnish Winter War, 1939-1940

Rommetveit, K., Narvik 1940 : five-nation war in the high north

Salmon, P., Scandinavia and the great powers, 1890-1940

Upton, A. F., Finland, 1939-1940

GERMANY AND THE USA [see also the section on Germany and Japan]

Aigner, D., ‘Hitler's ultimate aims : a programme of world dominion?

Ambrose, S. and Brinkley D. Rise to globalism : American foreign policy since 1938

Barclay, D., ed., Transatlantic images and perceptions : Germany and America since 1776

Bell, L. V., ‘The Failure of Nazism in America: The German American Bund, 1936-1941’, PSQ, 1970, online

Graig, G. A., ‘Roosevelt and Hitler: The Problem of Perception’ in Hildebrand, K., Deutsche Frage und europäisches Gleichgewicht : Festschrift für Andreas Hillgruber zum 60. Geburtstag

Dallek, R., Franklin D. Roosevelt and American foreign policy, 1932-1945

Goda, N. J., Tomorrow the world : Hitler, Northwest Africa, and the path toward America

Groth, A. J., Democracies against Hitler : myth, reality, and prologue

Hauner, M., ‘Did Hitler want a World Dominion?’, JCH, 1978, online

Hearden, P. J., Roosevelt confronts Hitler : America's entry into World War 2

Herwig , H. H., ‘Prelude to Weltblitzkrieg: Germany’s Naval Policy toward the United States of America, 1939-1941’, JMH, 1971, online

Herzstein, R. E., Roosevelt & Hitler : prelude to war

Jaeckel, E., ‘Hitler challenges America’ in his Hitler in history

Lowenthal, M., ‘Roosevelt and the Coming of the War. The Search for United States Policy, 1937-1942’, JCH, 1981, online

May, E. R., ‘Nazi Germany and the United States: A Review Essay’, JMH, 1969, online

Michaelis, M., ‘World power status or world dominion? : a survey of the literature on Hitler's 'Plan of world dominion' (1937-1970)’, HJ, 1972

Offner, A., American appeasement : United States foreign policy and Germany, 1933-1938.

Offner, A., The origins of the Second World War : American foreign policy and world politics, 1917-1941

Weinberg, G. L., ‘German Colonial Plans and Policies 1938-1942’ in Besson. W. and von Gaertringen, H., eds, Geschichte und Gegenwartsbewusstsein : historische Betrachtungen und Untersuchungen : Festschrift für Hans Rothfels zum 70. Geburtstag

Weinberg, G. L., ‘From Confrontation to Cooperation: Germany and the United States, 1917-1949’ and ‘Germany and Pearl Harbor’ in his Germany, Hitler, and World War II : essays in modern German and world history


Bloch, M., Ribbentrop

Dirksen, H. von, Moscow, Tokyo, London : twenty years of German foreign policy

Doenitz, K., Memoirs : ten years and twenty days

Gafencu, G., The last days of Europe : a diplomatic journey in 1939

Heineman, J. L., Hitler's first foreign minister : Constantin Freiherr von Neurath, diplomat and statesman

Horthy, Admiral, Memoir

Kallay, N., Hungarian premier : a personal account of a nation's struggle in the Second World War

Mannerheim, C, The memoirs of Marshal Mannerheim

Raeder, My life

Ribbentrop, J. von, The Ribbentrop memoirs

Schmidt, P., Hitler's interpreter

Speer ,A., Inside the Third Reich : memoirs

Weitz, J., Hitler's diplomat : Joachim von Ribbentrop

Weizsäcker, E. von, Memoirs of Ernst von Weizsäcker


This list was last updated on 21/09/2021