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LAW3160
Module Reading List

Policing, 2021/22, Semester 1
Dr Anna Barker
A.C.H.Barker@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

Reading for lectures and seminars*:

*NB. You will not be required to complete all of the reading below - mandatory reading for seminars will be outlined by the teaching team on a week-by-week basis.

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Cycle 1: Defining policing and the police role

Defining policing

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J. 2019. The Politics of the Police , 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter One.   

Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. 2015. Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons from Practice, London: Routledge.  

Liebling, A., Maruna, S. and McAra, L. eds. 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 34.    

Newburn, T. 2017. Criminology. 3rd ed. London: Routledge. Chapter 26.     

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. 3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter One. 

Rogers, C. 2017. Plural Policing: Theory and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter One.     

Police role and functions

Banton, M. 2005. The police as peace officers. In: Newburn, T. ed. Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Bayley, D.H. 2005. What do the police do? In: Newburn, T. ed. Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Bittner, E. 2005. Florence Nightingale in pursuit of Willie Sutton: a theory of the police. In: Newburn, T. ed. Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan.

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter Five.

Johnston, L. 2000. Policing Britain. Harlow: Longman. Chapter Three.

Loader, I. 2020. Revisiting the Police Mission. [Online]. Policing Insight Paper 2, The Strategic Review of Policing in England and Wales, The Police Foundation. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available at: https://policingreview.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/insight_paper_2.pdf 

Manning, P. 1977. Police Work. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Millie, A. 2013. The policing task and the expansion (and contraction) of British policing. Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): pp.143-160.

Morgan, R. and Newburn, T. 1997. The Future of Policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chapter Three.

Reiner, R. 2012. In praise of fire brigade policing: contra common sense conceptions of the police role. [Online]. ‘What if’ Series, Howard League for Penal Reform. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available at: https://howardleague.org/publications/in-praise-of-fire-brigade-policing-contra-common-sense-conceptions-of-the-police-role/.

Waddington, P.A.J. 1999. Policing Citizens: Authority and RightsLondon: UCL Press. Chapter One.

Wright, A. 2002. Policing: An Introduction to Concepts and Practice. Cullompton: Willan. Chapter Two.

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Cycle 2: Policing in historical and comparative perspective  

Policing in historical perspective

Churchill, D. 2015. Local initiative, central oversight, provincial perspective: governing police forces in nineteenth-century Leeds. Historical Research. 88(241): pp.458-481.

Churchill, D. 2018. Crime Control and Everyday Life in the Victorian City: The Police and the Public. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Parts 1 and 3.

Emsley, C. 1996. The English Police: A Political and Social History. 3rd ed. Harlow: Longman.

Emsley, C. 2003. The police. In: Bogdanor, V. ed. The British Constitution in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.557-583.

Emsley, C. 2008. The birth and development of the police. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan. pp.72-89.  

Gatrell, V.A.C. 1990. Crime, authority and the policeman-state. In: Thompson, F.M.L. ed. The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750-1950. Volume Three. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.243-310.

Loader, I. and Mulcahy, A. 2003. Policing and the Condition of England: Memory, Politics and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnston, L. 2000. Policing BritainHarlow: Longman. Chapter One.

Newburn, T. 2008. Policing since 1945. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing. 2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan. pp.90-114.

Rawlings, P. 2001. Policing: A Short History. Cullompton: Willan.

Reiner, R. 2010. The Politics of the Police. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapters Two and Three.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. London: Sage. Chapter Two.

Storch, R.D. 1975. The plague of blue locusts: police reform and popular resistance in northern England, 1840-57. International Review of Social History. 20(1): pp.61-90.

Taylor, D. 1997. The new police in nineteenth-century England: crime, conflict and control. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Williams, C.A. 2014. Police Control Systems in Britain, 1775-1975: From Parish Constable to National Computer. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Williams, C.A. 2003. Britain’s police forces: forever removed from democratic control? [Online]. History & Policy. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available from: http://www.historyandpolicy.org/policy-papers/papers/britains-police-forces-forever-removed-from-democratic-control.

Williams, C.A. 2011. Rotten boroughs: the crisis of urban policing and the decline of municipal independence 1914-64. In: Williams, C.A. ed. Police and Policing in the Twentieth Century. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp.3-23.

Policing across the world

Bayley. D.H. 1999. Policing the world stage. In Mawby, R.I. ed. Policing Across the World: Issues for the Twenty-First Century. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapter One.

Bowling, B. 2009. Transnational policing: the globalisation thesis, a typology and a research agenda. Policing3(2): 149-160.

Bowling, B. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2012. Global Policing. London: Sage. Chapters One and Three.

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter Nine.

Loader, I. 2002. Governing european policing: some problems and prospects. Policing & Society. 12(4): pp.291-305.

Marenin, O. 1995. Policing Change, Changing Police: International Perspectives. New York: Garland Publishing. Chapter One.

Mawby, R.I. 1990. Comparative Policing Issues: The British and American Experience in International Perspective. London: Unwin Hyman. Chapter One.   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Mawby, R.I. 1999. Approaches to comparative analysis: the impossibility of becoming an expert on everywhere. In Mawby, R.I. ed. Policing Across the World: Issues for the Twenty-First Century. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapter Two.

Mulcahy, A. 2006. Policing Northern Ireland: Conflict, Legitimacy and Reform. Cullompton: Willan.

O’Reilly. C. 2018. Colonial Policing and the Transnational Legacy: The Global Dynamics of Policing across the Lusophone Community. Abingdon: Routledge. Introduction.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. 3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Eight.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2000. Issues in Transnational Policing. London: Routledge. Introduction.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2006. The constabulary ethic and the transnational condition. In: Goldsmith, A. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. eds. Crafting Transnational Policing. Oxford: Hart. pp.31-72.

Walker, N. 2008. The pattern of transnational policing. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing. 2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan. Chapter Six.

Wood, J. and Kempa, M. 2013. Understanding global trends in policing: explanatory and normative dimensions. In Sheptycki, J.W.E. and Wardak. A. eds. Transnational and Comparative Criminology. London: Glasshouse Press. Chapter 13.

Transnational Policing 

Andreas, P. and Nadelmann, E. 2006. Policing the Globe: Criminalization and Crime Control in International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Andreas, P. 2009. Border Games: Policing the U.S.-Mexico Divide. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Bowling, B. 2010. Policing the Caribbean: Transnational Security Cooperation in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bowling, B. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2012. Global Policing. London: Sage.

Bowling, B. & Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2015. Reflections on legal and political accountability for global policing. In: Lister, S. and Rowe, M. eds. Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge.

Goldsmith, A. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2007. Crafting Transnational Policing: Police Capacity-Building and Global Policing Reform. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Graborsky, P. 2009. Police as international peacekeepers. Policing & Society. 19(2): pp.101-105.

Hills, A. 2009. The possibility of transnational policing. Policing & Society. 19(3): pp.300-317.

Hönke, J. and Müller, M-M. 2016. The Global Making of Policing: Postcolonial Perspectives. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Johnston, L. 2006. Transnational security governance. In Wood, J. and Dupont, B. eds. Democracy, Society and the Governance of Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 33–51

O’Reilly, C. 2010. The transnational security consultancy industry: a case of state-corporate symbiosis.  Theoretical Criminology. 14(2): pp.183-210.

O’Reilly. C. 2018. Colonial Policing and the Transnational Legacy: The Global Dynamics of Policing across the Lusophone Community. Abingdon: Routledge.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2000. Issues in Transnational Policing. London: Routledge.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2002. Accountability across the policing field: towards a general cartography of accountability for post-modern policing. Policing and Society. 12(4): 323-338.

Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2002. In Search of Transnational Policing: Towards a Sociology of Global Policing. Aldershot: Ashgate.

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Cycle 3: The context of contemporary policing 

The political economy of policing I: Neo-liberal turn

Barker, A. and Crawford, A. 2014. Policing urban insecurities through visible patrols: managing public expectations in times of fiscal restraint. In Lippert, R. and Walby, L. eds. Policing Cities: Urban Securitization and Regulation in a 21st Century World. London: Routledge. pp.11-28.

Brain, T. 2013. A Future for Policing in England and Wales. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brogden, M. and Ellison, G. 2012. Policing in an Age of Austerity: A Postcolonial Perspective. London: Routledge.

Brown, J.M. ed. The Future of Policing. London: Routledge.

Downes, D. and Morgan, R. 1997. Dumping the 'hostages to fortune': the politics of law and order. In: Maguire, M. Morgan, R. and Reiner, R. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.87-135.   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Garland, D. 2001. The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Joyce, P. 2010. PolicingLondon: Sage. Chapter Ten.

Loader, I. 1997. Private security and the demand for protection in contemporary Britain. Policing and Society. 7(3): pp.143-162.

 

Reiner, R. 2007. Law and Order: An Honest Citizen’s Guide to Crime and Control. Cambridge: Polity. Chapters 1, 5 and 6. 

Reiner, R. 2013. Who governs? Democracy, plutocracy, science and prophecy in policing. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 13(2): pp.161-180.

Reiner, R. 2017. Political economy, crime, and criminal justice. In: Liebling, A. Maruna, S. and McAra, L. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.116-137.

Taylor, I. 1999. Crime in Context: A Critical Criminology of Market Societies. Cambridge: Polity. Chapters 1, 2 and 7.

Turner, L. 2014. PCCs, neo-liberal hegemony and democratic policing. Safer Communities. 13(1): pp.13-21.

White, A. 2014. Post-crisis policing and public–private partnerships. The British Journal of Criminology. 54(6): pp.1002-1022.

White, A. 2015. The politics of police ‘privatization’: a multiple streams approach. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 15(3): pp.283-299.

Polictical economy of policing II: Policing in austerity

Millie, A. 2013. The policing task and the expansion (and contraction) of British policing. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 13(2): pp.143-160.

Morgan, R. and Smith, D.J. 2017. Delivering more with less: austerity and the politics of law and order. In: Liebling, A. Maruna, S. and McAra, L. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.138-162.    

Bowling, B. 2008. Fair and effective police methods: towards 'good enough' policing. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention. 8(1): pp.17-23

Clarke, R. Hough, M. 1984. Crime and Police Effectiveness. London: Home Office Research Unit.

Garside, R. 2015. Slash police budgets. [Online]. Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available at: https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/resources/slash-police-budgets.

Innes M. 2010. Thinking big. [Online]. Police Review. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available at: https://issuu.com/upsi/docs/innes_-_policing_big_society_pr1211.

Loader, I. 2014. Why do the police matter? Beyond the myth of crime-fighting. In: Brown. J. ed. The Future of Policing. Abingdon: Routledge. pp 40-51.

Loader, I. Muir, R. 2011. Progressive Police and Crime Commissioners: an opportunity for the centre left. [Online]. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available at: www.ippr.org/articles/56/7957.

Manning, P. K. 2014. Policing: privatising and changes in the policing web. In: Brown. J. ed. The Future of Policing. Abingdon: Routledge. pp 23-39.

Millie, A. 2014. What are the police for? Re-thinking policing post-austerity. In Brown. J. ed. The Future of Policing. Abingdon: Routledge. pp 52-63.    

Millie, A. Bullock, K. 2012. Re-imagining policing post-austerity. [Online]. British Academy Review 19: 16–18. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available at: https://www.thebritishacademy.ac.uk/re-imagining-policing-post-austerity.

Millie, A. Bullock, K. 2012. The policing task and the expansion (and contraction) of British policing. Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): 143-160.

Millie, A. Bullock, K. 2013. Policing in a time of contraction and constraint: re-imagining the role and function of contemporary policing. Criminology and Criminal Justice. 13(2): 133-142

Reiner, R. 2012. In Praise of Fire Brigade Policing: Contra Common Sense Conceptions of the Police Role. [Online]. London: The Howard League for Penal Reform. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available at: https://howardleague.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/In-praise-of-fire-brigade-policing.pdf.

Political economy of policing III: Policing during a global health pandemic

Ghaemmaghami, A. Inkpen, R., Charman, S., Ilett, C., Bennett, S., Smith, P. and Newiss, G. 2021. 'Responding to the Public during a Pandemic: Perceptions of ‘Satisfactory’ and ‘Unsatisfactory’ Policing', Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice.  

Police powers 

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 11.

Brown, D. 1997. PACE Ten Years On: A Review of the Research. Home Office Research Study No. 155. London: HMSO.

Cape, E. and Young, R. 2008. eds. Regulating Policing: The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 Past, Present and Future. Oxford: Hart Publishing. pp.191-220. 

Dixon, D. 1997. Law in Policing: Legal Regulation and Police Practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Joyce, P. PolicingLondon: Sage. Chapter Three.  

Liebling, A. Maruna, S. and McAra, L. eds. 2017. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 34.

Pearson, G. and Rowe, M. 2020. Police Street Powers and Criminal JusticeOxford: Hart Publishing.  

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Three.    Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Sanders, A. and Young, R. 2008. Police powers. In: Newburn, T. ed. The Handbook of Policing. 2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan.

Zander M. 1990. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. London: Sweet and Maxwell.   

 

Police discretion

Bronitt, S. and Stenning, P. 2011. Understanding discretion in modern policing. Criminal Law Journal. 35(6): pp.319-332.

Choongh, S. 1998. 'Policing the Dross: A Social Disciplinary Model of Policing'. British Journal of Criminology. 38, pp.623-634. 

College of Policing’s: National Decision Model  

Dixon, D., Bottomley, K., Coleman, C., Gill, M. and Wall, D. 1989. ‘Reality and Rules in the Construction and Regulation of Police Suspicion’. International Journal of the Sociology of Law. 17(2), pp.185-206 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva . 

Gelsthorpe, L. and Padfield, N. 2003. Exercising DiscretionWilan.

Rowe, M. 2007. ‘Rendering Visible the Invisible: Police Discretion, Professionalism and Decision-making’. Policing & Society. 17(3), pp.279-294. 

Police cultures

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter Eight.

Chan, J. 1996. Changing Police Culture. British Journal of Criminology36(1): pp.109-34.

Chan, J. 1997. Changing Police Culture: Policing in a Multicultural Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter Four.     

Cockcroft, T. 2020. Police Occupational Culture. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter Two.     

Cockcroft, T. 2012. Police Culture: Themes and Concepts, London: Routledge.

Cosgrove, F.M. 2016. ‘I wannabe a copper’: the engagement of police community support officers with the dominant police occupational culture. Criminology & Criminal Justice. 16(1): pp.119-38.

Foster, J. 2003. Police Cultures. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Loftus, B. 2009. Police Culture in a Changing WorldOxford: Oxford University Press.  

Loftus, B. 2010. Police occupational culture: classic themes, altered times. Policing and Society. 20(1): pp.1-20. 

McLaughlin, E. 2007. The New Policing. London: Sage. Part Six.

Newburn T. 2008. ed. Policing: Key Readings. Cullompton: Willan. Part C.

O’Neill, M. Marks, M. and Singh, A.M. 2007. Police Occupational Culture: New Debates and Directions. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Reussi-Ianni, E. and Ianni, F.A.J. 1983. Street cops and management cops: the two cultures of policing. In: Punch, M. ed. Control in the Police OrganizationCambridge, MIT.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Six. 

Waddington, P. 1999b. Police (canteen) sub-culture: an appreciation. British Journal of Criminology. 39(2): pp.286-308.

Westmarland, L. 2008. Police cultures. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing. 2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan.

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Cycle 4: Contemporary policing in practice 

Policing women crime victims of violence - domestic abuse and rape

ACPO. 2009. Tackling Perpetrators of Violence Against Women and Girls – ACPO Review for the Home Secretary. London: ACPO. 

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter Six.      

Brunger, M., Tong, S. and Martin, D. 2015. Introduction to Policing Research: Taking Lessons from Practice, London: Routledge. Chapter  Nine.    

Cockcroft, T. 2020. Police Occupational Culture. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter Four. 

College of Policing APP. Domestic Abuse. [Online]. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available at: https://www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/major-investigation-and-public-protection/domestic-abuse/.

College of Policing. n.d. Crime Reduction Toolkit. [Online]. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available at: https://whatworks.college.police.uk/toolkit/Pages/Toolkit.aspx.

Dobash, R.E. and Dobash, R.P. 1998. Rethinking Violence Against Women, 1880-1960. London: Sage.

Gadd, D. 2017. Domestic violence. In: Liebling, A. Maruna, S. and McAra, L. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.663-684.    

Groves, N. and Thomas, T. 2014. Domestic Violence and Criminal Justice. New York: Routledge. 

Hanmer, J. Radford, J. and Stanko, E.A. 1989. Women, Violence and Policing. London: Routledge. 

Hester, M. 2006. Making it through the criminal justice system: attrition and domestic violence. Social Policy and Society. 5(1): pp.79-90.

HM Government. 2018. Transforming the Response to Domestic Abuse (Government Consultation)London: HM Government.

HMIC. 2014. Everyone’s Business: Improving the Police Response to Domestic Abuse. London: HMIC.

House of Commons Home Affairs Committee. 2018. Domestic Abuse, Ninth Report of Session 2017–19. London: House of Commons.

House of Commons Home Affairs Committee. 2018. Domestic Abuse, Ninth Report of Session 2017–19. London: House of Commons.

House of Lords House of Commons Joint Committee on the Draft Domestic Abuse Bill. 2019. Draft Domestic Abuse Bill: First Report of Session 2017–19. [Online]. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available from: https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/joint-select/draft-domestic-abuse-bill/. Chapters 1, 2 and 7.  

Hoyle, C. 1998. Negotiating Domestic Violence: Police, Criminal Justice and VictimsOxford: Oxford University Press. 

Hoyle, C. and Sanders, A. 2000. Police response to domestic violence. British Journal of Criminology. 40(1): pp.14-36.

Joyce, P. 2010. PolicingLondon: Sage. Chapter Seven.  

Lawrence, S. Strang, H. and O’Connor, D. 2017. Introduction—key facts about domestic abuse: lessons from eight studies. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing. 1: pp.59–63.

Reiner, R. 1978. The Blue Coated Worker. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Richards, L. Letchford, S. and Stratton, S. 2013. Policing Domestic Violence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. 3rd ed. London: Sage. pp.126-8

Sheptycki, J. 1993. Innovations in Policing Domestic Violence. Aldershot: Avebury.

Lawrence, S. Strang, H. and O’Connor, D. 2017. Introduction—key facts about domestic abuse: lessons from eight tudies. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing. 1: pp.59–63.

Stark, E. 2012. Looking beyond domestic violence: policing coercive control. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations. 12(2): pp.199-217.

The Police Foundation. 2014. Policing Domestic Abuse. [Online]. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available at: http://www.police-foundation.org.uk/2017/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/domestic_abuse_briefing_final.pdf.

Westmarland, N. Thorlby, K. Wistow, J. and Gadd, D. 2019. Domestic Violence: Evidence Review. [Online]. N8 Policing Research Partnership. [Accessed 10 September 2020]. Available from: https://n8prp.org.uk/about_us/evidence-reviews/.   

Winter, R. 2009. Domestic violence. In: Wakefield, A. and Fleming, J. eds. The Sage Dictionary of Policing. London: Sage. 

Policing ethnic minority groups - stop and search

Bland, N. Miller, J. Quinton, P. Willis, C. 2000. Upping the PACE? An evaluation of the recommendations of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry on stops and searches. Police Research Series Paper 128. London: Home Office.  

Bowling, B. and Marks, E. 2017. The rise and fall of suspicionless searches. King's Law Journal. 28(1): pp.62-88. 

Bowling, B. Parmar, A. and Phillips, C. 2008. Policing minority ethnic communities. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan. pp.611-41.  

Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. 2007. Disproportionate and discriminatory: reviewing the evidence on police stop and search. Modern Law Review, 70(1): 236-961.

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter Six.      

Bradford, B. 2017. Stop and Search and Police Legitimacy, Abingdon: Routlege. Chapter Four.     

Bradford, B. and Loader, I. 2016.  Police, crime and order: the case of stop and search. In: Bradford, B. Jauregui, B. Loader, I. and Steinberg, J. The Sage Handbook of Global Policing. London: Sage. Chapter Fifteen.     

Choongh, S. 2002. Police investigative powers. In: McConville, M. and Wilson, G. eds. The Handbook of The Criminal Justice Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Choongh, S. 1997. Policing as Social Discipline. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cockcroft, T. 2020. Police Occupational Culture. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter Four. 

College of Policing. 2014. National Decision Model. [Online]. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available from: http://www.app.college.police.uk/app-content/national-decision-model/the-national-decision-model/.  

Desol, R. and Shiner, M. 2006. Regulating stop and search: a challenge for police and community relations in England and Wales. Critical Criminology. 14(3): pp.241-63.

Delsol, R. and Shiner, M. 2015. eds. Stop and Search: The Anatomy of a Power. London: Palgrave Macmillan.  

Epp, C.R. Maynard-Moody, R. and Haider-Markel, D.P. 2014. Pulled Over: How Police Stops Define Race and CitizenshipChicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Fielding, N. Norris, C. Kemp, C. and Fielding, J. 1992. Black and blue: an analysis of the influence of race on being stopped by the police. British Journal of Sociology. 43(2): pp.207-24.

Joyce, P. 2010. Policing. London: Sage. Chapter Seven.

Lennon, G. and Murray, K. 2018. Under-regulated and unaccountable? Explaining variation in stop and search rates in Scotland, England and Wales. Policing and Society. 28(2): pp.157-174.

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. eds. The Accountability of Policing. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapter Two.

Miller, J. Quinton, P. and Bland, N. 2000. Police Stops and Searches: Lessons from a Programme of Research. London: Home Office.   

Pearson, G. and Rowe, M. 2020. Police Street Powers and Criminal Justice. Oxford: Hart Publishing. Chapter Six.    

Phillips, C. and Bowling, B. 2017. Ethnicities, racism, crime, and criminal justice. In: Liebling, A. Maruna, S. and McAra, L. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp.190-212.    

Quinton, P. 2015. Race disproportionality and officer decision-making. In: Delsol, R. and Shiner, M. eds. Stop and Search. The Anatomy of a Power Power. London: Palgrave Macmillan.    

Quinton, P. 2011. The formation of suspicions: police stop and search practices in England and Wales. Policing and Society. 21(4): pp.357-368.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Three and Six.

Sanders, A. Young, R. and Burton, M. 2010. Criminal Justice. 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter Two.

Tiratelli, M. Quinton, P. and Bradford, B. 2018. Does stop and search deter crime? Evidence from ten years of London-wide data. British Journal of Criminology. 58(5): pp.1212–1231.

Weber, L. and Bowling, B. 2011. Stop and search in global context. Policing and Society. 21(4): pp.353-56.

Policing ethnic minority groups - hate crime 

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2021/oct/12/hate-crimes-in-england-and-wales-up-9-since-covid-pandemic-began   Hall, N. 2012. Policing hate crime in London and New York City: Some reflections on the factors influencing effective law enforcement, service provision, and public trust and confidence. International Review of Victimology 18, 73   2018 HMICFRS Report ‘Understanding the difference: The initial police response to hate crime’ available < https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmicfrs/wp-content/uploads/understanding-the-difference-the-initial-police-response-to-hate-crime.pdf>   Maynard, W., & Read, T. 1997. Policing racially motivated incidents. Crime Detection and Prevention Series Paper 84. London, UK: Home Office Police Research Group   Macpherson, W., 1999. The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson, Presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for the Home Department available https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/277111/4262.pdf   Bowling, B., 1999. Violent Racism: Victimisation, policing and social context. Oxford, UK: OUP   Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J. 2009. Hate Crime: Impact, causes and Responses.Los Angeles, CA: Sage   Myers, W., Lantz, B. 2020. Reporting Racist Hate Crime Victimization to the Police in the United States and the United Kingdom: A Cross-National Comparison. 60(4) British Journal of Criminology 1034-1055   Chakraborti, N. 2009. A Glass Half Full? Assessing Progress in the Policing of Hate Crime. 3(2) Policing 121-128   Walters, M.A., Brown, R, Wiedlitzka, S. 2016. Preventing Hate Crime: Emerging practices and recommendations for the improved management of criminal justice interventions. Final Report Sussex Crime Research Centre and The International Network for Hate Studies   Burnap, P., Williams, M.L. 2016. Us and them: identifying cyber hate on Twitter across multiple protected characteristics. 5(11) EJP Data Science   Lumsden, K., Harmer, E. 2019. Online Othering: Exploring Digital Violence and Discrimination on the Web. Springer.   Lielinger, V., Peterson, S. 2007. Policing Hate Crime in London. 51(2) American Behavioral Scientist 196-204   Banks, J. 2010. Regulating Hate Speech Online. 24(3) International Review of Law, Computers and Technology 233-239   Barlett, J., Miller, C., Crump, J., Middleton, L. 2013. Policing in an Information Age available https://indianstrategicknowledgeonline.com/web/DEMOS_Policing_in_an_Information_Age_v1.pdf?__cf_chl_jschl_tk__=peQ_9GvIZ.GtQm4Obzdb0JN6anh555VGmHgb9bKTaio-1636111028-0-gaNycGzNCBE

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Cycle 5: Plural policing and accountability

Policing the police I: Overview of accountability

Bowling, B. Reiner, R. and Sheptycki, J.W.E. 2019. The Politics of the Police. 5th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 11.      

Jones, T. 2008. The accountability of policing. In: Newburn, T. ed. The Handbook of Policing. 2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan. pp.693-724.

Jones, T. Newburn, T. and Smith, D.J. 1996. Policing and the idea of democracy. The British Journal of Criminology. 36(2): pp.182-198.

Joyce, P. 2010. Policing. London: Sage. Chapter Six.  

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. Electing police and crime commissioners in England and Wales: prospecting for the democratisation of policing. Policing & Society. 25(4): pp.358-377.    

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge.  

Rowe, M. 2020. Policing the Police: Challenges of Democracy and Accountability. Bristol: Policy Press.  

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. 3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Four.

Policing the police II: complaints and discipline

Beggs, J. and Davies, H. 2018. Police Misconduct, Complaints, and Public Regulation2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

College of Policing. 2014. Code of Ethics. [Online]. [Accessed 9 September 2020]. Available from: http://www.college.police.uk/What-we-do/Ethics/Documents/Code_of_Ethics.pdf.

Dixon, B. and Smith, G. 1998. Laying down the law: the police, the courts and legal accountability. International Journal of the Sociology of Law. 26: pp.419-35.

Independent Office for Police Conduct - contains many resources, including performance statistics, reports into specific complaints, and links to other agencies and useful police-related resources and organisations. https://www.policeconduct.gov.uk/.

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. eds. The Accountability of Policing. Abingdon: Routledge. Chapter Three.

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Four.

Rowe, M. 2020. Policing the Police: Challenges of Democracy and Accountability. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter Four.     

Savage, S.P. 2013. Thinking independence: calling the police to account through the independent investigation of police complaints. The British Journal of Criminology. 53(1): pp.94-112.

Seneviratne, M. 2004. Policing the police in the United Kingdom. Policing and Society14(4): pp.329–347

Smith, G. 2009. Why don’t more people complain against the police? European Journal of Criminology. 6: 249-266.

Smith, G 2006. A most enduring problem: police complaints reform in England and Wales. Journal of Social Policy35(1): pp.121-141.

Torrible, C. 2016. Reconceptualising the police complaints process as a site of contested legitimacy claims. Policing and Society. 28(4): pp.464-479.

Policing the police III: Police and Crime Commissioners

Bainbridge, L. 2021. Police and Crime Commissioners: new agents of crime and justice policy transfer? Policing and Society. 31(6), pp.721-734.

Berman, G., Coleman, C., and Taylor, M. 2012. Police and Crime Commissioner Elections, 2012. House of Commons Library. Research Paper 12/73.

Caless, B. and Owens, J. 2016. Police and crime commissioners: the transformation of police accountability. Policy Press.  

Chambers, S.J., 2014. Who is policing the police and crime Commissioners. Safer communities, 13 (1), 32–39. 

Crowhurst, L., 2016. Reducing crime through innovation: the role of PCCs. The police foundation, barrow cadbury fund, 1– 11.  

Dempsey, N., 2016. Police and crime Commissioner elections: 2016. House of commons library. briefing paper CBP07595, 1– 38.

Joyce, P., 2011. Police reform: from police authorities to police and crime commissioners. Safer communities, 10 (4), 5–13. Kirkland, C., 2015. PCC elections as a ‘failed experiment’: what lessons can be learned? The political quarterly, 86 (3), 403–410.

Lister, S., 2013. The new politics of the police: police and crime commissioners and the ‘operational independence’ of the police. Policing, 7 (3), 239–247.

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. Electing police and crime commissioners in England and Wales: prospecting for the democratisation of policing. Policing & Society. 25(4), pp.358-377. 

Lister, S. and Rowe, M. 2015. Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge. Chapters 7 & 10 (e-book) 

Loader, I. and Muir, R., 2016. Embracing police and crime commissioners: lessons from the past, directions for the future. The police foundation, 1–6.

Loveday, B., 2018. Police and crime commissioners: Developing and sustaining a new model of police governance in England and Wales. International journal of police science & management, 20 (1), 28–37.

Loveday, B. and Roberts, S., 2019. A time of change: the expanding role of police and crime Commissioners in local criminal justice delivery. In: A. Pycroft and D. Gough, ed. Multi-agency working in criminal justice. Bristol: Policy Press, 41–50.

Mawby, R.I. and Smith, K., 2013. Accounting for the police: The new police and crime commissioners in England and Wales. The police journal, 86 (2), 143–157.

Newburn, T., 2012. Police and crime commissioners: The Americanization of policing or a very British reform? International journal of law, crime and justice, 40 (1), 31–46.

Raine, J.W. and Keasey, P., 2012. From police authorities to police and crime commissioners: might policing become more publically accountable? International journal of emergency services, 1 (2), 122–134.

Sampson, F., 2012. ‘Hail to the Chief?’ – How far does the introduction of elected police commissioners herald a US-style politicization of policing for the UK? Policing, 6 (1), 4–15.

Wood, D.A. 2016. The importance of liberal values in policing: police and crime commissioners, police independence and the spectre of illiberal democracy. Policing & Society. 26(2), pp.148-164. 

Policing beyond the police I and II: forms

Crawford, A. 2008. Plural policing in the UK: policing beyond the police. In: Newburn, T. ed. The Handbook of Policing2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan. pp.147-181.

Crawford, A. 2013. The police, policing, and the future of the 'extended police family’. In: Brown, J. ed. The Future of Policing. London: Routledge, pp.173:190.

Crawford, A. and Lister, S. 2004. The Extended Policing Family: Visible Patrols in Residential Areas. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

Crawford, A. Lister, S. Blackburn, S. and Burnett, J. 2005. Plural Policing: The Mixed economy of Visible Security Patrols. Bristol: Policy Press. Chapter Two.

Jones, T. and Newburn, T. 2006. eds. Plural Policing: A Comparative PerspectiveAbingdon: Routledge. Chapter One.    

Jones, T. van Steden, R. and Boutellier, H. 2009. Pluralisation of policing in England and Wales and the Netherlands: exploring similarity and difference. Policing and Society. 19(3): pp.282-299.

Rogers, C. 2016. Plural Policing: Theory and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press. Part One.     

Rowe, M. 2018. Introduction to Policing. 3rd ed. London: Sage. Chapter Ten.

van Stokkom, B. Terpstra, J. and Spreeuwers, R. 2013. Who Patrols the Streets? An International Comparative Study of Plural PolicingThe Hague: Eleven International Publishing. Chapters One and Three.

 Policing beyond the police III: accountability

Lister, S. Jones, T. 2015. Plural policing and the challenge of democratic accountability. In: Lister S. and Rowe, M. eds. Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge. Chapter Ten.    

Loader, I. 2000. Plural policing and democratic governance. Social & Legal Studies. 9(3): pp.323-345.

Loader, I. and White, A. 2015. How can we better align private security with the public interest? Towards a civilizing model of regulation. Regulation & Governance. 11(2): pp.166-184.    

Stenning, P.C. 2009. Governance and accountability in a plural policing environment: the story so far. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice3(1): pp.22-33.

Stenning, P.C. 2000. Powers and accountability of private police. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 8(3): pp.325-352.

White, A. 2015. Private security and the politics of accountability. In: Lister, S. and Rowe, M. eds. Accountability of Policing. London: Routledge. pp.173-191.

White, A. 2013. The new political economy of private security. Theoretical Criminology. 17: pp.85-101.

White, A. 2014. Post-crisis policing and public–private partnerships. British Journal of Criminology. 54(6): pp.1002-1022.

Zedner, L. 2006. Liquid security: managing the market for crime control. Criminal Justice. 6(3): pp.267-288. 

Unterman, K. Uncle Sam’s Policemen: The Pursuit of Fugitives Across Borders. London: Harvard University Press.  

Walker, N. 2008. The pattern of transnational policing. In: Newburn, T. ed. Handbook of Policing. 2nd ed. Cullompton: Willan. pp.119-146.

 

 

Assessment Advice 

Specific resources can be found on the presentation slides. The following provide good support on academic writing for better essays:

Beirne, P. and Hill, J. 1991. Comparative Criminology: An Annotated Bibliography (Research and Bibliographical Guides in Criminal Justice), Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. Chapter Four.   Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Crème, P. and Lea, M.R. 2008. Writing at University: A Guide for Students. 3rd ed. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Cottrell, S. 2011. Critical Thinking Skills: Developing Effective Analysis and Argument. 2nd ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 

Day, T. 2013. Success in Academic Writing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Godfrey, J. 2013. The Student Phrase Book: Vocabulary for Writing at University. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Greetham, B. 2008. How to Write Better Essays. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hargreaves, S. and Crabb, J. 2016. Study Skills for Students with Dyslexia: Support for Specific Learning Differences (SpLDs). 3rd ed. London: Sage.  

Warburton, N. 2006. The Basics of Essay Writing. Abingdon: Routledge.    

 

This list was last updated on 23/11/2021