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CLAS1400
Roman World Reading List - your complete guide to primary sources and secondary reading for this module.

The Roman World: An Introduction, 2021/22
Dr Henry Clarke
h.h.b.clarke@leeds.ac.uk
Tutor information is taken from the Module Catalogue

General Reading

Below are some general books on Roman history which cover all or part of the period we will be studying in this module. If you wish to buy a book to support your work on this module, we recommend choosing an item from this section of the reading list.

Overviews of Roman history

Dillon, M. and Garland, L. 2021. The ancient Romans: a social and political history from the early Republic to the death of Augustus. Abingdon; New York: Routledge    

Dillon, M. and Garland, L. Ancient Rome : social and historical documents from the early Republic to the death of Augustus(London, 2015). 

Le Glay, M. 4th edn. A History of Rome. (Malden MA, 2009)

Kamm, A., The Romans: an introduction (London, 1995)

Kamm, A. and Graham, A. 3rd edition. The Romans: An Introduction (London 2015)

Kamm, A. and Graham, A. 4th edition. The Romans: An Introduction (London 2020)

Potter, D. Ancient Rome : a new history (London, 2014)

Potter, D. 2019. 3rd edition. Rome in the Ancient World. London: Thames & Hudson. 

Potter, D. Rome in the ancient world : from Romulus to Justinian (London 2009)

Renshaw, J. 2nd edn. In Search of the Romans. (London, 2019)    

Scullard, H.H., From the Gracchi to Nero: a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68., ed. 5 (London, 1982)

Republican period only

Arena, V., Prag, J.R.W. and Stiles, A. 2022. A Companion to the Political Culture of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.  

Beard, M., and Crawford, M. Rome in the late Republic : problems and interpretations (London, 1985)

Crawford, M.H., Roman Republic (London, 1978 / 1992)

Dillon, M. and Garland, L. eds. Ancient Rome : from the early Republic to the assassination of Julius Caesar (London, 2005).      

Flower, H.I. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (Cambridge, 2004).

Mouritsen, H. 2017. Politics in the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic (Oxford, 2006)  

Shotter, D., The fall of the Roman Republic (London, 1994)

Steel, C. The End of the Roman Republic, 146 - 44 BC (Edinburgh, 2013)

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London)  

Imperial period only

Alston, R., Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 A source-based approach (London, 1998)  

Goodman, M., The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London, 1997)

Potter, D.S. A Companion to the Roman Empire (Oxford, 2006)  

Wells, C.M., The Roman Empire., ed. 2 (London, 1993)

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General Reference

These books are useful points of reference for looking up factual information relating to this module (e.g. people, dates, places etc.) and some of the broader themes it covers:

Edward Bispham, Thomas Harrison and Brian A. Sparkes (2006), The Edinburgh companion to ancient Greece and Rome (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider, eds. (2002-) Brill's New Pauly : encyclopaedia of the ancient world (Leiden: Brill)

T.J. Cornell & J. Matthews, Atlas of the Roman world (Oxford, 1982)

Fullerton, M. 2020. Art and Archaeology of the Roman World. London: Thames & Hudson.

B.K. Harvey. Daily Life in Ancient Rome : A Sourcebook . (Cambridge, 2016).    

S. Hornblower & A.J. Spawforth, The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford, 1996: 3rd edition)

T. Parkin & A. Pomperoy. Roman social history : a sourcebook . (London, 2007).  

John Roberts, ed. (2007), The Oxford dictionary of the classical world (Oxford: Oxford University Press)

Graham Shipley, ed. (2006) The Cambridge dictionary of classical civilization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

Richard J.A. Talbert, ed. (1988), Atlas of classical history (London: Routledge).

Timothy Venning (2011), A chronology of the Roman Empire (Continuum)

Barchiesi, A. and Scheidel, W. eds. (2010) The Oxford handbook of Roman studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).  

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Class Readings

Below are weekly readings from primary sources which relate to lectures and seminars for the first half of this module. You should read the passage indicated as preparation for each lecture. You will find more information about each passage, and questions to help you get the most out of reading it, in the 'Module reading' area of the VLE page. See the folder entitled 'Class readings'.

For lecture 2 – Plutarch, Life of Cicero 1-11 (Cicero’s career up to his victory in the election for the consulship).

For lecture 3 - Plutarch, Life of Pompey 24-30 (Pompey is awarded special military commands to fight against the pirates and then Mithridates).

For lecture 4 - Plutarch, Life of Caesar 1-15 (Caesar's career up to the beginning of his campaigns in Gaul).

For seminar 1 - Julius Caesar, Civil War 3.85-99  and Appian, Civil Wars 2.66-82 (two different accounts of the battle between Caesar and Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BC)

For lecture 7 - Cassius Dio, 53.1-18 (Dio's account and reconstruction of a pivotal speech in the career of Octavian / Augustus)

For lecture 8 - Tacitus, Annals 1.1-15 (A brief summary of Augustus' career, and an account of the first transition from one emperor to another)

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Part 1 – Roman Political History

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Lecture 01 - Roman History: the People and the Sources

E. Bispham (2006), 'Literary sources' in Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx, ed. A companion to the Roman Republic (Malden, MA: Blackwell): 29-50.  

M.H. Crawford (1978/92), Roman Republic – chapter 1, ‘The Sources’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

M.H. Crawford, ed. (1983), Sources for ancient history; Cambridge

A. Feldherr, ed. (2009), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Historians (Cambridge).  

C. Hedrick (2006), Ancient history : monuments and documents (Malden and Oxford)

Andrew Lintott (2008) Cicero as evidence : a historian's companion ( Oxford: Oxford University Press)

C.B.R. Pelling, Plutarch and history : eighteen studies (London 2002)

D. Potter (1998), Literary texts and the Roman historian (London)

Chris Howgego (1995), Ancient history from coins (London: Routledge)

Clare Rowan (2018) From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC-AD 14) : using coins as sources (Cambridge: CUP)

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Lecture 02 - Cicero's Career and Roman Politics

Cicero

Henriette van der Blom (2010), Cicero's role models : the political strategy of a newcomer (Oxford: OUP)

Anthony Everitt (2001), Cicero : a turbulent life (London: John Murray)

M. Fuhrmann (1992), Cicero and the Roman Republic Chapter 7, ‘The battle for the consulship’ (pp. 55-61) is available as an online course reading in the VLE 

C. Habicht (1990), Cicero the politician

W.K. Lacey and B.W.J.G. Wilson (1978), Res publica: Roman politics and society according to Cicero (London : Bristol Classical Press)

W.K. Lacey (1978), Cicero and the end of the Roman Republic (London: Hodder and Stoughton)

Andrew Lintott (2008) Cicero as evidence : a historian's companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press). Xhapter 10, 'Candidature and consulship' (pp. 129-48) is available as an online course reading in the VLE.  

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapter 15, 'Consulship of Cicero' is available as an online course reading in the VLE 

J.M. May (2002), 'Cicero: his life and career' in Brill's companion to Cicero : oratory and rhetoric (Leiden, Boston: Brill).  

Thomas N. Mitchell (1979), Cicero : the ascending years (New Haven; London: Yale University Press).

Thomas N. Mitchell ( 1991) Cicero : the senior statesman (New Haven; London: Yale University Press)

E. Rawson (1975), Cicero : a portrait (London: Allen Lane). Chapter 4, ‘The bid for the consulship’ (pp. 44-59) is available as an online course reading in the VLE.

H.H. Scullard (1964), 'The political career of a novus homo ' in T.A. Dorey, ed. Cicero (London: Routledge). Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

D.R. Shackleton Bailey (1971), Cicero ( London: Duckworth)

D.R. Shackleton Bailey, ed. (1980) Cicero: Select letters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Catherine Steel (2005), Reading Cicero : genre and performance in late republican Rome ( London: Duckworth).

D. Stockton (1971), Cicero : a political biography (Oxford: OUP). Chapter 4, ‘Consul designatus’ (pp. 64-83), is available as an online course reading in the VLE.

T. Wiedemann (1994), Cicero and the end of the Roman Republic (London: Bristol Classical Press).

Pseudo-Quintus Tullius Cicero, (2002) Handbook of Electioneering. FROM: Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Letters to Quintus and Brutus ; Letter fragments ; Letter to Octavian ; Invectives ; Handbook of electioneering. pp.395-445. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Available as Online Course Reading in Minerva

The Republican political system

Arena, V., Prag, J.R.W. and Stiles, A. 2022. A Companion to the Political Culture of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell - especially: Part III chapters 15, 16 and 18; Part IV chapters 22, 25 and 26; and Part V chapters 28, 29, 31-32 - this is a good book to return to regularly during our study of the politics of the Roman Republic, so perhaps choose a chapter to look at now and then return to it during the course of the module.

T. Corey Brennan (2004), 'Power and process under the Republican 'constitution'' in Flower, H.I. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (Cambridge): 31-65 (chapter 2).  

M. H. Crawford (1978/92), Roman Republic - chapters 3, 7 and appendix 1. Appendix 1 available as an online course reading in the VLE.

P. Garnsey and R. Saller (1987) , The Roman Empire : economy, society and culture, ( London : Duckworth) – chapter 8 (on patronage). Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

M. Goodman (1997), The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London) – ch. 4, 'The political language of Rome.'   

A. Lintott (1999) The constitution of the Roman Republic ( Oxford: Clarendon Press )

F.G. Millar (1984), 'The Political Character of the Classical Roman Republic', The journal of Roman studies.. 74: 1-19

F.G.B. Millar (1998), The crowd in Rome in the late Republic

H. Mouritsen (2017) Politics in the Roman Republic (Cambridge)  

Claude Nicolet (1980) The world of the citizen in republican Rome

J.A. North (1990), ‘Democratic Politics in Republican Rome’, in Past & Present. 126: 3-21

Jeremy Paterson (1985), 'Politics in the late Republic', in T.P. Wiseman, ed. Roman political life, 90 B.C.-A.D. 69. (Exeter: University of Exeter)

J.R. Patterson (2000), Political life in the city of Rome (London: Bristol Classical Press).

Francisco Pina Polo (2011), The consul at Rome : the civil functions of the consuls in the Roman Republic (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx, ed. (2006), A companion to the Roman Republic (Malden, MA: Blackwell) – see chapter 12 by J.A. North ('The constitution of the Roman Republic'), chapter 18 by A. Yakobson ('Popular power in the Roman Republic') and chapter 19 by E. Deniaux ('Patronage').  

Rachel F. Vishnia (2012), Roman elections in the age of Cicero : society, government, and voting (London: Routledge)

T.P. Wiseman (1985) 'Competition and co-operation', in T.P. Wiseman, ed. Roman political life, 90 B.C.-A.D. 69.. (Exeter: University of Exeter) Available in Online Course Readings   

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Lecture 03 - The Rise of Pompey

Pompey

P. A. Brunt (1971), Social conflicts in the Roman Republic - pp. 112-140. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

P. Greenhalgh (1980/1), Pompey: the Roman Alexander

E. S. Gruen (1974), The last generation of the Roman Republic – pp. 62-74. Available as an Online Course Reading in the VLE.

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 12 and 13.    

J. A. Rosenblitt (2019), Rome after Sulla. London: Bloomsbury.

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. - chapter 5, 'The rise of Pompey' (pp. 85-104).   

D. Shotter (2005), The fall of the Roman Republic (London) - chapter 4 'The Rise and Domination of Pompey' and chapter 5 'The 'Three-Headed' Monster and The Slide to Civil War' (available as an online course reading in the VLE ).  

R. Seager (1969 / 2002) Pompey the Great : a political biography (Oxford).

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - chapters 3 and 4.  

Given that Pompey makes use of the Tribunes of the Plebs during his career, and this hints at the potential power of the citizen body, I also recommend looking at chapters 19, 22 and 30 in the following:

Arena, V., Prag, J.R.W. and Stiles, A. A Companion to the Political Culture of the Roman Republic. (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell 2022)

The army and military campaigning

R. Davies (1989) , Service in the Roman Army

E. Gabba (1977) , Republican Rome: The Army and the Allies (Oxford)

L. Keppie (1984 / 1998), The Making of the Roman Army: from Republic to empire

E. Badian (1968) Roman Imperialism in the Late Republic (Oxford)

W.V. Harris (1979), War and Imperialism in Republican Rome (Oxford)

Erdkamp, P. 2007. A companion to the Roman army. (Oxford)  

Potter, D. 2011. The Roman Army. In: Peachin, M. ed. The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World . New York: OUP, pp.516-34.  

Morley, N. 2010. The Roman Empire: Roots of Imperialism . London: Pluto Press.

I also recommend looking at chapter 17 in the following for a discussion of armies and political culture:

Arena, V., Prag, J.R.W. and Stiles, A. A Companion to the Political Culture of the Roman Republic. (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell 2022)

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Lecture 04 - The Rise of Caesar

Julius Caesar

J.A. Crook, A. Lintott and E. Rawson, eds.(1994), The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 9 chapter 10 by P. Wiseman, pp. 408-423.  

E. Bradford (1984), Julius Caesar : the pursuit of power (London)

F.Cairns and E.Fantham, eds, (2003), Caesar against liberty? : perspectives on his autocracy (Cambridge)

L. Canfora (2007), Julius Caesar: the people's dictator (Edinburgh).

M. Griffin (2009), A companion to Julius Caesar (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell) – see esp. chapter 2 by E. Badian ('From the Iulii to Caesar'), chapter 3 by E.S. Gruen ('Caesar as a Politician') and chapter 4 by J.T. Ramsey ('The Proconsular Years').   

L. Grillo and C. B. Krebs, eds., (2018), The Cambridge companion to the writings of Julius Caesar (Cambridge).

E. S. Gruen (1974), The Last Generation of the Roman Republic ( Berkeley ) : chs 3 & 11

A. Kamm (2006) Julius Caesar: a life (London)

R. Garland (2003), Julius Caesar (Bristol)

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 16, 17 and 18.    

C. Meier (1995), Caesar (London)

R. Morstein-Marx. 2021. Julius Caesar and the Roman People. (Cambridge), especially chapters 1-4.

J. Sabben-Clare (1971), Caesar and Roman politics, 60-50 B.C. .

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. - pp. 105-134.

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - chapter 6. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

S. Weinstock (1971), Divus Julius (Oxford)

Z. Yavetz (1983), Julius Caesar and his public image (London)

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Seminar 01 - The Battle of Pharsalus

Please note that the passages from Julius Caesar and Appian are also linked from the 'Seminars' folder on the module's Minerva page. You will also find some of the secondary material for this seminar available in the ' Online Course Readings Folder'.

Primary texts (both provided on the seminar worksheet)

Julius Caesar, The civil wars. 3.85-99 (full text also available online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Caesar/Civil_Wars/3D*.html#85 )

Appian, The civil wars. 2.66-82 (full text also available online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/2*.html#66 )

The events of Pharsalus

L. Canfora (2007), Julius Caesar : the people's dictator (Berkeley: University of California Press) – chapter 21, ‘From the Rubicon to Pharsalus’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

P. Greenhalgh (1981), Pompey : the Republican prince (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson) – chapter 9, ‘Pharsalia’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

N. Fields (2009), Warlords of Republican Rome : Caesar versus Pompey (Barnsley: Pen and Sword) – chapter 7. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

A. Kamm (2006), Julius Caesar : a life (Oxford: Routledge) – chapter 7, ‘The Dictator’  

Potter (2009), Rome in the ancient world : from Romulus to Justinian (London): 149-56.

R. Seager (1979 / 2002), Pompey the Great : a political biography (Oxford: Blackwell) – chapter 13, ‘The Civil War’. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - pp. 181-187.

Caesar as an author

William W. Batstone and Cynthia Damon (2006), Caesar's Civil War (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press)

Grillo and C. B. Krebs, eds., (2018), The Cambridge companion to the writings of Julius Caesar (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

R.M. Ogilvie (1982), ‘Caesar’ in E.J. Kenney and W.V. Clausen, eds. The Cambridge history of classical literature. Vol. 2, Latin literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 281-5.Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

K. Raaflaub (2009), ‘The Bellum civile ’ in M. Griffin, ed., A companion to Julius Caesar (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell): 175-91. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

Appian as an author

G.S. Bucher (2000), ‘The Origins, Program, and Composition of Appian’s Roman History ’ in Transactions of the American Philological Association. 130: 411-458.

G.S. Bucher (2005), ‘Fictive Elements in Appian’s Pharsalus Narrative’, in Phoenix. 59: 50-76.  

Basic background information about Appian and his methods at Livius.org: https://www.livius.org/sources/content/appian/ 

Introduction to the Loeb edition of Appian’s History by Horace White (1912-13): http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Introduction*.html

Provincial Administration

Richardson, J, (1994) The administration of the empire. FROM: Crook, J, The Cambridge ancient history. Vol.9, The last age of the Roman Republic, 146-43 B.C.. pp.564-598. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available as Online Course Reading in Minerva

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Lecture 05 - The Civil War and Caesar's Dictatorship

P.A. Brunt (1988) The fall of the Roman Republic and related essays – pp. 489-498. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

M. H. Crawford (1978), Roman Republic (London; 2nd ed.1992) - chapter 15. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

J.A. Crook, A. Lintott and E. Rawson, eds. (1994) The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 9 - chapter 11 by E. Rawson, pp. 424-67  

N. Fields (2009), Warlords of Republican Rome : Caesar versus Pompey (Barnsley: Pen and Sword)

E. Flaig. 2022. The Year 52 BC. In: Arena, V., Prag, J.R.W. and Stiles, A. eds. A Companion to the Political Culture of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 568-582.

M. Griffin (2009), A companion to Julius Caesar (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell) – see esp. chapter 5 by J.F. Gardner ('The Dictator') and chapter 6 by A. Lintott ('The Assassination').  

E. S. Gruen (1974), The last generation of the Roman Republic – pp. 312-356 (chapter 11)

Andrew Lintott (2008) Cicero as evidence : a historian's companion (Oxford: Oxford University Press) – chapter 16, 'The mediator and the partisans' (pp. 281-300) and chapter 17, 'Living with dictatorship' (pp. 301-338).  

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 19 and 20.    

R. Morstein-Marx. 2021. Julius Caesar and the Roman People. (Cambridge), especially chapters 5-10.

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. pp. 134-143. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

D. Shotter (1994), The fall of the Roman Republic – ch. 7, 'The first triumvirate and the slide to civil war' and ch. 8, 'Caesar's dictatorship'

D. Shotter (2005), The fall of the Roman Republic (London) - chapter 6 'The Dictatorship of Julius Caesar'

H. Swain and M. Everson Davies (2010), Aspects of Roman history, 82 BC-AD 14 : a source-based approach (London) - chapters 9 and 10.  

W. Jeffrey Tatum (2006), 'The Final Crisis (69-44)' in Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx, ed. A companion to the Roman Republic (Malden, MA: Blackwell): 190-211.  

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Lecture 06 - The Triumviral Period and the Rise of Octavian

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Blackwell) – chapters 3 to 6 (pp. 9-40). Chapter 3, pp. 9-15 available as an online course reading in the VLE.

W. Eder (2005), 'Augustus and the power of tradition' in K. Galinsky, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge: CUP): 13-32. Available in Online Course Readings   

K. Galinsky (2012), Augustus : introduction to the life of an emperor (Cambridge: CUP) - chapter 2. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

Levick, B. 2010. Augustus: Image and Substance. Harlow: Pearson - chapter 1.  

Lintott, A. 2008. Cicero as Evidence: A Historian's CompanionOxford: Oxford University Press. Chapters 18-20.

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapters 21, 22 and 23.    

F. Millar (1973), ‘Triumvirate and principate’ in The journal of Roman studies. 63: 50-67.

J. Osgood (2006), Caesar's legacy : civil war and the emergence of the Roman Empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

C. Pelling (1996), ‘The triumviral period’ in Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin, Andrew Lintott, eds., The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 10 (chapter 1). Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

E. Rawson (1994), 'The aftermath of the Ides' in J.A. Crook, A. Lintott and E. Rawson, eds. (1994) The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 9: 468-90 (chapter 12)  

J. Richardson (2012). Augustan Rome, 44 BC to AD 14: The Restoration of the Republic and the Establishment of the Empire. (Edinburgh) - chapters 1-3

D. Shotter (1991), Augustus Caesar (Routledge) – chapter 3. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

D. Shotter (2005), The fall of the Roman Republic (London) - chapter 7 'The Final Act: Antonius, Octavian and Lepidus'

Pat Southern (1998), Augustus (Routledge) – chapters 2-4

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. (London) – chapter 8.

Zanker, P. 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus - chapter 2.

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Lecture 07 - The Creation of the Principate

Sourcebooks (collections of primary sources)

Kitty Chisholm and J. Ferguson (1981), Rome : the Augustan Age : a source book. (Oxford)

M.G.L. Cooley, ed. (2003), The age of Augustus (LACTOR 17)

Chapters and articles

E.T. Salmon (1956), ‘The Evolution of the Augustan Principate’ in Historia.. 5: 456-78.

H. H. Scullard (1982), From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. (London) – chapter 11.

Galinsky, K. (ed.), The Cambridge companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge, 2005)- see esp. chapter 2 by E. Gruen, 'Augustus and the making of the principate'.  

C.S. MacKay (2009), The breakdown of the Roman republic : from oligarchy to empire (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) – chapter 24.    

F. Millar and E. Segal (1984), Caesar Augustus : seven aspects (Oxford: OUP) – see chapters by Z. Yavetz (pp. 1-36), F. Millar (pp. 37-60, available as an online course reading in the VLE.) and C. Nicolet (pp. 89-128).

Kurt A. Raaflaub and Mark Toher, eds. (1990) Between republic and empire : interpretations of Augustus and his principate (Oxford, Berkeley: University of California Press) – see chapters by C. Meier (pp. 54-70) and W. Eder (pp. 71-122).

G. Rowe (2006), 'The emergence of a monarchy: 44 BCE-96CE' in D. Potter, ed., A companion to the Roman Empire ( Malden, Mass.: Blackwell): 115-125.

J. Richardson (2012). Augustan Rome, 44 BC to AD 14: The Restoration of the Republic and the Establishment of the Empire. (Edinburgh) - chapter 4

M. Sommer (2010), The complete Roman emperor : imperial life at court and on campaign (Thames & Hudson) - chapter 2. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

Monographs

Werner Eck (2007) The age of Augustus (Blackwell)

Edmondson, J. ed. 2014. Augustus. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

K. Galinsky (2012), Augustus : introduction to the life of an emperor (Cambridge: CUP) - see esp. chapter 3.  

W.K. Lacey (1996), Augustus and the principate : the evolution of the system (Leeds)

B. Levick (2010), Augustus : image and substance (Harlow: Longman)  

D. Shotter (1991), Augustus Caesar (Routledge - revised and expanded, 2005)

Pat Southern (1998), Augustus. (Routledge)

Ronald Syme (1939) The Roman revolution. (OUP, Oxford)

A. Wallace-Hadrill (1993) Augustan Rome (Bristol Classical Press)  

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Lecture 08 - Succession and Legitimacy

Narrative histories of emperors after Augustus

R. Alston (1998) Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117, (London: Routledge) – chapters 2 to 9 cover emperors from Tiberius to Trajan.  

Anthony A. Barrett, ed. (2008), Lives of the Caesars. (Malden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell) - chapters 1 to 7 cover Augustus to Nero, Vespasian and Hadrian.  

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) - chapters 5 to 7 cover emperors from Tiberius to Commodus

Michael Grant (1997) The twelve Caesars (London: Phoenix) - chapters 3 to 12 cover Tiberius to Domitian    

H.H. Scullard (1982) From the Gracchi to Nero : a history of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68. (London: Routledge) – chapters 13 and 14 cover Tiberius to Nero

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (London: Fontana) - covers all emperors from Tiberius onwards

Biographies of individual emperors after Augustus

B. Levick (1976), Tiberius the politician (London: Routledge)

Robin Seager (2005) Tiberius (Malden, MA: Blackwell)

D. Shotter (1992), Tiberius Caesar (London)

S. Wilkinson (2005) Caligula (London)

B.M. Levick (1990) Claudius (London: Routledge)

Miriam T. Griffin (1984) Nero : the end of a dynasty (London: Batsford)

John F. Drinkwater (2018) Nero : emperor and court (Cambridge: CUP)

Buckley, E. and Dinter, M. T. eds. 2013. A companion to the Neronian age. Oxford: Blackwells - Part I.

Brian W. Jones (1984) The Emperor Titus (London: Croom Helm)

Brian W. Jones (1992) The emperor Domitian (London: Croom Helm)

B.M. Levick (1999) Vespasian (London: Routledge)

P. Southern (1997) Domitian : tragic tyrant (Indiana University Press, Bloomington)

J. Bennett (1997) Trajan : optimus princeps (Indiana University Press, Bloomington)

Routes to legitimacy

P.A. Brunt (1977) ‘Lex de imperio Vespasiani’ in The journal of Roman studies.. 67: 95-116

G.E.F. Chilver (1957) , “The Army in Politics, A.D. 68-70", The journal of Roman studies.. 47: 29-35.

J.H. Corbett (1974) "The Succession Policy of Augustus," in Latomus. 33: 87-97.

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell) – chapters 15, 'The quest for political continuity: the succession'  

P. A. L. Greenhalgh (1975) The year of the four emperors (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)

Simon Price (1987) , 'From noble funerals to divine cult: the consecration of Roman emperors', in D. Cannadine & S. Price (eds.) Rituals of royalty : power and ceremonial in traditional societies. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

E.S. Ramage (1983) "Denigration of Predecessor under Claudius, Galba, and Vespasian" in Historia. 32 : 201-214.

M. Sommer (2010), The complete Roman emperor : imperial life at court and on campaign (Thames & Hudson) - chapter 3.    

K.H. Waters (1963) “The Second Dynasty of Rome” in Phoenix.. 17: 198-218

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (London: Fontana) – chapter 7, 'Emperors made elsewhere than at Rome'

Kenneth Wellesley (2000) The year of the four emperors (London: Routledge).

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Seminar 02 - Working With Our Sources and the Scholarship

Please see the seminar worksheet via Minerva for instructions on how to prepare.

Bohm, R. K. 1986. Nero as Incendiary. The classical world. 79, pp.400-401.

Frazer, R, M. Jr. 1966. Nero the Artist-Criminal. The Classical Journal. 62, pp.17-20.

Griffin, M. T. 2000. Nero: the End of a Dynasty. London: Routledge, pp. 129-133, 269-270.

Holland, R. 2000. Nero: the Man Behind the Myth. Stroud: Sutton Publishing, pp.160-164, 261.

Hülsen, Ch. 1909. The Burning of Rome under Nero. The American journal of archaeology. 13, pp.45-48.

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'Good' Emperors, 'Bad' Emperors

Please note that Suetonius' Lives of Vespasian and Domitian are also linked from the 'Seminars' folder on the module's VLE page.

Primary texts 

Suetonius, Life of Vespasian. Full English translation also available online at: http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/suetnius/vspsn.htm

Suetonius Life of Domitian. Full English translation also avaliable online at: http://www.ourcivilisation.com/smartboard/shop/suetnius/domitian.htm

General reading

C. Damon (2006), 'Constructing a narrative' in D. Potter, ed., A companion to the Roman Empire (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell): 23-34.  

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – ch. 12

Michael Grant (1997), The twelve Caesars (London: Phoenix) - Introduction. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

Elizabeth Keitel (2007), 'Feast Your Eyes on This: Vitellius as a Stock Tyrant (Tac. Hist. 3.36-39)' in J. Marincola, A companion to Greek and Roman historiography (Malden and Oxford). Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

John Matthews (2007), 'The Emperor and his Historians' in J. Marincola, A companion to Greek and Roman historiography (Malden and Oxford).  

Millar, F., The emperor in the Roman world (31 BC-AD 337) (London, 1977) - chapter 6. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

Schulz, V. 2019. Deconstructing Imperial Representation: Tacitus, Cassius Dio, and Suetonius on Nero and DomitianMnemosyne, Supplements, Volume: 427. Leiden ; Boston : Brill.

C. Vout (2009), 'Representing the emperor' in Andrew Feldherr, ed. The Cambridge companion to the Roman historians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press): 261-275.

K.H. Waters (1964) “The Character of Domitian” in Phoenix. 18: 49-77

K.H. Waters (1974) “Trajan's Character in the Literary Tradition” in J.A.S. Evans, ed. Polis and imperium : studies in honour of Edward Togo Salmon pp. 233-252. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (Harvard University Press)- ch. 1, 'The Sources'. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

Individual sources and their issues

Martin Hose (2007), 'Cassius Dio: A Senator and Historian in the Age of Anxiety' in J. Marincola, A companion to Greek and Roman historiography (Malden and Oxford).

Fergus Millar (1964) A study of Cassius Dio

Andrew Wallace-Hadrill (1983), Suetonius : the scholar and his Caesars

G.B. Townend (1967), 'Suetonius and his Influence', in Dorey, T. A., ed. Latin Biography, pp. 79-110. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

Ronald Syme (1958), Tacitus. (2 vols.)

J. Ginsburg (1981), Tradition and theme in the Annals of Tacitus

R. Mellor (1993), Tacitus

R. Mellor (2011), Tacitus' annals Oxford Approaches to Classical Literature.(Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press).

K. Quinn (1963), Latin explorations : critical studies in Roman literature – see chapter 5, 'Tacitus' Narrative Technique'

J. Percival (1980) 'Tacitus and the Principate' in Greece and Rome. 27: 119-33.

K. Wellesley (1954), ‘Can you trust Tacitus? ’ in Greece and Rome. 2 nd series 1: pp. 13-35.

A.J. Woodman (2009), The Cambridge companion to Tacitus [electronic resource] (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

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Lecture 09 – What did an emperor do all day?

Comprehensive overviews

F. Millar (1977), The emperor in the Roman world (31 BC-AD 337) (London)

M. Sommer (2010), The complete Roman emperor : imperial life at court and on campaign (Thames & Hudson)    

Primary sources

B. Levick (2000), The government of the Roman Empire: a sourcebook  

Specific aspects

Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin, Andrew Lintott, eds., The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 10 - chapters 7 (The imperial court), 8 (The imperial finances), and 12 (The administration of justice).  

P.A. Brunt (1966), 'The “Fiscus” and its Development' in The journal of Roman studies. 56: pp. 75-91

P.A. Brunt (1990) Roman Imperial Themes – chapters 7 (The ‘Fiscus’ and its Development), 15 (The Revenues of Rome) and 16 (Remarks on the Imperial Fiscus )

J.B. Campbell (1984), The emperor and the Roman army, 31 B.C.-A.D. 235

O. F. Robinson (1992) Ancient Rome : city planning and administration (Routledge)

F.G.B. Millar (1963) "The fiscus in the first two centuries", in The journal of Roman studies. 53: 29ff.

Fergus Millar (1964) "The aerarium and its officials", in The journal of Roman studies. 54: 88ff.

R.J.A. Talbert (1985), The Senate of Imperial Rome, Princeton.

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Lecture 10 – Emperors and Empire

Provincial rebellions

B. Bosworth (1973), ‘Vespasian and the provinces: problems of the early 70s AD’ in Athenaeum. 51: 49-78

G. de la Bedoyère (2003) , Defying Rome : the rebels of Roman Britain (Tempus)

M. Goodman (1991) , ‘Opponents of Rome: Jews and others’ in L. Alexander, ed. Images of empire ( Sheffield : Journal for the study of the Old Testament).

M. Goodman (1997). The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – chapter 16, 'Reactions to imperial rule'   

R. MacMullen (1967) Enemies of the Roman Order ( London : Routledge)

R. Hingley and C. Unwin (2005) , Boudica : Iron Age warrior queen (London: Continuum International)

D. Hoyos. Rome Victorious: The Irresistible Rise of the Roman Empire (London: Tauris) - chapter 10, pp. 170-177.  

B.D. Shaw (2000) , ‘Rebels and outsiders’ in A.K. Bowman, P. Garnsey and D. Rathbone, eds. The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 11, The high Empire, A.D. 70-192 ( Cambridge : CUP)  

Governors and provincial administration

R. Alston (1998) Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 (London: Routledge) - ch. 12, 'Administration'  

Werner Eck (2000), 'Chapter 7 - Provincial administration and finance' in Alan K. Bowman, Peter Garnsey, Dominic Rathbone, eds. The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 11, The high Empire, A.D. 70-192  

Werner Eck (2003) The age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell) – chapter 10  

M. Goodman (1997). The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – chapter 10, 'The operation of the state in the provinces'  

B. Radice (1962), "A Fresh Approach to Pliny's Letters", Greece and Rome.. 9, pp. 160-8.

A.N. Sherwin-White (1966), The letters of Pliny : a historical and social commentary.

R. Talbert (1996), ‘Chapter 9 – The Senate and senatorial and equestrian posts’, in Bowman, Champlin and Lintott, eds. The Cambridge ancient history, Vol. 10, Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69 324-43  

C. Wells (1984) The Roman Empire. (Harvard University Press) – chapter 6

The emperor and the provinces

R. Alston (1998) Aspects of Roman history, AD 14-117 (London: Routledge) - ch. 15, 'Provinces and culture'  

Mary T. Boatwright (2000), Hadrian and the cities of the Roman empire (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press).

Karl Galinsky (1996), Augustan culture : an interpretive introduction (Princeton: PUP) – ch. 4, pp. 164-178 (statues; available as an online course reading in the VLE.) and ch. 6, pp. 288-331 (imperial cult).  

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – ch. 12, 'The image of the emperor'  

Millar, F., The emperor in the Roman world (31 BC-AD 337) (London, 1977) - chapter 7

F. Millar (1984), ‘State and subject: the impact of monarchy’ in F. Millar and E. Segal, eds. Caesar Augustus : seven aspects (Oxford: OUP): 37-60. Available as an online course reading in the VLE.

J. Richardson (2012). Augustan Rome, 44 BC to AD 14: The Restoration of the Republic and the Establishment of the Empire. (Edinburgh) - chapter 5

Citizenship and the senate

M. Goodman (1997) The Roman world, 44 BC-AD 180 (London: Routledge) – ch. 13, 'The extent of political unity'  

M. Hammond (1957) , ‘The composition of the Roman Senate AD 68-235’ in The journal of Roman studies. 47: 74-81.

R. Hingley (2005), Globalizing Roman culture : unity, diversity and empire (London : Routledge)

A. Lintott (1993) , Imperium Romanum : politics and administration (London) - part II

A. N. Sherwin-White (1973) , The Roman citizenship ( Oxford : Clarendon Press)

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Part 2 – Roman Society and Literature

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Lecture 11 – The Transformation of the City of Rome from Republic to Empire

Aldrete, G.S. 2007. Floods of the Tiber in ancient Rome , esp. pp. 61-3, 66-7, 81-4, 92-7, 102-10, 160-5, 170-2, 198-9, 242-3.

Barton, I. M. (ed.), 1995. Roman Public Buildings (Exeter)

Carandini, A. and Carafa, P. eds. 2017. The Atlas of Ancient Rome: Biography and Portraits of the City (2 vols.). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Coulston, J. and Dodge, H. eds. 2000. Ancient Rome: The Archaeology of the Eternal City. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology. 

Dyson, S. 2010. Rome : a living portrait of an ancient city . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.    

Eck, W. 2003. The Age of Augustus (Oxford) - chapter 14, 'Rome: The Augustan City'  

Favro, D., 1996. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome (Cambridge)

Favro, D. 2005. Making Rome a World City. In: Galinsky, K. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  

Fullerton, M. 2020. Art and Archaeology of the Roman World. London: Thames & Hudson - a very useful edition, but it is worth taking a quick look through chapters 4-6 for relevant material.

Garnsey, P., 1983. Famine in Rome. In: P. Garnsey and C.R. Whittaker (eds.), Trade and famine in classical antiquity , pp. 56-65.

Garnsey, P., 1988. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco-Roman World, esp. pp. 198-208, 218-22, 227-43.

Holleran, C. and Claridge, A. eds. 2018. A Companion to the City of Rome. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hope, V. 2000. Essay Three: The city of Rome: capital and symbol. In: Huskinson, J. ed. Experiencing Rome : culture, identity and power in the Roman Empire. London, pp. 213-244.  

Levick, B. 2010. Augustus: Image and Substance. Edinburgh: Pearson Education. Esp. chapter 5, pp. 211-218.  

Loar, M., Murray, S. and Rebeggiani, S. eds. 2019. The cultural history of Augustan Rome: texts, monuments, and topographyCambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Patterson, J.R. 2006. The City of Rome. In: Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp.345-364.

Purcell, N. 1996. Rome and its development under Augustus and his successors. In: The Cambridge ancient history. Vol.10, Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.-A.D. 69. Cambridge: CUP, pp.782-811. Available in Online Course Readings  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Robinson,O.F., 1992. Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration (London)

Stambaugh, J.E., 1988. The Ancient Roman City (Baltimore)

Wallace-Hadrill, A. 2018. 2nd edn. Augustan Rome  (Bristol)    

Zanker, P., 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Michigan)

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Lecture 12 – Living Conditions at Rome

Aldrete, G. S. 2004. Daily life in the Roman city : Rome, Pompeii, and Ostia . London: Greenwood.  

Barton,I.M. (ed.), 1996. Roman Domestic Buildings (Exeter) esp. pp. 33-63 (chapter 2 ‘Urban Housing’) and pp. 121-51 (chapter 4 ‘The Roman Garden as a Domestic Building’ - skim through this).  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  Available in Online Course Readings

Connolly, P. and Dodge, H. eds. 1998. The ancient city : life in classical Athens & Rome . Oxford: OUP.

Dyson, S. 2010. Rome : a living portrait of an ancient city . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  

Elis, S. 2000. Roman housing . London.

Erdkamp, P. ed. 2013. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome. Cambridge: CUP.  

Frier, B.W. 1977. The Rental Market in Early Imperial Rome. The Journal of Roman studies. 67, pp. 27-37.

Fullerton, M. 2020. Art and Archaeology of the Roman World. London: Thames & Hudson - chapters 3, 7 and 8 contains useful material.

Harvey, B.K. 2016. Daily Life in Ancient Rome : A Sourcebook . Cambridge: Hackett.  

Holleran, C. 2012. Shopping in ancient Rome : the retail trade in the late Republic and the Principate . Oxford: OUP.

Kehoe, D. 2006. Landlords and Tenants. In: Potter, D. ed. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford: Blackwell, pp.298-311.  

Owens, E. J. 1991. The city in the Greek and Roman world . London: Routledge.

Patterson, J.R. 2006. The City of Rome. In: Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp.345-364.

Parkin, T., & Pomeroy, A. (2007). Roman social history: a sourcebook. London: Routledge – chapter 6 may be of use here.

Purcell, N. 1994. The City of Rome and the plebs urbana in the late Republic. In: Crook, J.A., Lintott, A. and Rawson, E. eds. The Cambridge ancient history. Vol.9, The last age of the Roman Republic, 146-43 B.C. Cambridge: CUP, pp. 644-68.  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  Available as an online course reading in the VLE

Ramage, E.S., 1983. Urban Problems in Ancient Rome. In: R.T. Machese (ed.), Aspects of Graeco-Roman Urbanism: Essays on the Classical City (Oxford), pp. 61-92.

Scobie, A., 1986. Slums, Sanitation and Mortality in the Roman World. Klio. 68, pp. 399-433.

Shelton, J.-A., 1998. As the Romans Did: A Sourcebook in Roman Social History, Oxford: pp. 59-71 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva   

Yavetz, Z., 1958. The Living Conditions of the Urban Plebs. Latomus. 17, pp. 500-17. [= reprinted in Seager, R., 1969. The Crisis of the Roman Republic: Studies in Political and Social History (Cambridge), pp. 162-79].

Zuiderhoek, A. 2017. The Ancient City . Cambridge: CUP, esp. pp.71-77, 122-130.  

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Seminar 03 - The Dynamics of Space: Impressions of Pompey's Theatre

Please see the seminar worksheet via Minerva for instructions on how to prepare.

Favro, D., 1996. The Urban Image of Augustan Rome (Cambridge), pp. 58-9.

Platner, S. & Ashby, T., 1926. A Topographical Dictionary of Rome (Oxford) - see the entry for ‘ Theatrum Pompei ’. Also available here online 

Richardson, L., 1992. A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (Baltimore), pp. 383-5. Available as an online course reading in the VLE 

Zanker, P., 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Michigan), pp. 20-1.

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Lecture 13 – Roman Religion(s)

Adkins, L. and Adkins, R. eds. 2000. Dictionary of Roman religion . Oxford.

Ando, C. 2003. Roman Religion. Edinburgh.

Arena, V., Prag, J.R.W. and Stiles, A. 2022. A Companion to the Political Culture of the Roman Republic. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell - especially chapters 20 and 33 for religion and politics.

Beard, M., North, J., and Price, S. (eds.), 1998. Religions of Rome, 2 vols (Cambridge)    

Boatwright, M.T., Gargola, D.J., & Talbert, R.J.A. (eds.), 2006. A Brief History of the Romans. New York. 

Dumézil, G., 1970. Archaic Roman Religion (Chicago)

Feeney, D., 1998. Literature and Religion at Rome: Cultures, Contexts, and Beliefs (Cambridge)

Gradel, I. 2002. Emperor Worship and Roman Religion. Oxford.

North, J.A. 2006. Roman Religion. Cambridge.    

Ogilvie, R.M., 1986. The Romans and their Gods (London)

Potter, S. ed. 2006. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford – see Part VI “Religion”, especially chapter 27 “Traditional Cult” by D. Frankfurter.

Rüpke, J. ed. 2007. A Companion to Roman Religion. Oxford.  

Rüpke, J. 2006. Communicating with the Gods. In: Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp.215-235.

Scheid, J., 2003. An Introduction to Roman Religion (Edinburgh)    

Scullard, H.H., 1981. Festivals and Ceremonies of the Roman Republic (London)

Warrior, W.M., 2006. Roman Religion (Cambridge)  

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Lecture 14 – Patronage and Slavery

Bradley, K.R., 1984. Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire: A Study in Social Control, Brussels

Bradley, K.R., 1994. Slavery and Society at Rome (Cambridge)

Deniaux, E. 2006. Patronage. In: Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp.401-420.    

Finley, M.I. 2000. Classical slavery . London.

Fitzgerald, W. 2000. Slavery and the Roman Literary Imagination. Cambridge.

Herrmann-Otto, E. 2013. Slaves and Freedmen. In: Erdkamp, P. ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome. Cambridge, pp. 60–76.    

Hopkins, K. 2004. Novel Evidence for Roman Slavery. In: Osborne, R. ed. 2004. Studies in Greek and Roman Society. Cambridge, pp. 206-225 Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva .   

Hunt, P. 2018. Ancient Greek and Roman slavery . (Malden).

Joshel, S. 2010. Slavery in the Roman world . Cambridge.

Knapp, R. 2011. Invisible Romans : prostitutes, outlaws, slaves, gladiators, ordinary men and women -- the Romans that history forgot . Cambridge MA.

Morley, N. Social Structure and Demography. In: Rosenstein, N. and Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp. 299-323.

Mouritsen, H. 2015. The freedman in the Roman world . Cambridge.

Peachin, M. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World. Oxford.  

Parkin, T., & Pomeroy, A. (2007). Roman social history: a sourcebook. London: Routledge – chapters 1, 2 and 5.

Scheidel, W. 2012. Slavery. In: Scheidel, W. ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 89-113.

Thompson, F.H. 2003. The archaeology of Greek and Roman slavery . London.

Trimble, J. 2016. The Zoninus Collar and the Archaeology of Roman Slavery. American Journal of Archaeology120(3), pp. 447–472.

Vlassopoulos, K. 2021. Historicising Ancient Slavery. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Wallace-Hadrill, A., 1989. Patronage in Roman Society: from Republic to Empire. In: A. Wallace-Hadrill (ed.), Patronage in Ancient Society (London), pp. 63-87. Available in Online Course Readings  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Wiedemann, T. 1997. Greek and Roman Slavery. London.

Wiedemann, T., 1987. Slavery ( Greece & Rome. New surveys in the classics) no. 19; Oxford.

Wiedemann, T., 1992. Greek and Roman Slavery (London)

Yavetz, Z. 1988. Slaves and slavery in ancient Rome . London.

For additional primary sources, see: J.-A. Shelton (1998), As the Romans did : a sourcebook in Roman social history , Oxford: pp. 11-15, 163-202.

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Lecture 15 – Pliny the Elder and the Rhetoric Luxury

Beagon, M., 1992. Roman Nature: the Thought of Pliny the Elder (Oxford), pp. 1-25, 75-91, 190-4.    

Dalby, A. 2000. Empire of pleasures : luxury and indulgence in the Roman world . London.    

Edwards, C., 1993. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome (Cambridge), pp. 137-72 (esp. 163-72).

Gibson, R. and Morello, K. 2011. Pliny the Elder : themes and contexts  (esp. chapter by E. Lao on Luxury and the creation of a good consumer).    

Wallace-Hadrill, A., 1990. Pliny the Elder and Man’s Unnatural History. Greece and Rome 37, pp. 80-96.

Zanker, P., 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Michigan), pp. 135-9, 159-62.

Translations of Pliny the Elder:

Perseus: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Plin.+Nat.+toc

Entire translation (with facing Latin) available from the LOEB editions by either H. Rackham or W.H.S. Jones.

Selected parts also available from J.F. Healy (1991), Pliny the Elder, Natural History: A Selection.

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Lecture 16 – Pliny the Elder: Race, Prejudice and the World through Roman Eyes

Adams, A. and Lawrence, R. eds. 2001. Travel and geography in the Roman Empire . London.

Balsdon,J.P.V.D., 1979. Romans and Aliens (London), pp. 30-71, 214-259. Available in Online Course Readings  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Beagon, M. 2005. The Elder Pliny on the human animal : Natural history, book 7 , Book 7. Oxford.

Boatwright, M. 2012. Peoples of the Roman World. Cambridge.

Carroll, P.M. 2015. Projecting Self-Perception on the Roman Frontiers: The Evidence of Dress and Funerary Portraits. In: Breeze, D. et al. eds. Understanding Roman Frontiers. Edinburgh, pp.154-166.    

Dench, E. 2005. Romulus' asylum : Roman identities from the age of Alexander to the age of Hadrian Oxford.

Eckardt, H. and Müldner, G. 2016. Mobility, Migration, and Diasporas in Roman Britain. In: Millett, M., Revell, L. and Moore, A. eds. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Britain. Oxford.

Evans, R. “Ethnography’s Freak Show: the Grotesque at the Edges of the Roman Earth.” Ramus 28 (1999): 54-73.

Ferris, I. 2000. Enemies of Rome : barbarians through Roman eyes . Sutton.

Gruen, E.S. 2010. Romans and Others. In: Rosenstein, N. & Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp.459-477.  

Gruen, E.S. 2011. Rethinking the Other in Antiquity. Princeton.

Handley, M. 2011. Dying on Foreign Shores: Travel and Mobility in the Late-Antique West. Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. 86.

Herring, E. 2009. Ethnicity and Culture. In: Erskine, A. ed. A Companion to Ancient History. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, pp.123-133.

Hoyos, B.D. 2018. Rome Victorious: The Irresistible Rise of the Roman Empire. London; New York: Tauris, chapter 9.  

Isaac, B., 2007. The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton)

Isaac, B. 2006. Proto-racism in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. World Archaeology 38, pp.32-47.

Kennedy, R.F., Sydnor Roy, C. and Goldman, M.L. 2013. Race and ethnicity in the classical world : an anthology of primary sources in translation (Indianapolis/Cambridge)  

Leach, S., H. Eckhardt, C. Chenery, G. Muldner, & M. Lewis. 2010. A lady of York: migration, ethnicity and identity in Roman Britain. Antiquity 84, pp. 131-145

McCoskey, D. 2012. Race: Antiquity and its Legacy. California: Bloomsbury.

McCoskey, D. 2006. Naming the Fault in Question: Theorizing Racism among the Greeks and Romans. International Journal of the Classical Tradition 13, pp. 243-67.

Miles, M.M. 2008. Art as plunder : the ancient origins of debate about cultural property , Cambridge, esp. pp.105-143. 

Petrochilos, N., 1974. Roman Attitudes to the Greeks (Athens)

Pitts, M. 2007 The Emperor's New Clothes? The Utility of Identity in Roman Archaeology. American Journal of Archaeology 111, pp. 693-713.

Sherwin-White, A., 1967. Racial Prejudice in Imperial Rome. (Cambridge)

Umachandran, M. 2019. Fragile, Handle with Care: On White ClassicistsEidolon.

Umachandran, M. 2017. More than a Common Tongue: Dividing Race and Classics Across the Atlantic. Eidolon.

Webster, J.  2001. Creolizing the Roman Provinces. American Journal of Archaeology 105, pp. 209-225.

Woolf, G. 1997. Beyond Romans and natives. World Archaeology 28(3), pp. 339-350.

Woolf, G. 1994. Becoming Roman, Staying Greek: Culture, identity and the civilizing process in the Roman East. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 40, pp. 116-143.  Available online here

List of articles about Race and Classics compiled by Eidolon

Black-Centred Resources for Ancient Mediterranean Studies

Race/Ethnicity bibliography by Rebecca Futo Kennedy

Why I Teach About Race and Ethnicity in the Classical World by Rebecca Futo Kennedy.

Everyday Orientalism blog by Katherine Blouin and Rachel Mairs.

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Seminar 04 -- Diversity in Roman Britain

Instructions on how to prepare for this seminar will be provided via a seminar worksheet in Minerva. For relevant broader secondary reading, see the materials suggested for lecture 16 above, which cover both sessions.

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Lecture 17 – Introducing the Roman Family

Bradley, K. 1991. Discovering the Roman family : studies in Roman social history . New York.

Carroll, M. 2018. Infancy and earliest childhood in the Roman world : “a fragment of time”. Oxford.

D’Ambra, E. 2007. Roman women . Cambridge.    

Dixon, S., 1992. The Roman Family (Baltimore), esp. pp.61-132    

Dixon, S. 2000. Reading Roman women . London.

Dixon, S. (ed.), 2001. Childhood, Class and Kin in the Roman World (London)

Evans Grubbs, J. 2010 The Family. In: Potter, D. ed. A Companion to the Roman Empire, pp. 312-326.  

Fantham, E. 1995. Women in the Classical World. Oxford: esp. Part II, chapters 9-11.  

Gardner, J.F. & Wiedemann, T. eds. 1991. The Roman household : a sourcebook . London.

James, S.L. and Dillon, S. eds. 2015. A companion to women in the ancient world . Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kapparis, K.A., 2002. Abortion in the Ancient World (London)

Lefkowitz, M.R. and Fant, M. B. 2005. 3rd edn. Women’s Life in Greece and Rome. London.

Peachin, M. ed. 2014. The Oxford Handbook of Social Relations in the Roman World. Oxford.

Parkin, T., & Pomeroy, A. (2007). Roman social history: a sourcebook. London: Routledge – chapter 3 (and perhaps also 4 on education, if of interest).

Rawson, B. & Weaver, P. eds. 1997. The Roman family in Italy : status, sentiment, space . Oxford.

Rawson, B. ed. 2010. A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.  

Rawson, B. 2007. Finding Roman Women. In: Rosenstein, N. & Morstein-Marx, R. eds. A Companion to the Roman Republic. Oxford, pp. 324-342.  

Rawson, B. (ed.), 1992. The Family in Ancient Rome: New Perspectives (London)

Rawson, B. ed. 1991. Marriage, divorce, and children in ancient Rome . Oxford.    

Shelton. 1998. As the Romans did : a sourcebook in Roman social history , Oxford: pp. 16-58.     OCR REQUESTED BY LIBRARY (AJ 09/03/2022) 

Treggiari, S., 1991. Roman Marriage (Oxford)

Wiedemann, T., 1989. Adults and Children in the Roman Empire (London)

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Lecture 18 – Sex(uality), Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome

Bauman,R.A., 1996. Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome (London)  

Coleman, K.M., 1990. Fatal charades: Roman executions staged as mythological enactment. The Journal of Roman studies.80, pp. 44-73.

Futrell, A. 1997. Blood in the arena : the spectacle of Roman power . Texas.

Golden, M. and Toohey, P. eds. 2003. Sex and difference in ancient Greece and Rome . Edinburgh.

Harries, J., 2007. Law and Crime in the Roman World (Cambridge)  

Hubbard, K. ed. 2014. A companion to Greek and Roman sexualities . Oxford.  

Johnston, D. ed. 2015. The Cambridge companion to Roman law. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Langlands, R. 2006. Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.

Levin-Richardson, S. 2019. The brothel of Pompeii: sex, class, and gender at the margins of Roman societyCambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nippel, W. 1995. Public Order in Ancient Rome. Cambridge.

Nippel, W., 1984. Policing Rome. The Journal of Roman studies.74, pp. 20-9.

Parkin, T., & Pomeroy, A. (2007). Roman social history: a sourcebook. London: Routledge – chapter 8.

Richlin, A. 2010. Sexuality in the Roman Empire. In: Potter, D. ed. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford, pp. 327-353.  

Riggsby, A. 2010. Roman law and the legal world of the Romans . Cambridge.

Robinson, O.F., 2007. Penal Practice and Penal Policy in Ancient Rome (London)

Skinner, M.B., 1998. Quod multo fit aliter in Graecia... In: J.B. Hallett and M.B. Skinner (eds.), Roman Sexualities (Princeton), pp. 3-25. Available in Online Course Readings  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva 

Skinner, M.B., 2005. Sexuality in Greek and Roman Culture (Malden), 1-20    

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Lecture 19 – Board Games to Imperial Shows: The Politics of Leisure

Austin, R.G., 1924. Roman board games, I. Greece and Rome. 4, pp. 25-30.

Balsdon, J.P.V.D. Life and leisure in ancient Rome . 1969. London.

Bell, R.C., 1969. Board and Table Games from Many Civilizations (Oxford)

Bomgardner, D. L. 2021. The Story of the Roman Amphitheatre. London: Routledge.

Coleman, K.M., 1993. Launching into History: Aquatic Displays in the Early Empire. The Journal of Roman Studies 83, pp. 48-74.

Dodge, H. 2011. Spectacle in the Roman world . London.    

Fagan, G. 2010. Leisure. In: Potter, D. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford, ch.19.  

Futrell, A. 2006. The Roman games : a sourcebook . Oxford.    

Futrell, A. 1997. Blood in the arena : the spectacle of Roman power . Texas.

Jackson, R. ed. 2000. Gladiators and Caesars: The Power of Spectacle in Ancient Rome. London.

Kyle, D.G. 2007. Sport and spectacle in the ancient world . Malden, Mass.

Kyle, D.G. 1998. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. London.

Plass, M. 1995. The game of death in ancient Rome : arena sport and political suicide . Wisconsin.

Parkin, T., & Pomeroy, A. (2007). Roman social history: a sourcebook. London: Routledge – chapter 9.

Potter, D. 2010. SpectacleIn: Potter, D. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Oxford, ch.20.  

Purcell, N., 1995. Literate games: Roman urban society and the game of aleaPast & Present 147, pp. 3-37.  

Roland, A. 1994. Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games. London.

Toner, J.P., 1995. Leisure and Ancient Rome (Cambridge) esp. pp.22-33 Available in Online Course Readings  Available as an Online Course Reading in Minerva  

Welch, K.E. 2007. The Roman amphitheatre : from its origins to the Colosseum . Cambridge.

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Lecture 20 – Pliny the Elder and Roman Attitudes towards Animals

Beagon, M., 1992. Roman Nature: the Thought of Pliny the Elder (Oxford), pp. 124-58. (Available as an online course reading in the VLE ).  

Dodge, H. 2011. Spectacle in the Roman world . London.

Futrell, A. 1997. Blood in the arena : the spectacle of Roman power . Texas.

Gilhus, I.S. 2005. Animals, gods, and humans : changing attitudes to animals in Greek, Roman, and early Christian thought . London & New York.

Green, S.J., 2008. Save the Cows? Augustan Discourse and Animal Sacrifice in Ovid’s FastiGreece and Rome 55, pp. 39-54.

Kyle, D.G. 1998. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. London.

Lindstrom, T.C. 2010. The animals of the arena: how and why could their destruction and death be endured and enjoyed? World archaeology.  42, pp. 310-323.  

Sorabji, R., 1993. Animal Minds & Human Morals: the Origins of the Western Debate (London), pp. 170-9. (Available as an online course reading in the VLE )

Toynbee,J.M.C., 1973. Animals in Roman Life and Art (Baltimore), pp. 15-31. (Available as an online course reading in the VLE )

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Seminar 05 - Revision and Exam Preparation

Please see the seminar worksheet via Minerva for instructions on how to prepare.

This list was last updated on 09/03/2022