EAST3706The Making of Modern Southeast Asia, 2009-2010, Semester 2
Dr Ian Caldwell
Sources used on this module
You will read a wide variety of books on this module, ranging from formal histories through biographies and correspondence to literature in English and English translation. I will also try to show a number of films set in the period c.1850-1980. Most of the books you require should be in Leeds University Library; if they are not, please inform me so that I can arrange for their purchase.
On-line sources on the history of Southeast Asia are few in number, and raise questions of accuracy, namely the difficulty of knowing what information is reliable, what is missing, and what is poorly interpreted. Little of the information available on the Web has undergone peer-evaluation of its accuracy and much is written from a particular angle. As a starting point, the Library of Congress histories are recommended, and basic facts about each country can be found at the CIA World Fact Book. The URLs are http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ and http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html. Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/ is another good place to look, cautiously and care-fully, for facts.
General histories of Southeast Asia
The best general history of Southeast Asia is N.G. Owen (ed.), 2005, The emergence of modern Southeast Asia : a new history, Honolulu: Hawai’i University Press. It is strongly recommended that students purchase this book, which is reasonably priced and available at the Union bookstore.
Earlier histories (listed in reverse order of publication) are Tarling, N., 1992, The Cambridge history of Southeast Asia. Vol.3, From c.1800 to the 1930s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; SarDesai, D.R., Southeast Asia past and present, Boulder: Westview; Tate, D., 1977, 1983, The making of modern Southeast Asia, Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press; Steinberg, D. et al., 1971, In search of Southeast Asia : a modern history; . London: Pall Mall Press; Hall, D.G.E., 1981, A history of South-East Asia. London: Macmillan. Tarling is a modern, up-to-date account in the best Cambridge history tradition. SarDesai is a readable history focussing on the processes of colonization and independence. Steinberg et al. is an important American history and has an excellent annotated bibliography. Tate is the most readable and comprehensive for the period but hard to obtain; the planned third volume was never completed. Originally published in 1955, Hall is the most dated of the four and covers the entire history of Southeast Asia, not just the modern period.
Lecture 1: The pre-modern world of Southeast Asia circa 1800
Owen, Chapters 13, 9; Steinberg et al., chapters 1-3; Tarling, Chapter 1; Introductory or relevant chapters in nation-state histories, plus the following:
Leur, J.C. van 1955. Indonesian trade and society : essays in Asian social and economic history. The Hague: Van Hoeve.
Argues that ‘there is unbroken unity in the state of Asian civilization from the seventeenth through the eighteenth and into the nineteenth. . .’
Kumar, A. 2006. ‘A world of difference: the case of Java.’ Review of Indonesian and Malaysian affairs. 40(2): 3-24.
Argues that the Javanese felt ‘neither separate nor equal to Western civilization’ from at least the early nineteenth century.
Blussé, L., (ed.) 1986. Strange company : Chinese settlers, Mestizo women, and the Dutch in VOC Batavia. Dordrecht: Foris.
Taylor, J. G. 1983. The social world of Batavia : European and Eurasian in Dutch Asia. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
Two studies of the mestizo world of Batavia and other European settlements.
Owen, N. G., (ed.) 1987. Death and disease in Southeast Asia : explorations in social, medical, and demographic history. Singapore: Oxford University Press.
Grim, fascinating reading.
Geertz, C. 1963. Agricultural involution : the process of ecological change in Indonesia. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapter 2.
A pioneering study of the relationship between ecology and history in Southeast Asia.
Geertz, C. 1980. Negara : the theatre state in nineteenth-century Bali. Princeton: New Princeton University Press.
A controversial book which stands political theory on its head.
Lecture 2: Raffles in Java, 1811-1816
Owen, Chapter 9.
Ricklefs, M, 2001, A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. London: Macmillan. Third edition.
By the leading scholar of seventeenth and eighteenth century Java.
Wurtzburg, C.E. 1954. Raffles of the Eastern Isles. London: Hodder and Stoughton.
Standard biography of Raffles, the lifetime work of its author published after his death.
Collis, M. 1966. Raffles. London: Century.
Lightweight, readable account by a popular author
Barley, Nigel 1991, The Duke of Puddle Dock : travels in the footsteps of Stamford Raffles. Harmandsworth: Penguin.
Modern, affirmative portrayal in a readable style
Raffles, T. S. 1817. The history of Java. 2 vols. London. Reprinted OUP 1978.
The greatest work on Indonesia published in the nineteenth century.
The Cultivation System 1830-70 and the Liberal Policy 1870-1901
Owen, Chapter 9
Douwes Dekker, Eduard. 1860. Max Havelaar, or, The coffee auctions of the Dutch Trading Company. Amsterdam.
The book that changed public opinion in the Netherlands and led to the demise of the Cultivation System and the opening of Dutch areas of Indonesia to private capital.
Fasseur, C. 1992. The politics of colonial exploitation : Java, the Dutch, and the Cultivation System. Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program Publications, Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University.
By a leading Dutch scholar
Neil, R. van. 1992. Java under the cultivation system : collected writings; Collected writings. Leiden.
Scholarly introduction to the Dutch system of forced deliveries 1830-c.1870.
Elson, R.E. 1994. Village Java under the cultivation system, 1830-1870. Sydney.
Collection of papers by leading scholars of Indonesia providing a balanced view.
Money, J.W.B., 1861. Java : or, How to manage a colony : showing a practical solution of the questions now affecting British India. London.
A positive eye-witness account of the Cultivation System.
Wallace, Alfred Russel. 1869. The Malay archipelago. . . . London.
A positive view of Dutch controlled Indonesia.
Scidmore, E.R., 1899, Java, the garden of the East. New York.
Yet another positive view of things.
Day, C. 1904. The policy and administration of the Dutch in Java. New York.
The most detailed and in some respects the most satisfactory account of the system.
Furnival, J.S. 1967. Netherlands India; A study of plural economy. Cambridge.
Occasionally confused account of the system, with a strong sense of balance.
Hall, D.G.E. 1981. A history of South-East Asia.. London.
Brief, nine-point account of the system: see Furnival, above.
Onghokham 2003. The thugs, the curtain thief and the sugar lord; Power, politics and culture in colonial Java. Jakarta.
An alternative view based on primary data.
Fasseur, C. 1992. The politics of colonial exploitation : Java, the Dutch, and the Cultivation System. Edited by R. Elson. Translated by R. Elson and A. Kraal. Ithaca: Southeast Asia Program.
Less than positive account by a leading Dutch historian.
Reid, A. 1969. The contest for North Sumatra : Atjeh, the Netherlands, and Britain, 1858-1898.. Kuala Lumpur.
Standard work on its subject; one of Reid’s best books.
Hurgronje, C. S. 1906. The Acehnese. Leiden.
Major study by a towering figure of late nineteenth-century Dutch scholarship.
Lecture 4: The French occupation of Vietnam, 1848-1883
Owen, Chapter 7
Karnow, S. 1994. Vietnam; A history. London: Century.
Standard history of Vietnam.
Jamieson, N.L., 1993. Understanding Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Excellent study of Vietnam., strong on interpretation if a little light on details.
Buttingerer, J. 1958. The smaller dragon : a political history of Vietnam.. New York, Atlantic.
Excellent history with a detailed account of the French takeover.
Buttinger, J. 1972. A dragon defiant: a short history of Vietnam. New York: Preager Publishers.
Good, short one-volume history.
Woods, S. 2002. Vietnam, an illustrated history. New York: Hippocrene Books.
Intersting and useful.
Nguyen Khack Vien (1987). Viet Nam; A long history. Hanoi, The Gioi Publishers.
Vietnam’s history from a Vietnamese perspective.
SarDesai, D.R. 2005. Vietnam, past and present. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Straightforward account of events with little attempt at interpretation.
Tucker, S. 1999. Vietnam. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Contains a short summary of the nineteenth century
Choi Byung Wook 2004. Southern Vietnam under the reign of Minh Mang (1820-1841) : central policies and local response. Ithaca: Cornell University.
Detailed and scholarly.
Nguyen Du (1756-1820) 1994. Kieu. Hanoi: The Gioi.
Vietnam’s national poem about a beautiful, melancholy heroine who is forced to turn to prostitution to ransom her father from officials. Not in library.
Seminar The French takeover of Laos and Cambodia
On this, see Chandler, D. 2000. A history of Cambodia. Boulder, Colorado: Westview, and Stuart-Fox, M. 1997. A history of Laos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, and search in the catalogue for other material.
Lecture 5: José Rizal 1861-1896 and the birth of the Philippine nation
Owen, Chapter 11.
Coates, A. 1968. Rizal : Philippine nationalist and martyr. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Sympathetic study by a popular writer.
Rizal, J. 1997. Noli me tangere. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.
Lightfoot, K. 1973. The Philippines. London: Ernest Benn.
Good introduction with a substantial historical section.
Morga, A. D. (2006). History of the Philippine Islands. Volumes I and II. LLC ?? available Amazon: BiblioBazaar.
Agoncillo, T. A. and M. C. Guerro 1960. History of the Filipino people. Quezon City: R.P Garcia.
Philippino history from an indigenous perspective.
Constantino, R. 1975. A history of the Philippines : from the Spanish colonization to the Second World War. New York and London: Monthly Review Press.
Encyclopaedic alternative to Agoncillo and Guerro.
Aguinaldo, Emilio, 1967. My memoirs. Manila: privately published.
First-hand account of the Philippine revolution.
Sturtevant, D. 1976. Popular uprisings in the Philippines, 1840-1940. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Solid study of this Philippine tradition.
Simbulan, D. C. (2005). The modern principalia : the historical evolution of the Philippine ruling oligarchy Quezon City, The University of Philippine Press.
Authoratitive account of the Japanese occupation.
Holt, E.M. 2002. Colonizing Filipinas : nineteenth-century representations of the Philippines in western historiography. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Feminist critique with interesting photographs.
Scott, W. H. 1985. Cracks in the parchment curtain and other essays in Philippine history. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.
Scintillating collection of essays by a remarkable historian
ALL BELLOW UNSEEN
Rodao García et al. 2001. The Philippine revolution of 1896 : ordinary lives in extraordinary times. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Ikehata, S. and R.T. Jose. 1999. The Philippines under Japan : occupation policy and reaction. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Dery, L.C. 2005. When the world loved the Filipinos and other essays on Philippine history. España, Manila: UST Pub. House.
Breitbart, E. 1997. A world on display : photographs from the St. Louis World's Fair, 1904. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Simbulan, D.C. 2005. Tsinoy : the story of the Chinese in Philippine life. Manila: Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran Inc.
Wickberg, E. 2000. The Chinese in Philippine life, 1850-1898. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Guillermo, A.R. 2005. Historical dictionary of the Philippines. Lanham, Maryland: Oxford, Scarecrow Press.
Ileto, R.C. 1998. Filipinos and their revolution : event, discourse, and historiography. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Arcilla, J. S. 1994. An introduction to Philippine history. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.
Kessler, R.J. 1989. Rebellion and repression in the Philippines. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Miller, S.C. 1982. "Benevolent assimilation" : the American conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1903. New Haven,:Yale University Press.
Lecture 6: The Ethical Policy and its consequences, 1901-1942
Owen, Chapters 9 & 20.
Van Neil, R. 1960. The emergence of the modern Indonesian elite. The Hague.
Standard reference on its subject.
Sutherland, H., 1979, The making of a bureaucratic elite : the colonial transformation of the Javanese priyayi. Singapore.
Standard reference on its subject.
Embree, E. et al. 1934. Island India goes to school. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Detailed account of the Netherlands Indies education system
Schouten, M. 1998. Leadership and social mobility in a Southeast Asian society : Minahasa, 1677-1983. Leiden: KITLV Press.
Chapter IX: economic mobility resulting from agriculture and trade 1890-1942; Chapter X: education and emancipation 1900-1942.
Furnival, J. S. 1967. Netherlands India : a study of plural economy. Cambridge.
Classic study of Dutch management of Indonesia.
Vlekke, B.H.M. 1959. Nusantara : a history of Indonesia. The Hague.
Written in English in America, the first Dutch history to distance itself from the colonial enterprise. The later Dutch edition was watered down.
Wertheim, W.F. 1959. Indonesian society in transition : a study of social change. The Hague.
Wertheim was the Netherland’s leading sociologist of Indonesia.
Seminar: Raden Ajeng Kartini
Coté, J., (ed.) 1992. Letters from Kartini : an Indonesian feminist, 1900-1904. Clayton, Victoria.
Facinating letters from an exceptional young woman.
Lecture 7: Indonesian nationalism, 1908-1949
Reading: Owen, Chapter 20.
Dahm, B. 1971. History of Indonesia in the twentieth century. London: Pall Mall Press.
Readable and succinct.
Van Neil, R. 1960. The emergence of the modern Indonesian elite. The Hague: Nijhof.
Standard reference on its subject.
Caldwell, M. and E. Utrecht, 1979. Indonesia : an alternative history. Sydney.
Marxist history, loose on facts.
Vickers, A. 2005. A history of modern Indonesia. Cambridge.
Entertaining account of the twentieth century seen through the work of Indonesia’s leading prose writer.
Taylor, Jean Gelman, 2003. Indonesia : peoples and histories. New Haven.
Interesting and thoughtful; asks questions and posits alternative views.
Sutherland, H. 1968. ‘Pujangga Baru; Aspects of Indonesian intellectual life in the 1930s’. Indonesia 6: 106-127. (Cornell University)
Condensation of the author’s PhD on the literary-political movement of the 1930s.
Armijn Pane, 1939, Shackles : a novel (Belenggu). Jakarta: Lontar.
The process viewed from the inside’ good translation of an important novel.
Nagazumi, A. 1972. The dawn of Indonesian nationalism : the early years of the Budi Utomo, 1908-1918. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.
Detailed look at the first modern organization, usually identified with the beginning of Indonesian nationalism.
Cribb, R. (ed.), 1994. The late colonial state in Indonesia : political and economic foundations of the Netherlands Indies, 1880-1942 . Leiden: KITLV Press.
Fine collection of papers on this period.
Seminar: The 1965 coup and New Order Indonesia
Dahm, B. 1971. History of Indonesia in the twentieth century. London: Pall Mall Press.
Excellent account; readable.
Ricklefs, M.C. 2001. A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Bathingstoke: Palgrave.
Even-handed; surprisingly good on the modern period.
Roeder, O.G. 1969. The smiling general, President Soeharto of Indonesia. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.
Sycophantic account by a right-wing author
Lovard, K. 1999. Suharto : Indonesia's last sultan. Singapore, Horizon.
Somewhat more critical approach.
Vatikiotis, M. 1998. Indonesian politics under Suharto : the rise and fall of the new order. London:Routledge.
A standard reference on the subject.
Reading on Conrad
Young, G. 1991. In search of Conrad. London: Hutchinson.
Wonderful account of a pilgrimage to ‘Sambir’.
Sherry, N. 1988. Conrad. London: Thames and Hudson.
Revealing photographic album with pictures of Olmayer, Lingard, etc.
The Second Indochina War, 1965-73
Film: The Ravens
Owen, Chapter 12
Robbins, C. 1988. The Ravens : pilots of the secret war in Laos. London: Bantam.
Robbins, C. 1979. Air America : the true story of the CIA's mercenary fliers in covert operations from pre-war China to present day Nicaragua. New York: Putnam.
Less compelling than The Ravens, except for the chapter on Laos
Cawthorne, N. 2003. Vietnam : a war lost and won. London: Arcturus.
Good short account of the war
Fall, B. 1966. Hell in a very small place : the siege of Dien Bien Phu. Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Classic account of the defeat of the French in 1954.
Herr, M. 1968. Dispatches. New York: Avon Books.
Powerful literary evocation of the Vietnam war.
Mason, R. 1983. Chickenhawk. London: Corgi.
Author served as a Huey pilot: brilliant writing.
Karnow, S. 1994. Vietnam : a history. London: Century.
Standard history of Vietnam.
DVD The Vietnam War; 3DVD collector’s [sic.] edition
Long, detailed, authoritative
DVD (dir. Peter Davis) Hearts and minds [videorecording]
‘built to outrage, appal and indict’: builds slowly to a powerful conclusion
Lecture 9: Norodom Sihanouk and the destruction of Cambodia
Owen, Chapter 25
Osbourne, M. 1994. Sihanouk : prince of light, prince of darkness. St Leonards, NSW.
Standard reference on its subject, the author’s main study.
Chandler, D. 2000. A history of Cambodia. Boulder, Colorado.
Chandler, David. The tragedy of Cambodian history. New Haven: Yale University.
Outstanding account of the post-war years.
Shawcross, W. 1991. Sideshow : Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction of Cambodia. London: Hogarth Press.
Devastating critique of America’s secret bombing of Cambodia.
Chandler, D. 1999. Brother number one : a political biography of Pol Pot. Boulder.
Masterly account by the leading historian of modern Cambodia
Shawcross, W. 1991. Sideshow : Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction of Cambodia. London.
Detailed and authoratitive; has an extensive bibliography.
Swain, J. 1996. River of time. London.
Marvellous, evocative account of the years 1970-75
Ung, L. 2001. First they killed my father : a daughter of Cambodia remembers. Edinburgh.
Harrowing personal account
Ponchaud, F. 1978. Cambodia : year zero. London.
Sihanouk, Norodom 1973. My war with the CIA : the memoirs of Prince Norodom Sihanouk as related to Wilfred Burchett.. London.
Sihanouk's first memoir; essentially a propaganda tract
Sihanouk, Norodom 1979. War and hope : the case for Cambodia ?London.
Somewhat more realistic than My war
Kiernan, B. 2004. How Pol Pot came to power : colonialism, nationalism, and communism in Cambodia, 1930-1975. New Haven.
By a leading scholar
Clymer, K.J. 2004. The United States and Cambodia, 1969-2000 : a troubled relationship. London.
Corfield, J. and L. Summers 2003. Historical dictionary of Cambodia. Lanham, Md.
Elliott, D. 2003. The Vietnamese war : revolution and social change in the Mekong Delta. Armonk, N.Y.
Vickery, M. 1999. Cambodia, 1975-1982. Chiang Mai.
A leading scholar’s account.
Edwards, P. 2006. Cambodge : the cultivation of a nation, 1860-1945. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press.
Covers the period of colonization
Lecture 10: The modernization of Burma, 1820-2005
Owen, Chapters 4,6,7.
Thant Mynt-U. 2002. The making of modern Burma. Cambridge: CUP.
The best modern history of Burma.
Cady, J.F., 1958, A history of modern Burma. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Chapter One sets out the political structure of pre-colonial Burma.
Furnival, J. 1957. Colonial policy and practice; A comparative study of Burma and Netherlands India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Important work by a leading scholar.
Phayre, A. P. 1998. History of Burma. Bangkok: Orchid Press.
Reprint of a history published almost 100 years ago.
Maung Htin Aung. 1967. A history of Burma. New York: Columbia University Press.
Written from a Burmese perspective.
Lecture 11: Summary of course and revision suggestions